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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Sir Francis Bacon (later Lord Verulam and 1000, the Viscount St. Albans) was an English lawyer, statesman, essayist, historian, intellectual reformer, philosopher, and champion of modern science. On Immigration Essay? Early in 1000 warming his career he claimed “all knowledge as his province” and afterwards dedicated himself to on immigration a wholesale revaluation and re-structuring of 1000 words on global warming traditional learning. To take the place of the descriptive a place established tradition (a miscellany of Scholasticism, humanism, and natural magic), he proposed an entirely new system based on 1000 words essay on global empirical and board, inductive principles and the active development of 1000 warming new arts and epik essay, inventions, a system whose ultimate goal would be the production of practical knowledge for “the use and benefit of words essay on global men” and the relief of the human condition.
At the same time that he was founding and promoting this new project for the advancement of learning, Bacon was also moving up the ladder of state service. On Immigration? His career aspirations had been largely disappointed under Elizabeth I, but with the words on global warming ascension of James his political fortunes rose. Knighted in 1603, he was then steadily promoted to a series of offices, including Solicitor General (1607), Attorney General (1613), and eventually Lord Chancellor (1618). While serving as Chancellor, he was indicted on charges of bribery and forced to leave public office. He then retired to his estate where he devoted himself full time to his continuing literary, scientific, and philosophical work. He died in 1626, leaving behind a cultural legacy that, for better or worse, includes most of the on bookish knowledge foundation for the triumph of technology and for the modern world as we currently know it. Sir Francis Bacon (later Lord Verulam, the Viscount St. Albans, and 1000 essay, Lord Chancellor of England) was born in describing London in 1561 to words essay on global a prominent and well-connected family.
His parents were Sir Nicholas Bacon, the Lord Keeper of the Seal, and report, Lady Anne Cooke, daughter of Sir Anthony Cooke, a knight and one-time tutor to the royal family. Lady Anne was a learned woman in her own right, having acquired Greek and Latin as well as Italian and 1000 essay warming, French. About A Person? She was a sister-in-law both to Sir Thomas Hoby, the 1000 words essay esteemed English translator of Castiglione, and to Sir William Cecil (later Lord Burghley), Lord Treasurer, chief counselor to essay Elizabeth I, and from 1572-1598 the most powerful man in England. Bacon was educated at home at the family estate at 1000 words on global warming, Gorhambury in Herfordshire. In 1573, at the age of just twelve, he entered Trinity College, Cambridge, where the stodgy Scholastic curriculum triggered his lifelong opposition to Aristotelianism (though not to the works of arguments Aristotle himself). In 1576 Bacon began reading law at Gray’s Inn. Yet only a year later he interrupted his studies in order to take a position in the diplomatic service in France as an assistant to the ambassador. In 1579, while he was still in 1000 words essay on global warming France, his father died, leaving him (as the second son of a second marriage and descriptive essay, the youngest of six heirs) virtually without support. With no position, no land, no income, and 1000 words essay, no immediate prospects, he returned to essay England and on global, resumed the study of on immigration law. Bacon completed his law degree in 1582, and in 1588 he was named lecturer in legal studies at Gray’s Inn.
In the meantime, he was elected to Parliament in 1584 as a member for Melcombe in 1000 words Dorsetshire. He would remain in Parliament as a representative for various constituencies for the next 36 years. In 1593 his blunt criticism of a new tax levy resulted in an unfortunate setback to his career expectations, the Queen taking personal offense at his opposition. Any hopes he had of becoming Attorney General or Solicitor General during her reign were dashed, though Elizabeth eventually relented to the extent of appointing Bacon her Extraordinary Counsel in 1596. It was around this time that Bacon entered the service of Robert Devereux, the Earl of book poster Essex, a dashing courtier, soldier, plotter of intrigue, and sometime favorite of the Queen. No doubt Bacon viewed Essex as a rising star and a figure who could provide a much-needed boost to his own sagging career. Unfortunately, it was not long before Essex’s own fortunes plummeted following a series of military and political blunders culminating in a disastrous coup attempt. Words Essay On Global? When the essay coup plot failed, Devereux was arrested, tried, and eventually executed, with Bacon, in 1000 essay on global his capacity as Queen’s Counsel, playing a vital role in the prosecution of the book report poster case. In 1603, James I succeeded Elizabeth, and Bacon’s prospects for advancement dramatically improved.
After being knighted by the king, he swiftly ascended the ladder of state and from 1604-1618 filled a succession of high-profile advisory positions: 1604 – Appointed King’s Counsel. 1607 – Named Solicitor General. 1608 – Appointed Clerk of the Star Chamber. Warming? 1613 – Appointed Attorney General. 1616 – Made a member of the Privy Council. 1617 – Appointed Lord Keeper of the Royal Seal (his father’s former office). General Paper On Teaching U0026 Books? 1618 – Made Lord Chancellor. As Lord Chancellor, Bacon wielded a degree of power and influence that he could only have imagined as a young lawyer seeking preferment.
Yet it was at this point, while he stood at the very pinnacle of success, that he suffered his great Fall. In 1621 he was arrested and charged with bribery. After pleading guilty, he was heavily fined and sentenced to a prison term in the Tower of London. Although the words fine was later waived and Bacon spent only essay describing a place, four days in the Tower, he was never allowed to sit in essay Parliament or hold political office again. The entire episode was a terrible disgrace for Bacon personally and a stigma that would cling to and injure his reputation for years to general paper u0026 research aptitude come.
As various chroniclers of the case have pointed out, the accepting of gifts from suppliants in a law suit was a common practice in Bacon’s day, and it is also true that Bacon ended up judging against the two petitioners who had offered the fateful bribes. Yet the damage was done, and Bacon to his credit accepted the judgment against him without excuse. According to his own Essayes, or Counsels , he should have known and done better. (In this respect it is worth noting that during his forced retirement, Bacon revised and republished the Essayes , injecting an essay, even greater degree of shrewdness into a collection already notable for on teaching u0026 its worldliness and keen political sense.) Macaulay in a lengthy essay declared Bacon a great intellect but (borrowing a phrase from words essay warming Bacon’s own letters) a “most dishonest man,” and more than one writer has characterized him as cold, calculating, and arrogant. Yet whatever his flaws, even his enemies conceded that during his trial he accepted his punishment nobly, and moved on. Bacon spent his remaining years working with renewed determination on his lifelong project: the reform of paper on teaching books learning and the establishment of an intellectual community dedicated to the discovery of scientific knowledge for words essay the “use and benefit of men.” The former Lord Chancellor died on 9 April, 1626, supposedly of a cold or pneumonia contracted while testing his theory of the preservative and insulating properties of snow. In a way Bacon’s descent from political power was a fortunate fall, for it represented a liberation from the bondage of public life resulting in a remarkable final burst of a descriptive about literary and scientific activity. As Renaissance scholar and Bacon expert Brian Vickers has reminded us, Bacon’s earlier works, impressive as they are, were essentially products of his “spare time.” It was only during his last five years that he was able to words on global concentrate exclusively on writing and paper u0026 research books, produce, in addition to 1000 warming a handful of minor pieces: Two substantial volumes of history and biography, The History of the Reign of King Henry the Seventh and The History of the Reign of King Henry the Eighth. De Augmentis Scientiarum (an expanded Latin version of his earlier Advancement of Learning). General Paper Research? The final 1625 edition of his Essayes, or Counsels.
The remarkable Sylva Sylvarum, or A Natural History in Ten Centuries (a curious hodge-podge of scientific experiments, personal observations, speculations, ancient teachings, and analytical discussions on topics ranging from the causes of hiccups to explanations for the shortage of rain in words essay warming Egypt). Artificially divided into ten “centuries” (that is, ten chapters, each consisting of one hundred items), the general u0026 work was apparently intended to be included in Part Three of the Magna Instauratio. His utopian science-fiction novel The New Atlantis, which was published in unfinished form a year after his death. Various parts of words essay on global his unfinished magnum opus Magna Instauratio (or Great Instauration), including a “Natural History of general paper u0026 research Winds” and a “Natural History of Life and Death.” These late productions represented the capstone of 1000 words on global warming a writing career that spanned more than four decades and encompassed virtually an entire curriculum of literary, scientific, and philosophical studies.
Despite the fanatical claims (and very un-Baconian credulity) of a few admirers, it is a virtual certainty that Bacon did not write the works traditionally attributed to essay about a person William Shakespeare. Words? Even so, the Lord Chancellor’s high place in the history of English literature as well as his influential role in the development of English prose style remain well-established and secure. Indeed even if Bacon had produced nothing else but his masterful Essayes (first published in 1597 and then revised and expanded in 1612 and on bookish knowledge, 1625), he would still rate among the top echelon of words warming 17th-century English authors. Essay? And so when we take into 1000 words essay on global warming, account his other writings, e.g., his histories, letters, and especially his major philosophical and arguments on immigration, scientific works, we must surely place him in 1000 essay warming the first rank of English literature’s great men of letters and among its finest masters (alongside names like Johnson, Mill, Carlyle, and Ruskin) of non-fiction prose. Bacon’s style, though elegant, is by no means as simple as it seems or as it is u0026 aptitude books often described. In fact it is words essay on global actually a fairly complex affair that achieves its air of ease and knowledge, clarity more through its balanced cadences, natural metaphors, and carefully arranged symmetries than through the use of plain words, commonplace ideas, and words warming, straightforward syntax. Book Poster? (In this connection it is noteworthy that in on global the revised versions of the essays Bacon seems to have deliberately disrupted many of his earlier balanced effects to report board produce a style that is actually more jagged and, in effect, more challenging to the casual reader.)
Furthermore, just as Bacon’s personal style and living habits were prone to extravagance and never particularly austere, so in his writing he was never quite able to resist the occasional grand word, magniloquent phrase, or orotund effect. (As Dr. Johnson observed, “A dictionary of the English language might be compiled from Bacon’s works alone.”) Bishop Sprat in his 1667 History of the words essay warming Royal Society honored Bacon and praised the society membership for supposedly eschewing fine words and fancy metaphors and adhering instead to a natural lucidity and descriptive essay describing a place, “mathematical plainness.” To write in 1000 words essay on global warming such a way, Sprat suggested, was to follow true, scientific, Baconian principles. And while Bacon himself often expressed similar sentiments (praising blunt expression while condemning the seductions of descriptive essay describing a place figurative language), a reader would be hard pressed to find many examples of such spare technique in Bacon’s own writings. Of Bacon’s contemporary readers, at least one took exception to the view that his writing represented a perfect model of plain language and transparent meaning. After perusing the New Organon , King James (to whom Bacon had proudly dedicated the volume) reportedly pronounced the work “like the peace of God, which passeth all understanding.” As a work of narrative fiction, Bacon’s novel New Atlantis may be classified as a literary rather than a scientific (or philosophical) work, though it effectively belongs to both categories. According to Bacon’s amanuensis and first biographer William Rawley, the novel represents the first part (showing the design of a great college or institute devoted to 1000 words essay on global warming the interpretation of nature) of what was to have been a longer and more detailed project (depicting the a place entire legal structure and political organization of an ideal commonwealth). The work thus stands in the great tradition of the 1000 on global warming utopian-philosophical novel that stretches from Plato and More to Huxley and Skinner.
The thin plot or fable is little more than a fictional shell to arguments on immigration essay contain the real meat of Bacon’s story: the elaborate description of words warming Salomon’s House (also known as the College of the Six Days Works), a centrally organized research facility where specially trained teams of investigators collect data, conduct experiments, and (most importantly from essay Bacon’s point of view) apply the knowledge they gain to produce “things of 1000 use and practice for man’s life.” These new arts and inventions they eventually share with the outside world. In terms of its sci-fi adventure elements, the New Atlantis is about as exciting as a government or university re-organization plan. But in terms of its historical impact, the novel has proven to be nothing less than revolutionary, having served not only as an effective inspiration and model for the British Royal Society, but also as an early blueprint and prophecy of the essay modern research center and international scientific community. c. Scientific and Philosophical Works. It is never easy to essay on global warming summarize the thought of a prolific and book report board, wide-ranging philosopher. Yet Bacon somewhat simplifies the task by 1000 essay on global warming, his own helpful habits of systematic classification and catchy mnemonic labeling. (Thus, for example, there are three “distempers” – or diseases – of learning,” eleven errors or “peccant humours,” four “Idols,” three primary mental faculties and categories of knowledge, etc.) In effect, by following Bacon’s own methods it is possible to produce a convenient outline or overview of his main scientific and general paper, philosophical ideas. As early as 1592, in a famous letter to his uncle, Lord Burghley, Bacon declared “all knowledge” to be his province and vowed his personal commitment to a plan for the full-scale rehabilitation and reorganization of learning.
In effect, he dedicated himself to a long-term project of intellectual reform, and 1000 essay warming, the balance of his career can be viewed as a continuing effort to descriptive essay describing make good on 1000 essay warming that pledge. In 1620, while he was still at arguments on immigration, the peak of his political success, he published the preliminary description and plan for an enormous work that would fully answer to his earlier declared ambitions. The work, dedicated to James, was to be called Magna Instauratio (that is, the “grand edifice” or Great Instauration ), and it would represent a kind of summa or culmination of all Bacon’s thought on subjects ranging from 1000 words warming logic and epistemology to practical science (or what in Bacon’s day was called “natural philosophy,” the word science being then but a general synonym for “wisdom” or “learning”). Like several of Bacon’s projects, the Instauratio in descriptive essay a place its contemplated form was never finished. Of the intended six parts, only the first two were completed, while the other portions were only partly finished or barely begun. Consequently, the work as we have it is less like the words essay vast but well-sculpted monument that Bacon envisioned than a kind of philosophical miscellany or grab-bag. Part I of the project, De Dignitate et Augmentis Scientiarum (“Nine Books of the Dignity and on bookish, Advancement of 1000 words essay on global warming Learning”), was published in 1623. It is basically an enlarged version of the earlier Proficience and Advancement of Learning , which Bacon had presented to James in descriptive essay describing 1605. Part II, the Novum Organum (or “New Organon”) provides the words on global warming author’s detailed explanation and demonstration of the correct procedure for interpreting nature. It first appeared in 1620. General Research Aptitude? Together these two works present the essential elements of Bacon’s philosophy, including most of the major ideas and principles that we have come to 1000 words essay warming associate with the terms “Baconian” and “Baconianism.”
Relatively early in poster his career Bacon judged that, owing mainly to an undue reverence for the past (as well as to an excessive absorption in cultural vanities and frivolities), the intellectual life of Europe had reached a kind of impasse or standstill. Yet he believed there was a way beyond this stagnation if persons of learning, armed with new methods and insights, would simply open their eyes and minds to the world around them. This at 1000 words essay on global warming, any rate was the basic argument of his seminal 1605 treatise The Proficience and Advancement of Learning , arguably the first important philosophical work to be published in English. It is in this work that Bacon sketched out the main themes and ideas that he continued to on immigration refine and develop throughout his career, beginning with the notion that there are clear obstacles to or diseases of learning that must be avoided or purged before further progress is words possible. “There be therefore chiefly three vanities in essay studies, whereby learning hath been most traduced.” Thus Bacon, in the first book of the Advancement . He goes on to refer to these vanities as the three “distempers” of learning and identifies them (in his characteristically memorable fashion) as “fantastical learning,” “contentious learning,” and “delicate learning” (alternatively identified as “vain imaginations,” “vain altercations,” and “vain affectations”). By fantastical learning (“vain imaginations”) Bacon had in 1000 essay on global mind what we would today call pseudo-science: i.e., a collection of ideas that lack any real or substantial foundation, that are professed mainly by descriptive a place, occultists and charlatans, that are carefully shielded from outside criticism, and that are offered largely to an audience of credulous true believers. In Bacon’s day such “imaginative science” was familiar in the form of astrology, natural magic, and 1000 words essay on global warming, alchemy. By contentious learning (“vain altercations”) Bacon was referring mainly to Aristotelian philosophy and on bookish, theology and especially to the Scholastic tradition of logical hair-splitting and metaphysical quibbling. But the phrase applies to any intellectual endeavor in which the principal aim is not new knowledge or deeper understanding but endless debate cherished for its own sake. Delicate learning (“vain affectations”) was Bacon’s label for the new humanism insofar as (in his view) it seemed concerned not with the actual recovery of 1000 words warming ancient texts or the arguments essay retrieval of past knowledge but merely with the words essay revival of essay Ciceronian rhetorical embellishments and the reproduction of classical prose style.
Such preoccupation with “words more than matter,” with “choiceness of phrase” and 1000 on global warming, the “sweet falling of clauses” – in short, with style over substance – seemed to Bacon (a careful stylist in book report poster board his own right) the most seductive and 1000 essay on global warming, decadent literary vice of his age. Here we may note that from Bacon’s point of essay view the “distempers” of learning share two main faults: Prodigal ingenuity – i.e., each distemper represents a lavish and regrettable waste of talent, as inventive minds that might be employed in more productive pursuits exhaust their energy on trivial or puerile enterprises instead. Sterile results – i.e., instead of contributing to the discovery of new knowledge (and thus to a practical “advancement of learning” and eventually to a better life for all), the distempers of 1000 on global warming learning are essentially exercises in personal vainglory that aim at little more than idle theorizing or the preservation of older forms of knowledge. In short, in Bacon’s view the distempers impede genuine intellectual progress by beguiling talented thinkers into fruitless, illusory, or purely self-serving ventures.
What is needed – and this is a theme reiterated in all his later writings on learning and poster board, human progress – is a program to words essay on global re-channel that same creative energy into socially useful new discoveries. Though it is hard to pinpoint the birth of an idea, for all intents and purposes the book poster modern idea of technological “progress” (in the sense of a steady, cumulative, historical advance in applied scientific knowledge) began with Bacon’s The Advancement of Learning and became fully articulated in his later works. Knowledge is power, and when embodied in the form of new technical inventions and mechanical discoveries it is the force that drives history – this was Bacon’s key insight. 1000 Words Essay On Global? In many respects this idea was his single greatest invention, and it is all the essay about more remarkable for words essay on global its having been conceived and promoted at a time when most English and a descriptive about, European intellectuals were either reverencing the literary and philosophical achievements of the past or deploring the numerous signs of modern degradation and decline. Indeed, while Bacon was preaching progress and declaring a brave new dawn of scientific advance, many of 1000 essay his colleagues were persuaded that the world was at best creaking along towards a state of senile immobility and eventual darkness. “Our age is iron, and rusty too,” wrote John Donne, contemplating the signs of universal decay in a poem published six years after Bacon’s Advancement . That history might in fact be progressive , i.e., an onward and upward ascent – and not, as Aristotle had taught, merely cyclical or, as cultural pessimists from Hesiod to Spengler have supposed, a descending or retrograde movement, became for Bacon an book, article of secular faith which he propounded with evangelical force and a sense of mission. In the 1000 words Advancement , the idea is offered tentatively, as a kind of hopeful hypothesis. But in later works such as the New Organon , it becomes almost a promised destiny: Enlightenment and a better world, Bacon insists, lie within our power; they require only the cooperation of arguments on immigration essay learned citizens and the active development of the arts and words on global, sciences.
h. The Reclassification of Knowledge. In Book II of De Dignitate (his expanded version of the Advancement ) Bacon outlines his scheme for a new division of general on teaching human knowledge into three primary categories: History, Poesy, and Philosophy (which he associates respectively with the three fundamental “faculties” of 1000 words essay on global warming mind – memory, imagination, and reason). Although the descriptive essay exact motive behind this reclassification remains unclear, one of its main consequences seems unmistakable: it effectively promotes philosophy – and especially Baconian science – above the 1000 words on global warming other two branches of knowledge, in on bookish essence defining history as the mere accumulation of brute facts, while reducing art and imaginative literature to the even more marginal status of “feigned history.” Evidently Bacon believed that in order for a genuine advancement of learning to words essay on global warming occur, the prestige of philosophy (and particularly natural philosophy) had to be elevated, while that of essay history and literature (in a word, humanism) needed to be reduced. Bacon’s scheme effectively accomplishes this by making history (the domain of 1000 words essay warming fact, i.e., of book report everything that has happened ) a virtual sub-species of philosophy (the domain of realistic possibility, i.e., of 1000 essay on global warming everything that can theoretically or actually occur ). Meanwhile, poesy (the domain of everything that is imaginable or conceivable ) is set off to the side as a mere illustrative vehicle. In essence, it becomes simply a means of paper on teaching u0026 aptitude books recreating actual scenes or events from the past (as in history plays or heroic poetry) or of allegorizing or dramatizing new ideas or future possibilities (as in Bacon’s own interesting example of “parabolic poesy,” the words on global warming New Atlantis .) To the second part of his Great Instauration Bacon gave the title New Organon (or “True Directions concerning the Interpretation of Nature”). The Greek word organon means “instrument” or “tool,” and Bacon clearly felt he was supplying a new instrument for guiding and report poster board, correcting the mind in its quest for a true understanding of nature. The title also glances at Aristotle’s Organon (a collection that includes his Categories and his Prior and Posterior Analytics ) and thus suggests a “new instrument” destined to transcend or replace the older, no longer serviceable one. (This notion of 1000 surpassing ancient authority is aptly illustrated on the frontispiece of the 1620 volume containing the paper u0026 aptitude New Organon by a ship boldly sailing beyond the 1000 words warming mythical pillars of Hercules, which supposedly marked the a descriptive essay about a person end of the words on global warming known world.)
The New Organon is presented not in the form of a treatise or methodical demonstration but as a series of descriptive essay aphorisms, a technique that Bacon came to favor as less legislative and dogmatic and more in the true spirit of scientific experiment and critical inquiry. Combined with his gift for illustrative metaphor and symbol, the aphoristic style makes the New Organon in 1000 many places the most readable and literary of all Bacon’s scientific and philosophical works. In Book I of the New Organon (Aphorisms 39-68), Bacon introduces his famous doctrine of the “idols.” These are characteristic errors, natural tendencies, or defects that beset the mind and prevent it from achieving a full and accurate understanding of nature. Bacon points out that recognizing and counteracting the idols is as important to the study of nature as the recognition and refutation of bad arguments is to logic. On Teaching U0026 Books? Incidentally, he uses the 1000 words warming word “idol” – from the Greek eidolon (“image” or “phantom”) – not in the sense of a false god or heathen deity but rather in the sense employed in Epicurean physics. Thus a Baconian idol is a potential deception or source of misunderstanding, especially one that clouds or confuses our knowledge of external reality. Bacon identifies four different classes of essay on bookish idol.
Each arises from 1000 essay warming a different source, and paper u0026 aptitude books, each presents its own special hazards and essay on global, difficulties. 1. The Idols of the Tribe. These are the natural weaknesses and tendencies common to human nature. Because they are innate, they cannot be completely eliminated, but only recognized and compensated for. Some of Bacon’s examples are: Our senses – which are inherently dull and easily deceivable. (Which is why Bacon prescribes instruments and strict investigative methods to correct them.) Our tendency to a descriptive essay about discern (or even impose) more order in phenomena than is actually there.
As Bacon points out, we are apt to find similitude where there is actually singularity, regularity where there is actually randomness, etc. Our tendency towards “wishful thinking.” According to Bacon, we have a natural inclination to accept, believe, and even prove what we would prefer to be true. Our tendency to rush to conclusions and make premature judgments (instead of gradually and painstakingly accumulating evidence). 2. The Idols of the Cave. Unlike the idols of the tribe, which are common to all human beings, those of the cave vary from individual to words essay on global individual. They arise, that is to say, not from nature but from culture and thus reflect the peculiar distortions, prejudices, and beliefs that we are all subject to owing to our different family backgrounds, childhood experiences, education, training, gender, religion, social class, etc. Examples include: Special allegiance to a particular discipline or theory. High esteem for a few select authorities. A “cookie-cutter” mentality – that is, a tendency to reduce or confine phenomena within the terms of our own narrow training or discipline.
3. On Bookish Knowledge? The Idols of the Market Place. These are hindrances to 1000 words on global clear thinking that arise, Bacon says, from the “intercourse and association of men with each other.” The main culprit here is language, though not just common speech, but also (and perhaps particularly) the special discourses, vocabularies, and jargons of various academic communities and disciplines. He points out that “the idols imposed by words on the understanding are of two kinds”: “they are either names of things that do not exist” (e.g., the crystalline spheres of Aristotelian cosmology) or faulty, vague, or misleading names for things that do exist (according to Bacon, abstract qualities and a place, value terms – e.g., “moist,” “useful,” etc. – can be a particular source of confusion). 4. The Idols of the essay on global warming Theatre. Like the idols of the cave, those of the theatre are culturally acquired rather than innate. And although the essay about metaphor of a theatre suggests an 1000 words warming, artificial imitation of truth, as in drama or fiction, Bacon makes it clear that these idols derive mainly from descriptive a place grand schemes or systems of essay on global philosophy – and especially from three particular types of philosophy:
Sophistical Philosophy – that is, philosophical systems based only on a few casually observed instances (or on essay no experimental evidence at all) and thus constructed mainly out of abstract argument and speculation. Bacon cites Scholasticism as a conspicuous example. Empirical Philosophy – that is, a philosophical system ultimately based on a single key insight (or on a very narrow base of research), which is 1000 words then erected into a model or paradigm to explain phenomena of all kinds. Example? Bacon cites the example of William Gilbert, whose experiments with the lodestone persuaded him that magnetism operated as the hidden force behind virtually all earthly phenomena. Superstitious Philosophy – this is Bacon’s phrase for 1000 essay warming any system of thought that mixes theology and philosophy. He cites Pythagoras and Plato as guilty of essay this practice, but also points his finger at pious contemporary efforts, similar to those of Creationists today, to found systems of natural philosophy on Genesis or the book of Job. At the beginning of the Magna Instauratio and in Book II of the New Organon , Bacon introduces his system of “true and perfect Induction,” which he proposes as the essential foundation of scientific method and a necessary tool for the proper interpretation of nature. (This system was to have been more fully explained and demonstrated in Part IV of the Instauratio in a section titled “The Ladder of the Intellect,” but unfortunately the work never got beyond an introduction.) According to Bacon, his system differs not only from the deductive logic and words on global, mania for syllogisms of the Schoolmen, but also from the classic induction of Aristotle and other logicians. As Bacon explains it, classic induction proceeds “at once from a descriptive essay a person . . . sense and particulars up to the most general propositions” and then works backward (via deduction) to 1000 on global warming arrive at epik example, intermediate propositions. 1000 Warming? Thus, for example, from a few observations one might conclude (via induction) that “all new cars are shiny.” One would then be entitled to proceed backward from this general axiom to deduce such middle-level axioms as “all new Lexuses are shiny,” “all new Jeeps are shiny,” etc. – axioms that presumably would not need to be verified empirically since their truth would be logically guaranteed as long as the original generalization (“all new cars are shiny”) is true. As Bacon rightly points out, one problem with this procedure is that if the general axioms prove false, all the intermediate axioms may be false as well.
All it takes is essay about a person one contradictory instance (in this case one new car with a dull finish) and “the whole edifice tumbles.” For this reason Bacon prescribes a different path. His method is to 1000 warming proceed “regularly and gradually from one axiom to another, so that the most general are not reached till the last.” In other words, each axiom – i.e., each step up “the ladder of intellect” – is thoroughly tested by observation and experimentation before the report board next step is taken. In effect, each confirmed axiom becomes a foothold to a higher truth, with the most general axioms representing the last stage of the process. Thus, in the example described, the Baconian investigator would be obliged to words warming examine a full inventory of new Chevrolets, Lexuses, Jeeps, etc., before reaching any conclusions about new cars in general. And while Bacon admits that such a method can be laborious, he argues that it eventually produces a stable edifice of knowledge instead of essay a rickety structure that collapses with the appearance of a single disconfirming instance. (Indeed, according to Bacon, when one follows his inductive procedure, a negative instance actually becomes something to 1000 words be welcomed rather than feared. For instead of threatening an entire assembly, the essay knowledge discovery of a false generalization actually saves the investigator the trouble of having to words proceed further in a particular direction or line of inquiry. On Immigration Essay? Meanwhile the structure of truth that he has already built remains intact.) Is Bacon’s system, then, a sound and reliable procedure, a strong ladder leading from carefully observed particulars to true and “inevitable” conclusions?
Although he himself firmly believed in the utility and overall superiority of his method, many of his commentators and critics have had doubts. For one thing, it is not clear that the Baconian procedure, taken by itself, leads conclusively to any general propositions, much less to words essay on global warming scientific principles or theoretical statements that we can accept as universally true. For at what point is the Baconian investigator willing to make the leap from observed particulars to aptitude books abstract generalizations? After a dozen instances? A thousand?
The fact is, Bacon’s method provides nothing to guide the 1000 words on global warming investigator in this determination other than sheer instinct or professional judgment, and thus the descriptive a place tendency is for the investigation of particulars – the essay steady observation and collection of data – to go on essay on bookish continuously, and in effect endlessly. One can thus easily imagine a scenario in which the piling up of words instances becomes not just the initial stage in a process, but the very essence of the paper research aptitude process itself; in effect, a zealous foraging after facts (in the New Organon Bacon famously compares the ideal Baconian researcher to a busy bee) becomes not only a means to knowledge, but an activity vigorously pursued for its own sake. Every scientist and academic person knows how tempting it is to put off the hard work of imaginative thinking in order to continue doing some form of rote research. Every investigator knows how easy it is to become wrapped up in data – with the unhappy result that one’s intended ascent up the Baconian ladder gets stuck in mundane matters of fact and never quite gets off the ground. It was no doubt considerations like these that prompted the English physician (and neo-Aristotelian) William Harvey, of circulation-of-the-blood fame, to quip that Bacon wrote of natural philosophy “like a Lord Chancellor” – indeed like a politician or legislator rather than a practitioner. The assessment is 1000 warming just to the extent that Bacon in the New Organon does indeed prescribe a new and extremely rigid procedure for a place the investigation of nature rather than describe the more or less instinctive and improvisational – and by 1000 words warming, no means exclusively empirical – method that Kepler, Galileo, Harvey himself, and other working scientists were actually employing. In fact, other than Tycho Brahe, the Danish astronomer who, overseeing a team of epik assistants, faithfully observed and then painstakingly recorded entire volumes of astronomical data in tidy, systematically arranged tables, it is doubtful that there is another major figure in the history of science who can be legitimately termed an authentic, true-blooded Baconian. (Darwin, it is true, claimed that The Origin of Species was based on “Baconian principles.” However, it is one thing to collect instances in 1000 essay on global warming order to compare species and show a relationship among them; it is quite another to theorize a mechanism, namely evolution by mutation and natural selection, that elegantly and powerfully explains their entire history and variety.) Science, that is to say, does not, and has probably never advanced according to the strict, gradual, ever-plodding method of Baconian observation and epik essay, induction. It proceeds instead by unpredictable – and often intuitive and even (though Bacon would cringe at on global warming, the word) imaginative – leaps and bounds. Kepler used Tycho’s scrupulously gathered data to support his own heart-felt and even occult belief that the board movements of celestial bodies are regular and symmetrical, composing a true harmony of the spheres.
Galileo tossed unequal weights from the Leaning Tower as a mere public demonstration of the 1000 words essay on global warming fact (contrary to Aristotle) that they would fall at on bookish knowledge, the same rate. 1000 Essay On Global? He had long before satisfied himself that this would happen via the very un-Bacon-like method of mathematical reasoning and deductive thought-experiment. Harvey, by a similar process of descriptive essay describing quantitative analysis and deductive logic, knew that the blood must circulate, and it was only to words warming provide proof of this fact that he set himself the epik secondary task of amassing empirical evidence and establishing the actual method by which it did so. One could enumerate – in true Baconian fashion – a host of 1000 on global warming further instances. But the point is already made: advances in scientific knowledge have not been achieved for arguments the most part via Baconian induction (which amounts to a kind of 1000 words essay on global systematic and exhaustive survey of nature supposedly leading to a descriptive ultimate insights) but rather by shrewd hints and guesses – in a word by hypotheses – that are then either corroborated or (in Karl Popper’s important term) falsified by subsequent research.
In summary, then, it can be said that Bacon underestimated the 1000 words essay warming role of imagination and hypothesis (and overestimated the value of minute observation and bee-like data collection) in the production of new scientific knowledge. And in this respect it is true that he wrote of science like a Lord Chancellor, regally proclaiming the knowledge benefits of his own new and 1000 essay warming, supposedly foolproof technique instead of recognizing and adapting procedures that had already been tested and approved. On the other hand, it must be added that Bacon did not present himself (or his method) as the final authority on the investigation of nature or, for that matter, on any other topic or issue relating to the advance of knowledge. By his own admission, he was but the Buccinator , or “trumpeter,” of such a revolutionary advance – not the essay example founder or builder of a vast new system, but only the herald or announcing messenger of a new world to come. If anyone deserves the words essay title “universal genius” or “Renaissance man” (accolades traditionally reserved for those who make significant, original contributions to more than one professional discipline or area of essay about learning), Bacon clearly merits the designation. Like Leonardo and Goethe, he produced important work in both the arts and sciences. Like Cicero, Marcus Aurelius, Benjamin Franklin, and Thomas Jefferson, he combined wide and 1000 warming, ample intellectual and literary interests (from practical rhetoric and the study of nature to moral philosophy and educational reform) with a substantial political career. Like his near contemporary Machiavelli, he excelled in a variety of literary genres – from learned treatises to light entertainments – though, also like the great Florentine writer, he thought of himself mainly as a political statesman and arguments essay, practical visionary: a man whose primary goal was less to obtain literary laurels for himself than to mold the words essay agendas and guide the policy decisions of powerful nobles and book report poster board, heads of state. In our own era Bacon would be acclaimed as a “public intellectual,” though his personal record of words essay on global service and authorship would certainly dwarf the achievements of most academic and political leaders today. Like nearly all public figures, he was controversial.
His chaplain and first biographer William Rawley declared him “the glory of knowledge his age and words on global, nation” and portrayed him as an angel of enlightenment and social vision. His admirers in poster board the Royal Society (an organization that traced its own inspiration and lineage to the Lord Chancellor’s writings) viewed him as nothing less than the daring originator of 1000 essay a new intellectual era. The poet Abraham Cowley called him a “Moses” and portrayed him as an exalted leader who virtually all by himself had set learning on a bold, firm, and entirely new path: Bacon at board, last, a mighty Man, arose. Whom a wise King and Nature chose. Lord Chancellour of both their Lawes. . . . The barren Wilderness he past, Did on the very Border stand. Of the great promis’d Land, And from the Mountains Top of his Exalted Wit,
Saw it himself and shew’d us it. . Words On Global Warming? . . Similarly adulatory if more prosaic assessments were offered by learned contemporaries or near contemporaries from Descartes and Gassendi to Robert Hooke and Robert Boyle. Leibniz was particularly generous and observed that, compared to essay a person Bacon’s philosophical range and warming, lofty vision, even a great genius like Descartes “creeps on the ground.” On the epik essay other hand, Spinoza, another close contemporary, dismissed Bacon’s work (especially his inductive theories) completely and in effect denied that the supposedly grand philosophical revolution decreed by Bacon, and welcomed by his partisans, had ever occurred. The response of the later Enlightenment was similarly divided, with a majority of thinkers lavishly praising Bacon while a dissenting minority castigated or even ridiculed him. Essay On Global? The French encyclopedists Jean d’Alembert and Denis Diderot sounded the keynote of this 18th-century re-assessment, essentially hailing Bacon as a founding father of the epik essay modern era and emblazoning his name on the front page of the Encyclopedia . In a similar gesture, Kant dedicated his Critique of Pure Reason to Bacon and likewise saluted him as an early architect of modernity. Hegel, on the other hand, took a dimmer view. In his “Lectures on the History of Philosophy” he congratulated Bacon on his worldly sophistication and shrewdness of mind, but ultimately judged him to be a person of depraved character and a mere “coiner of 1000 essay on global mottoes.” In his view, the Lord Chancellor was a decidedly low-minded (read typically English and utilitarian) philosopher whose instruction was fit mainly for “civil servants and epik example, shopkeepers.” Probably the fullest and most perceptive Enlightenment account of Bacon’s achievement and place in history was Voltaire’s laudatory essay in words essay warming his Letters on the English . After referring to Bacon as the essay a place father of experimental philosophy, he went on to assess his literary merits, judging him to be an elegant, instructive, and witty writer, though too much given to “fustian.” Bacon’s reputation and legacy remain controversial even today. 1000 On Global? While no historian of science or philosophy doubts his immense importance both as a proselytizer on behalf of the empirical method and as an advocate of sweeping intellectual reform, opinion varies widely as to the actual social value and moral significance of the ideas that he represented and effectively bequeathed to us. Paper U0026 Aptitude? The issue basically comes down to 1000 words on global one’s estimate of or sympathy for the entire Enlightenment/Utilitarian project. Those who for the most part share Bacon’s view that nature exists mainly for human use and benefit, and who furthermore endorse his opinion that scientific inquiry should aim first and foremost at the amelioration of the human condition and the “relief of man’s estate,” generally applaud him as a great social visionary.
On the other hand, those who view nature as an essay describing, entity in its own right, a higher-order estate of 1000 words on global which the human community is only a part, tend to perceive him as a kind of arch-villain – the evil originator of the idea of science as the instrument of arguments on immigration essay global imperialism and technological conquest. On the one side, then, we have figures like the anthropologist and science writer Loren Eiseley, who portrays Bacon (whom he calls “the man who saw through time”) as a kind of Promethean culture hero. He praises Bacon as the great inventor of the 1000 words essay warming idea of science as both a communal enterprise and descriptive a place, a practical discipline in the service of humanity. On the other side, we have writers, from Theodor Adorno, Max Horkheimer, and Lewis Mumford to, more recently, Jeremy Rifkin and eco-feminist Carolyn Merchant, who have represented him as one of the main culprits behind what they perceive as western science’s continuing legacy of alienation, exploitation, and ecological oppression. Clearly somewhere in between this ardent Baconolotry on the one hand and strident demonization of Bacon on the other lies the warming real Lord Chancellor: a Colossus with feet of clay.
He was by no means a great system-builder (indeed his Magna Instauratio turned out to be less of a “grand edifice” than a magnificent heap) but rather, as he more modestly portrayed himself, a great spokesman for the reform of learning and a champion of modern science. Epik Essay? In the end we can say that he was one of the giant figures of intellectual history – and as brilliant, and flawed, a philosopher as he was a statesman. Note: The standard edition of Bacon’s Works and Letters and Life is words warming still that of James Spedding, et. A Descriptive About? al., (14 volumes, London, 1857- 1874), also available in a facsimile reprint (Stuttgart, 1989).
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Review Essay: Bearing the Meaning of Birth. The meaning begins with the coauthorship of this review by an academic (Davis-Floyd)-one who, by profession, lives in the abstract world of ideas, and by a midwife (Luce) who lives in the embodied world of birth-a world of flesh and blood and fluids and rich smells and animal sounds and primal energy, a world as ordinary and universal as the world of academia can be rarefied and particular. What unites us to each other is our lived critique, in words and in practice, of the medicalization of birth and words essay warming women's bodies-a critique that led us both, consciously and reflectively, to eschew the technological management of the birth process and give birth to our children at home, away from the a descriptive essay about, technomedical gaze. Through this choice we also find ourselves connected to Robbie Pfeufer Kahn's brilliant and 1000 essay insightful work, Bearing Meaning: The Language of Birth, for this is a book that speaks both of our languages-the language of the a descriptive essay a person, body and words of the mind. Its author shares our embodied experiences of pregnancy, birth, and breastfeeding and our deep desire to find a language through which we can both describe and honor those experiences. We believe that Kahn achieves this goal better than anyone else ever has. A sociologist and a mother, she unites her academic training with her motherhood to give voice and coherence to women's reproductive embodiment and to situate birth and the maternal in their proper place in society and in the domains of knowledge. Essay? As she writes so eloquently, what unites women is our common purpose to enable knowledge to arise from bodily processes and from touch that is mediated by consciousness (p. Words Essay Warming? 5).
This work is the fruit of a lifetime of lived experience, deep reflection, and political activism; it represents an integration of knowledge across a range of disciplines refracted through the lens of the bodily experience of giving birth, of breastfeeding, and the mutually recognized bond between mother and child-a shared subjectivity grounded in the body, which Kahn codes as the maialogical bond. In the Introduction, Kahn employs language that is tightly woven and pregnant with original insights and juicy metaphors to set out her intentions: to write about her experience of giving birth to epik example, her son Levin and what she learned from it, to enter this story into recorded history, and to honor the 1000 essay on global, maternal body and all it encompasses as worthy of scholarly research and inclusion in academic discourse. The intensely personal narrative of Levin's birth and growth runs like a continuous thread through the text from on bookish knowledge Chapter 1 to the Epilogue, grounding her theories in the body of this motherson relationship. A microcosm of the larger tapestry, the Introduction contains all the strands that Kahn artfully weaves through the 1000 essay on global warming, body of the book: an analysis of attitudes toward birth found in texts from the Western tradition, from Homer forward; a description of the influence of these texts and the ideologies they contain on birth practices and our sense of the maternal body; and paper research the counter stories, personal and textual, to 1000 words essay on global, the dominant ones that inform medicalized birth in our culture. Kahn utilizes embodied experience as a tool for on bookish, challenging and deconstructing the worlds of meaning contained in traditional Western texts and institutionalized in medical practice and social policy.
She stakes out her own ground in relationship to 1000 words essay on global warming, feminist theory and the feminist movement, finding in book poster board the perspective of women of 1000 words color a place for nature, culture, and spirituality, areas central to book poster board, her own theorizing because so present in her experience of birth. She also offers a thought-provoking defense of 1000 essay her use of the personal narrative. In laying claim to her own voice, Kahn affirms the validity and legitimacy of the personal and experiential in the arena of academic research, and invites others to see their own experiences as worthy of essay on bookish deep reflection and inclusion in discourse about 1000 essay creating and finding meaning. She writes passionately about the significance and power of language and of the language of birth, the subject of this 441-page work. Identifying the tools of her analysis, she critiques and expands the field of sociology as she argues for inclusion of the point of reproduction, birth itself, as central to understanding the general paper on teaching u0026 research books, whole social order. The titles of the five sections of this book speak of fashioning and refashioning a textual matrix for warming, the binding, and then the unbinding, of the maternal body-apt metaphors for paper u0026 research aptitude, Kahn's work of 1000 words essay warming freeing the maternal body from the patriarchal text of arguments on immigration Western literary and 1000 essay on global warming intellectual tradition and its expression in current obstetrical practice. Unbinding the maternal body means honoring the voice of general aptitude books childbearing and motherhood and the lessons they teach, and drawing upon those lessons in shaping society. It also means freeing women from imprisonment in 1000 essay the private domain not only during pregnancy but also as we breastfeed our children, teaching and learning the lessons of the milk with which Kahn concludes her work, lessons that she insists have deep social and political implications. Kahn's interweaving of the personal and the analytical is captured nicely in her discussion of bonding in a descriptive essay Chapter 1, in which she tests the feminist critique of bonding (that it is an ideology aimed at convincing women that their children need them in particular) against her own experience of bonding intensely with her son Levin shortly after birth, then losing that intensity of feeling during their subsequent all-night separation, and having to struggle to regain it by 1000 essay warming, degrees. Essay Knowledge? This acid test of theory leads her to 1000 words essay on global warming, warn against calling ideologies what might be truths (p. 41).
Her book is a testament to the value of testing every concept against that standard of arguments essay embodied experience, of running every idea through the stream of life as we live it. For example, the fact that her son was born on Bastille Day affords her an opportunity to speculate about the process of her self-liberation. In her subsequent sexual abuse by essay, an ob/gyn drawn to her because of the special quality of her birth experience (which she aptly terms a misfortune of goodness), she identifies the mark of patriarchy-the urge to violate the intact maternal body and on bookish canalize desire toward the male (p. 37). In this manner, throughout the book she illuminates her own experience in the light of literature, sociology, history, anthropology, economics, and philosophy-and in turns both critiques and sheds new light on all of these-through a two-way mirror that enables the reader to 1000 essay on global, see beyond herself in each direction without ever having to become invisible. In this liberating process, our understanding-our personal hermeneutics-becomes deeper and our vision of the world is broadened; such was the experience of report these reviewers. Transitioning from an account of Levin's birth and her early experience of motherhood, Kahn confronts the coercive power of language as she critically examines the way the female body is written about in some of the classical texts, in Marxist writings, and in women's self-help literature, with an eye to theoretical foundations for thinking about the maternal body-those that are damaging and words on global warming those that might suggest more empowering waves of holding the maternal experience. Kahn offers a language that upsets the traditional power relations reinforced in all the dualisms that pervade modern life: mind/body, man/woman, sexuality/maternity, culture/nature, reason/emotion.
Noting the damaging consequences of dualistic thinking that privileges one side of the duality, Kahn shows how pervasive is the devaluation and denigration of women's bodies and bodily processes. Arguments On Immigration? In this framework she begins to develop her theory of the three natures she sees in Western culture-the physical, the social, and the spiritual. Integrated, these provide a unified sociology. She notes that more than the cultural mis-representations of birth, the social institution of medicine is what shapes, limits, misshapes, controls, and 1000 words on global warming confers meaning on women in birth. In The Body of Birth Reconsidered (Chapter 3), Kahn puts forth some of her most controversial and original ideas concerning the language that arises from the body, the consciousness that accompanies birth, and the social nature of both. She privileges the body as a way of knowing, not just as the passive recipient of describing knowledge, and nowhere does she do this more powerfully than when arguing for words essay, a culture of the just born mother and child. On Immigration Essay? She coins the term maialogical to describe the perspective that arises from words essay on global warming this culture, and uses this perspective, which integrates the physical with the social and the spiritual, to board, understand culture and society.
In Part II, The Maternal Body Bound, Kahn deals in depth with the subjugation of women in the oral and written literature of the Western tradition. 1000 On Global Warming? From Genesis to Williams Obstetrics, from the mythological story of the Sumerian goddess Innana to arguments, the intensely feminist Our Bodies, Ourselves, Kahn traces the patriarchal cooption of the language of birth and women's reclaiming of that language, intertwining literary allusion and words metaphor as she goes. She combs the literature for anything and everything that supports, challenges, ignores, celebrates, and explains women's embodied experiences of the childbearing cycle-pregnancy, birth, lactation, motherhood. Kahn makes the works of others who have written on these subjects, from Homer to Mary O'Brien, live through the passionate vitality of her own work. In Chapter 8, Unsavory Saviours, Kahn describes how she was caught in the web of a descriptive essay about a person obstetrical power of which her obstetrician's sexual advances were part and parcel. The text is marked by the events of her life and this is particularly true in the break that separates the analysis of Williams Obstetrics, the warming, century-old pre-eminent obstetrical textbook, from that of Our Bodies, Ourselves, a feminist self-help book published in numerous editions since 1971 by the members of the Boston Women's Health Collective. Here in Part III, Refashioning a Textual Matrix, the essay, story line is interrupted as Kahn experiences conflicts between her roles as dutiful daughter and words nurturing mother and the concentration and demands imposed by writing and serious scholarship; and as she is challenged as a thinker by feminist scholars.
She bridges these gaps with a defense of the continuities she sees between human life and nature, articulating a reflected upon idea of natural that stands as a counter-hegemonic notion opposing the medical model of birth, without letting go of the ideas central to her whole thesis: birth, however culturally treated, is embedded in nature, and the body teaches. Before offering a detailed analysis of the consecutive versions of Our Bodies, Ourselves and the shifts in social and political consciousness they represent-the very heart of a descriptive essay a person The Maternal Body Unbound (Part IV)-Kahn identifies the social movements and feminist expressions in Europe and the United States out of which the women's health movement and its text, Our Bodies, Ourselves, grew. Kahn reveals this book to be the primary cultural site of the unbinding of the maternal body, showing that the book is a reflection of the process through which it was created: the collective authors structured their work environment and their writing in a way that held and affirmed the cultural and individual worth of women and their bodies. With an 1000 words essay on global, amazing eye for nuance, Kahn observes how the unbinding progresses with each subsequent edition, particularly in the childbirth chapters, countering this woman-centered text against the intensely patriarchal and patronizing text of Williams Obstetrics. In her analysis, she demonstrates how difficult it is for even the descriptive describing, most consciously aware to free themselves from the constraints of obstetrical ideology. Easier for Kahn than birth was the unbounded sense of her body she achieved while breastfeeding and entering the words essay warming, world as mother, activist, and worker, bridging the gap between the private and public spheres with her maternal body. In Lessons of the Milk, Kahn takes us beyond the reclamation of the moment of birth to celebrate the body-in-relation during lactation and the social significance of the knowing embodied in that relationship. Women have denied their bodies too long as a price for general on teaching u0026, being in words essay on global the world, she argues, as she convincingly articulates the agenda for the political and social reform that would follow if feminists would take up breastfeeding as an issue. Essay A Person? Bearing Meaning embodies resistance; a powerful agent of the reclaiming of language, it can also be viewed as a political work. Words Warming? Kahn demonstrates how the politics of childbirth have significantly brought the body into the public domain, a process she continues in her writing.
This book should be read not only for its insights but also for the sheer beauty and richness of its language-language that is as generative as birth and the maternal body. Her writing is textured, braided, looped like the hair of so many women whose spirits and bodies resonate in its pages. Her scholarship is impeccable, her footnotes, which serve as a road map of her intellectual journey and the evolution of her thinking, are masterpieces of academic virtuosity. The singularity of Kahn's personal story, while always illuminating, is also occasionally restrictive. Essay? Beyond the class, racial, and ethnic limitations that are obvious and acknowledged by Kahn, her extensive use of personal narrative particularizes her own perspective to the exclusion of the perspectives of the many women whose powerful narratives, had she included them, would lay deeper foundations for her theories. The abstracting use of 1000 words essay warming language-the maternal, even as literary device-risks the temptation of all philosophy and theorizing to disembody even the a descriptive about, most organic of experiences. Speaking of the maternal body may render invisible real maternal bodies. The corollary temptation is toward idealization-of the maternal, the maialogical bond-which again takes us away from the warming, visceral reality of the experiences these terms try to encode. To elevate birth and a descriptive a person mothering to 1000 words essay, the level of academic discourse can include silencing the mothers who give birth. Kahn seems to be aware of this danger: in the Epilogue, she recounts how Levin ultimately frees himself from his construction in arguments her narrative.
In telling that tale, she releases both him and the reader to live and to tell their own stories. A passage from Nancy Mairs, herself a ground-breaking feminist writer, branded itself on words our conjoint memories: She wrote of the birth of her son, replete with technological interventions and the violence the physicians inflicted on them both, tearing us apart at precisely the moment when he should have lain across me while we smelled and stroked and stared at each other . . General Paper On Teaching Research Aptitude Books? . . I'll never forgive them for depriving us of 1000 words essay warming that bond. She enumerates the tragedies of her life, and then declares, Nothing wounds me like this botched pregnancy and epik essay example childbirth . . . Words Essay On Global Warming? . It arouses an epik essay example, impermissible grief, one that has-unlike madness, illness, death-no social form to contain it. Kahn's book creates such a social form-a context and a language for understanding such violation and its meanings to 1000 words essay on global warming, the woman and to the culture she inhabits. Liberatory for women and for society, this marvelous book helps us rethink the significance of birth and the social institutions that shape it. Kahn links birth, lactation, and arguments motherhood to the possibility for a more just and equitable social world, in harmony with the world of nature, and founded on essay the embodied experiences of interconnectedness and mutual recognition that constitute the maialogical bond. Such linkages-and the academic mastery behind them-give Bearing Meaning wide appeal, from general readership to teachers and essay on bookish students in the humanities and social sciences to words, perinatal health care providers. All its readers will find that its pages bear the meaning not only of birth, but also of the pregnant interplay of individual experience with the wider social world.
Reprinted by permission from Medical Humanities Review, Volume 10(2), Fall 1996, pp. 113-118. Judith Luce has been a community midwife attending births at home for 20 years. She is presently pursuing a graduate degree in Cultural Studies at Vermont College. Book? Robbie E. Davis-Floyd, Ph.D., is an anthropologist who has specialized in the analysis of obstetrical procedures as cultural rituals. Address correspondence to Robbie E. Warming? Davis-Floyd, Ph.D., 1301 Capital of Texas Hwy.
B128, Austin, TX 78746. To speak with a representative about essay on bookish our products and services or for technology inquiries, please call 1-858-732-9007.
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Global warming essay in english 1000 words
a good lab report Iowa State University. Scientific research is a group activity. Individual scientists perform experiments to test hypotheses about biological phenomena. After experiments are completed and 1000 essay on global warming duplicated, researchers attempt to persuade others to descriptive accept or reject their hypotheses by presenting the data and their interpretations. The lab report or the scientific paper is the vehicle of persuasion; when it is published, it is available to words essay other scientists for review.
If the results stand up to criticism, they become part of the accepted body of scientific knowledge unless later disproved. In some cases, a report may not be persuasive in nature but instead is an archival record for future generations. For example, data on the distribution and frequency of general on teaching u0026 rabid skunks in a certain year may be of use to future epidemiologists in deciding whether the 1000 words essay, incidence of rabies is increasing. Regardless of research whether a report is persuasive or archival, the words, following guidelines apply. The purpose of an abstract is to allow the general aptitude, reader to judge whether it would serve his or her purposes to read the entire report.
A good abstract is a concise (100 to 200 words) summary of the purpose of the report, the data presented, and the author's major conclusions. The introduction defines the subject of the report. It must outline the scientific purpose(s) or objective(s) for the research performed and words on global give the epik essay, reader sufficient background to understand the rest of the report. Care should be taken to essay warming limit the background to whatever is pertinent to the experiment. A good introduction will answer several questions, including the following: Why was this study performed? Answers to book this question may be derived from 1000 words essay observations of nature or from the literature.
What knowledge already exists about essay, this subject? The answer to this question must review the literature, showing the historical development of an words on global warming idea and essay including the confirmations, conflicts, and gaps in existing knowledge. What is the specific purpose of the study? The specific hypotheses and experimental design pertinent to investigating the words on global warming, topic should be described. What materials were used? How were they used? Where and essay when was the work done? (This question is 1000 essay on global most important in field studies.) All figures and tables should have descriptive titles and should include a legend explaining any symbols, abbreviations, or special methods used. Figures and tables should be numbered separately and should be referred to in the text by book poster number, for example: Figure 1 shows that the activity decreased after five minutes. The activity decreased after five minutes (fig. 1).
Figures and tables should be self-explanatory; that is, the reader should be able to understand them without referring to the text. All columns and rows in tables and axes in figures should be labeled. See appendix B for graphing instructions. This section of your report should concentrate on general trends and differences and not on trivial details. Many authors organize and write the essay warming, results section before the rest of the report. This section lists all articles or books cited in your report. Paper On Teaching U0026 Research! It is not the same as a bibliography, which simply lists references regardless of whether they were cited in the paper. The listing should be alphabetized by the last names of the authors. Different journals require different formats for citing literature.
The format that includes the most information is given in the following examples: Fox, J.W. Warming! 1988. Nest-building behavior of the catbird, Dumetella carolinensis. Journal of Ecology 47: 113-17. Bird, W.Z. 1990. Ecological aspects of fox reproduction . Berlin: Guttenberg Press. For chapters in general paper on teaching research, books: Smith, C.J. 1989.
Basal cell carcinomas. In Histological aspects of cancer , ed. C.D. Wilfred, pp. Words Warming! 278-91. Boston: Medical Press.
When citing references in the text, do not use footnotes; instead, refer to articles by the author's name and the date the paper was published. For example: Fox in 1988 investigated the hormones on the nest-building behavior of catbirds. Hormones are known to influence the nest-building behavior of essay on bookish catbirds (Fox, 1988). When citing papers that have two authors, both names must be listed. When three or more authors are involved, the Latin et al. (et alia) meaning and others may be used. A paper by Smith, Lynch, Merrill, and Beam published in 1989 would be cited in the text as: Smith et al. (1989) have shown that. This short form is for text use only. In the Literature Cited, all names would be listed, usually last name preceding initials.
There are a number of style manuals that provide detailed directions for 1000 on global warming writing scientific papers. Some are listed in further readings at the end of this section. All scientific names (genus and species) must be italicized. Essay! (Underlining indicates italics in a typed paper.) Use the metric system of measurements. Abbreviations of units are used without a following period. Be aware that the word data is plural while datum is singular. This affects the on global warming, choice of a correct verb. The word species is used both as a singular and as a plural. Numbers should be written as numerals when they are greater than ten or when they are associated with measurements; for example, 6 mm or 2 g but two explanations of six factors. When one list includes numbers over and under ten, all numbers in the list may be expressed as numerals; for arguments essay example, 17 sunfish, 13 bass, and 2 trout. Never start a sentence with numerals. Spell all numbers beginning sentences.
Be sure to divide paragraphs correctly and to use starting and ending sentences that indicate the purpose of the paragraph. 1000 Essay On Global! A report or a section of a report should not be one long paragraph. Every sentence must have a subject and paper u0026 a verb. Avoid using the first person, I or we, in writing. Keep your writing impersonal, in 1000 words on global, the third person. Epik Essay! Instead of saying, We weighed the frogs and put them in a glass jar, write, The frogs were weighed and put in a glass jar. Avoid the use of slang and the overuse of contractions. Be consistent in the use of tense throughout a paragraph--do not switch between past and present. It is best to use past tense. 10. Be sure that pronouns refer to warming antecedents.
For example, in epik, the statement, Sometimes cecropia caterpillars are in cherry trees but they are hard to find, does they refer to caterpillars or trees? After writing a report, read it over, watching especially for lack of precision and for ambiguity. Each sentence should present a clear message. The following examples illustrate lack of precision: The sample was incubated in mixture A minus B plus C. Does the mixture lack both B and C or lack B and contain C? The title Protection against Carcinogenesis by Antioxidants leaves the reader wondering whether antioxidants protect from words or cause cancer. The only way to prevent such errors is to read and think about what you write. Learn to reread and edit your work.
CBE Style Manual Committee. About! 1983. CBE style manual: A guide for authors, editors, and publishers in the biological sciences. 5th ed. Bethesda, Md.: Council of Biology Editors.
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Essay on Global Warming
essay ideas topics You’ve spent quite a bit of words on global warming time in epik, your English classes writing argumentative essays, and you’ve even gotten pretty good at writing on the topics your instructor assigns. But when it comes to choosing your own argumentative essay topics, you draw a blank. It’s not that there aren’t any good topics to choose from, but you start over-thinking it, wondering if each topic is too cliche, overdone, or just not good enough. Chances are, all you need to do is 1000 relax and essay knowledge, find a topic you’re passionate about and, of 1000 words warming course, one that is debatable. Why Pick Debatable Argumentative Essay Topics? Photo by David Hume Kennedy via Gerald R. Ford Library.
The name of the essay says it all– argumentative . It would be a lot easier to write an essay on something that people generally agree on, but that’s not really the point of an argumentative essay. It’s important to choose debatable argumentative essay topics because you need opposing points that you can counter with your own points. The world isn’t black and white–there are a lot of arguments on immigration gray areas, which is good because that means there are a lot of topics you can choose from. I have listed 50 argumentative essay topics below, phrased as questions, to help get you started. I’ve separated the topics into words on global five categories–legal, moral, social, media and family–and included a helpful link for each topic. Feel free to use the descriptive, topics for your own essay, or as inspiration to create your own original topic. 10 Legal Argumentative Essay Topics.
Argumentative essay topics about legal matters are a popular choice. These types of topics can include laws that you would want to create, change or completely abolish. They can also discuss certain benefits or negative aspects of existing laws. You don’t have to get super technical with legal argumentative essays, but be sure to do your research on what the current laws about your chosen topic actually say. After all, you don’t want to suggest a changing a law that’s already been changed in 1000 essay warming, the way you want. Should cigarettes and other tobacco products be outlawed?
Should prostitution be legal? Do the benefits of medical marijuana justify its legality? Is the arguments on immigration, drinking age appropriate (should it be lower, higher, or stay the same)? Should nuclear weapons be outlawed worldwide? Should the United States put more restrictions on gun ownership and use? At what age should girls have access to birth control without the consent of their parents? Does outlawing controlled substances only create a larger black market? Should corporations be granted personhood? In what situations, if any, does a woman have a right to an abortion? 10 Moral Argumentative Essay Topics.
Moral argumentative essay topics are some of the 1000 words essay warming, easiest to get carried away with. They can cover a variety of moral dilemmas, from essay animal testing to 1000 warming, the death penalty. On Immigration Essay. These topics tend to be very debatable because everyone has different opinions–and justifications for those opinions–on what they think is right or wrong. If you’re talking about 1000 on global, human or animal rights, and arguments on immigration essay, it’s something you’re very passionate about, it’s tempting to let your emotions take over. While it’s good to be passionate in an argumentative essay, remember to keep your thoughts focused and organized. It’s definitely worth your time to create an outline so you don’t stray off topic. Photo by words on global, John Snape via flickr.
Is animal testing necessary? Should consumers buy items from epik countries that endorse child labor? Do patients have a right to die via physician-assisted suicide? Should children’s beauty pageants be banned? Are nude photographs appropriate in museums that are open to the public? Should schools and businesses give more incentives for people to do volunteer work? Are atheists less moral than theists?
Does freedom of 1000 words on global speech give people the right to use hate speech? Do people who commit heinous crimes deserve the death penalty? Do pre-employment drug tests infringe on personal privacy rights? 10 Social Argumentative Essay Topics. Social argumentative essay topics tend to overlap with legal and moral topics, but deal more about how individuals act within society and what kinds of pressures society puts on individuals or groups of people. This is a pretty broad category, so there are a lot of topics to choose from and even more that you could create on arguments essay your own. If you get stuck on which topic to 1000 words essay warming, write about, consider something that personally affects you or someone close to you. This should make writing about that topic come more naturally. Just be sure to rely on facts and not on personal anecdotes, which are more appropriate to the narrative essay realm. Is there too much pressure on teenagers to go to college?
At what age should citizens be allowed to vote in the United States? Should more rights be given to immigrants? Can heterosexual men and women truly be friends with no hopes or expectations of anything more? In what case(s) could it be considered fair for a descriptive about a company to not hire a candidate who smokes cigarettes? Should the essay on global warming, United States make English the on bookish knowledge, official national language? Should women wear less revealing clothing in order to curb men’s catcalling? Do prisoners deserve the right to vote? Should there be a legal curfew for minors?
Can online dating replace meeting a person in real life? 10 Advertising and Media Argumentative Essay Topics. Advertising and the media have become nearly inseparable from society as a whole. Essays written on these topics can include how media (television, news, movies, magazines, social media, etc.) affects society, and on global warming, what should be allowed to be seen or heard through media and essay, advertisements. Inspiration to create your own advertising or media argumentative essay topics isn’t hard to find. Just turn on a television and 1000 words warming, don’t change the channel when the commercials come on. Pay close attention to all things electronic, and you’ll be sure to find something debatable about what you see.
Photo by Rod Allday via Wikimedia Commons. Should sex be allowed to essay, be portrayed on words on global prime time television? Where should networks draw the line for violence on television? Should news shows talk about celebrities? Do journalists have a duty to eliminate as much bias as possible? Is it acceptable for companies to advertise in schools?
In what situations should advertisements for alcohol and tobacco products be allowed? Should warnings and side effects be made more clear in advertisements? Is print advertising obsolete? Do TV shows and essay on bookish, movies have the responsibility of being more diverse? Are public service announcements effective? 10 Family Argumentative Essay Topics. Argumentative essay topics covering family life and essay warming, values are abundant. That’s because every family is different. Rules in families vary on a case-by-case basis, contrary to laws that govern a state or nation. Because each family is different, it’s hard to generalize in essay about, these types of essays. However, if you look into words on global warming research on child development and psychology, marital psychology, and personal stories from parents and their children, you can get enough information to make an argument for paper u0026 books any of the topics below (or for a topic of your own).
Photo by 1000 words warming, Eric Ward via Wikimedia Commons. Final Thoughts on Choosing Argumentative Essay Topics. As you can see, there are a lot of debatable argumentative essay topics you can choose from (way more than are on this list). For more ideas, read 20 Persuasive Essay Topics to Help You Get Started. Once you’re ready to epik essay example, come up with a thesis, check out words essay on global warming these Argumentative Thesis Statement Examples. When you are picking your topic, keep in arguments essay, mind that it’s much easier to write about something that you already have interest in–even if you don’t know a whole lot about it. Researching the topic will allow you to learn more about words, what fascinates you, and if you pick something you actually like , writing the example, essay will be more enjoyable. If you’ve wrapped up your argument, but you think there may be a few holes in your logic, send your essay over to the Kibin editors. They’ll help give you the winning edge in whatever you’re debating.
Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Eden Meirow is a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for English, history and education. You can find her on Google+.
Thank you for these! I appreciate that you divided the topics into type! Awesome! Glad you found what you were looking for. Words Warming. #128578; Hello Naomi, what will be a good Hook for Argumentative essay about essay knowledge, anti immigrants. I want prove them wrong and show them posative side from immigrants, thanks for the help. Hi Abdul–I’m not sure *who you’re proving wrong? However, if you are writing a pro-immigrant essay, I would suggest starting with an emotional hook. A hook that makes the story of immigration a HUMAN story is a compelling story. Thank you for the help and 1000 words on global, the quick feedback!
Please give me an example. Is the hook on the title or on the body? Thanks. The hook is the first sentence of your intro paragraph. Hey, I have an arguementative assay due and I have NOOO idea what to do it on can u help? Btw I’m 14 so it needs to be school appropriate.? Hiya– so I think the important thing would be to on bookish knowledge, choose a topic that you are actually interested in. At 14, and sorry if I’m stereotyping you due to 1000 essay, your age, perhaps a good argument would be to discuss the effects of book report poster board video games on young people.
Here is a great resource to help you: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/effects-of-video-games-essay-sources/ I looked @ the ideas but I’m still not sure. What would be a good resource for supporting the opinion that physician-assisted suicide is morally wrong? I’m having a hard time choosing a new topic for my argumentative essay. I was writing on how smoking should be outlawed but my professor told me she couldn’t help me on this and it was a hard topic to 1000 words on global, argue about.
Can you please help. It sounds like your teacher wants you to get more specific than that topic (which, to be fair, is pretty broad). A more specific version might be: In what case(s) could it be considered fair for a company to not hire a candidate who smokes cigarettes? Or you could argue that more cities should enact smoking bans which disallow smoking in our near public places (look at laws in book board, California and Colorado for example). I need to write an argumentative research paper about 3000 words.
Do you have any suggestions for a topic that I can find so much things to write about? I hope that one of the 50 above topics will get you thinking about what you want to write about. My biggest piece of advice is definitely choose a topic that you care about, otherwise you are really going to struggle getting 3000 words down. Think about the topics that get you fired up during your regular day-to-day life–maybe you can turn one of those topics into an argument. Speaking of 3k words, here’s a good post on making an essay longer (without adding useless fluff): https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-make-an-essay-longer/
I’m sorry to hear that. Maybe you’ll find this post to be helpful in your quest for the perfect topic: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/good-persuasive-essay-topics/ Same I have to do that. I need to words warming, write 3 essays and report board, I 5 days to essay warming, do it need HELP and I’m 15. Hi Dyson–eep that’s a lot of essays in a short amount of time. Essay Describing A Place. You’re going to essay warming, want to essay example, stay organized. Check out this post with 7 different outline templates that you could use: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/7-essay-outline-templates-get-essay-going/ Thank you for 1000 words on global that it really helps me. You’re welcome. Aptitude Books. Thanks for reading!
Hi, I was hoping to get some advice on an argumentative essay. My argument is broad and about Self-harm and on global warming, Suicide, how can I find a specific direction to follow it I only have 2 days to write a 6 page essay. Do you have any tips or advice to help me specify my topic or where to a place, even start? Can you please help? Hi i need to write 7-10 page argumentive essay and 1000 on global warming, i don’t have any idea can you help me what is it good to write about?
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I have to arguments on immigration, right a research essay that will end up over the course be a 7 to words essay on global warming, 8 page essay and essay a person, I can not think of a topic it has to be arguable…. Have any idea what topic would be good? The 50 topics in this post should lead you to warming, something good. The trick is to choose a topic that you are interested in so that you have a chance to possibly even *enjoy the process of researching and writing. Remember, an on immigration essay arguable topic means that you could conceivably argue both sides (or more than one side). This post covers writing an argumentative thesis statement and also has more topic ideas: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/thesis-statement-examples/ This is literally the same thing i’m going thru for 1000 words warming english 202. It has to end up being 7 to 8 pages and it has to be a argumentative research essay. Year 10 800 words essays and book poster, these wont make enough.
Don’t despair. You can do it. #128578; Hi Naomi. I am looking for help in formulating a thesis (a good argument) for a 3000 word research paper on the following ” Discuss the social and cognitive consequences on bilingualism and multilingualism” . Any assistance rendered would be greatly appreciated. Thank you #128578; A basic framework for your thesis statement will outline the points that you want to defend throughout your paper.
It may look something like this: The social and warming, cognitive consequences of a place bilingualism and multilingualism include CONSEQUENCE 1, CONSEQUENCE 2, and CONSEQUENCE 3. Or maybe you want to take it a step further and argue that biilingual is socially and cognitively BENEFICIAL, so your framework would be: The social and cognitive benefits of bilingualism and multilingualism are many and include BENEFIT 1, BENEFIT 2, and BENEFIT 3. Your first research goal would be to uncover the consequences (or benefits) that you can defend with evidence , perhaps you want to discuss research related to multilingualism and 1000 words on global warming, aging and report poster, how it 1) prevents cognitive decline 2) staves off Alzheimers and 3) something else you can find perhaps more social than cognitive here. Once you have the points you want to warming, defend in place, you can refine your thesis statement so that it is poster has a more organic structure than the 1000 words warming, list framework I provided. Thank you so much ! Of course! Thanks for reading. Books. #128578; Hi Naomi.
I have started writing the paper. However, I am having difficulties with the 1000 essay, organization of my paper. Book Poster. Is it possible that you can proof read what I have so far and give me tips on words how to properly organize the essay? It would be greatly appreciated. It’s fantastic that you understand the value of having someone proofread your essay. Arguments On Immigration Essay. While I can’t do this for you (not enough time in my schedule), you have come to the right place. Our editors are available 24/7 to check your essay for organization, clarity, grammar and words on global, more. You can learn more about that service here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. I have to do 700-900 word essays a week and I loose my nerve a lot. but trust me, it can be worse… Good luck on a person your writing though!–I’m sure you need it more than me… i have to do a 10-15 page essay single spaced. Pinterest tells me that if you want an essay to seem longer, highlight all the words essay on global, periods, and change the book poster, font size from 1000 essay on global warming 12 to 14.
I can promise you that most professors are on to this trick! If you go into an essay well-prepared, you should be able to hit your word count without resorting to tricks like this, which are often more time-consuming than doing a little extra writing in paper on teaching u0026, the first place #128578; I am writing an 1800 minimum word essay and for some topics there will be enough you just have to 1000 words on global warming, be well prepared. So true! If you’re armed with plenty of essay example sources and make a solid outline to plan your paper, it’s much easier to warming, reach your target word count #128578; Here are the basic steps you need to take to execute an argumentative essay: 1) pick your topic–this post is a good place to start. 2) do your research–https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/writing-a-research-paper/ 3) formulate a thesis statement–https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-thesis-statement/ 4) write an paper on teaching u0026 outline–https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/
5) draft your paper–https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-formatting-survival-guide/ 6) edit your paper –https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. 7) turn it in and celebrate your accomplishment! three claims right. Yes, three claims is 1000 essay on global warming a nice round number (in some cases you could do more or less, depending on the specific requirements and length of arguments essay your paper). Hey, i Have to submit a 2000 word argumentative essay by tomorrow afternoon on 1000 essay inspiration vs infringement and so far I’ve written only 200.
Could you please tell me what all points i could include? Just saw this and it looks like “tomorrow afternoon” has arrived. I hope that you were able to epik, come up with some good points. This makes me think of essay on global Walt Disney and how all of his characters came from essay on bookish previously dreamed up characters (from Grimm and others), and how later on 1000 essay (in the knowledge, 90s) Disney led the charge in more restrictive copyright laws. That would be one case study I would use for a topic like this. That is awesome to hear. Thanks for your comment! thank you Naomi for this.
hi Naomi, me and my partner have no idea on what are topic will be, based on our courses. I’m studying entrepreneurship and she is studying computer science. Words Warming. it has been 2 months and yet we cannot come up with an example idea on what will be our topic. Words On Global Warming. please help us for we are desperate. Essay. we would be so thankful if you’l help us a little bit. I’m not quite sure what you are asking for. Are you trying to find a topic for a research paper that is related to both computer science and entrepreneurship? I hope so, because that is the question I’m attempting to answer here. What you choose will largely depend on where your interests are. You two would do well to sit down and 1000 essay on global warming, brainstorm a list of essay about a person potential ideas and then do some preliminary research to see if you can find information to support your project. For example, my initial brainstorm of topics might look like: -what role do robotics play in business? -what softwares are essential for running a scalable startup?
-will emerging technologies lead to a jobless economy? -will emerging technologies lead to a new type of job market? -should computer science students be required to take business classes (since most startups require both tech savvy and business understanding)? Then I’d do some initial research on my favorite two ideas to 1000 essay on global, find out arguments on immigration if any of essay on global warming them have enough material to support a full research paper. For example, I found this source http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/5673619/?reload=true that could support my last topic idea (computer sci students taking biz classes). I think that you may be struggling a bit because “computer science” and arguments on immigration, “entrepreneurship” or both broad disciplines that cover a variety of topics. You might find this post helpful for you to narrow down your idea: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-narrow-a-topic/ this article is great and 1000 essay on global warming, also helped me a lot for my project….but i am currently writing a novel and essay example, i need some pointers for it…..would you be able to help. The novel is a fan-fic on warming the original series Percy Jackson…
Congrats on starting the rewarding project of writing your own novel. The best advice for writing a novel is just sitting down and arguments essay, writing it. You may be tempted to make up excuses such as not having enough time or not feeling like it’s coming out as you want it to, but if you’re serious about this, you’ll set those excuses aside and just write. Your first draft does not have to 1000 words essay warming, be perfect. Epik Example. In fact it won’t be perfect. It will likely be a giant mess. So you need to essay on global warming, be okay with that fact and just get through it. About A Person. Set a word count goal for every day, and words essay warming, every week. A final novel is about 70,000-100,000 words so keep that in mind! It’s a marathon. Once you have a draft, you can go back and arguments on immigration essay, revise it… again and 1000 warming, again until it’s right.
were recquired to essay example, do 1500 word essay and 1000 essay on global, i didnt know what topic I can choose. But thank you for arguments on immigration essay this, it gave me an 1000 words essay on global warming idea. I’m so glad you found it helpful! Thanks for reading. Naomi help me please? i’am looking for the disadvantages of a physical store and found only book report poster minor things. Essay. i wanted to find a disadvantage that can put up a fight. Do you mean the disadvantages of shopping at a physical store or of on teaching u0026 research aptitude books owning one? I assume you mean shopping at one, so here are a couple ideas off the top of my head: – Unless you live nearby, you have to pay to travel there (gas, wear and tear on your car). – There is a higher risk that the store will be out words essay on global warming of the epik essay, item you need (or won’t have the right size, type, flavor, etc.) due to limited inventory.
– Prices may be higher due to overhead costs (rent, utilities, etc.) compared to online-only establishments. thank you Erin. this is such a big help. Happy to help! Thanks for reading #128578; I think any of the topics listed here could be pretty amazing — just make sure you back up your ideas with solid reasons. Happy writing (and impressing)! Hi, help here how do I start a court criminal observation essay with this thesis- Justice should be maintained but is the system worth it? i have a ten page essay due in words warming, a month so any advice on how to get it done without killing myself. Hey, a month is example a good long while.
I’d definitely break it down into lots of smaller steps that you can attack a little at a time — brainstorming, researching, outlining, drafting, then revising. Essay Warming. The outlining step will save you a ton of work; I’d definitely read https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ for essay describing some pointers. You might also check out words warming https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-an-essay-on-anything/ I have to make an long af essay and essay, english is not even my natural born languege.SEND HELP. Agreed with some comments below that for some kind of essays up to 2k words everything you need is 1000 words essay on global warming imagination and nothing else. Especially if you have internet then not a sinple paper work seem hard for me. The internet definitely makes writing papers easier. Thanks for the comment! Hello, I’m need to write a thesis for epik example my uni’s project this year. Words On Global Warming. But, I’m having a problem with my topic, is general on teaching u0026 research aptitude it a good topic or not?
I’m not sure, will you help me? My thesis topic is, “Students’ perception on integrity, as one of the 1000, NDUM characteristics.” *NDUM is my university, so I want to know how this integrity give an effect to the students, in book, the way of education. I think you’re off to a good start, but you still need to take a stance on your topic. Essay On Global. Here is an general research books example of what I mean: “Students’ perception of integrity, which is words essay on global warming one of NDUM’s characteristics, has a strong impact on how student success in education.” In a paper with that thesis, you could explore how positive/strong perceptions of integrity affect success and/or how weak perceptions of integrity impact success. Another approach, if you want to focus only on descriptive describing positive impacts, might be: “Students who have a strong perception of 1000 on global warming integrity, one of on bookish NDUM’s core characteristics, tend to be more successful in their educational endeavors.” I hope these ideas help you narrow down your topic a bit! Hello everyone? I am an online tutor. I do a wider array of 1000 words warming assignments from essays, projects and essay example, research papers. I produce quality and original papers that are payable after receiving the assignments.
All the assignments are done in 1000 essay warming, 12-24 hours. Be free to essay knowledge, inquire more. Email: [emailprotected] . I’m writing a 10-12 page essay about words essay, mental health. Descriptive Describing. I don’t know specifically what to write about essay on global, because the descriptive essay describing a place, topic itself is so broad. Can someone give ma an advice on 1000 words essay warming this? I’m writing a 10-12 page essay about arguments essay, mental health. I don’t know specifically what to write about because the topic itself is so broad. Can someone give ma an advice on this? You’re right that “mental health” is 1000 words on global warming a really broad topic. If you’re writing an descriptive argumentative essay, you need to come up with an approach/stance that’s a) debatable and b)provable. Here are a few examples of words essay on global possible approaches: – Argue that the government (national, local, etc.) has a responsibility to board, increase funding for mental health initiatives.
– Should free mental health therapy be offered in schools? Argue in words warming, favor of/against. – Does the mental health of general paper on teaching u0026 research aptitude books parents impact their children? Why or why not? There are a lot of possibilities here, but I hope those spark some ideas for how you can narrow your topic to be more specific. Happy writing! Thank you. I started my essay on words government should increse the fundings.
Now I’m on example my thesis statement. i just started this. do you think this will improve my spelling problem. I am writing a 25000 minimum word essay. #128577; That’s a long one, but you can totally do it. Just make sure to on global warming, organize your ideas before you start. You might want to check out https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ . This outline template can work just as easily for a 25000-word essay as it would a 500-word essay depending on essay how many claims you’re making and how much evidence you use to back them up. Much respect for your decision to go back to school!
What an 1000 words on global awesome example you’re setting for your kids #128578; I would definitely recommend that you explore some of our (many, many) other blog posts for arguments essay writing help. I’m obviously biased, but they’re a fantastic resource for getting un-stuck. As for 1000 words on global this essay, I think that there are definitely some argumentative angles you could take with the a descriptive essay about, subject of autism. Off the top of my head: 1. Argue that autism should (or should not be) classified as a disorder/disability. For instance, some suggest that it’s simply a type of neurodiversity and 1000 words essay warming, should not be treated as something “wrong,” just different. 2. A Descriptive About. Argue that autism stems from (or does not stem from) environmental factors.
The vaccine debate is perhaps the most popular example of this argument, but there are a host of essay on global other causes that doctors, researchers, and parents have considered too. 3. Argue that Asperger’s syndrome is/is not different from high-functioning autism.