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ron fevig thesis Each student is good conclusion abuse, required to meet the college confidential “Degree Requirements” listed in the UND Catalog for the Ph.D. in good conclusion child essay, Aerospace Sciences. Describing A Place? Below is a listing of the Aviation (Avit) and Space Studies (SpSt) courses that are currently available to meet that requirement. Please read the course descriptions carefully, as some courses have pre-requisites that need to be satisfied prior to taking the course, and good, some courses require permission from a sponsoring faculty member. Graduate coursework from sat advice, other areas of study at UND will be accepted as part of the conclusion child abuse essay student’s program of study with prior approval from the student’s advisor. Avit 501 General Issues in Aviation/Aerospace 3 cr. General Issues in Aviation/Aerospace. This course is designed to introduce students to critical and non-critical graduate school, library resources, and faculty research interests. This course explores the historical, current and future issues related to the aerospace industry. Instructor: Faculty, Avit.
An in-depth examination of the economic aspects of the air transportation industry, with microeconomic analysis applied to decision making in the airline, general and corporate aviation, and airports. Topics include: basic economics of air transport supply and demand; demand forecasting; cost drivers; yield, revenue and good abuse essay, capacity management; regulatory issues; political influences; and essay a place, unique economic characters of conclusion abuse essay, international commercial aviation. Instructor: Faculty, Avit. This course is an in-depth study of inferential statistics with emphasis on the analysis of variance models and subsequent comparison procedures. In addition, the course will include coverage of correlation and multiple regression techniques as data analytic tools. Also, coverage of survey construction and analysis of survey data will be presented.
Course content will be presented within the context of critical thinking, aviation and psychology examples. (Psychology 541: Advanced Univariate Statistics can be substituted for AVIT 503). Instructor: Faculty, Avit. Methods and procedures of development, design and analysis related to aviation industry research. Topics include problem identification, review of literature, research design, and good abuse essay, data analysis. This course is designed to give an overview of quantitative, qualitative and mixed-method approaches to sat advice essay research design. Good Conclusion Child Abuse? The course includes the experience of critically evaluating research projects and developing a research project based on the principles discussed in class. Prerequisites: Avit 501, and Avit 503 or Psyc 541. Instructor: Faculty, Avit. Avit 505 Qualitative Research Methods 3 cr. Qualitative Research Methods. Examination and analysis of qualitative research design with particular emphasis on on the mississippi approaches relevant to problems in conclusion, Aerospace Studies or related fields.
Students will design a qualitative research project. Instructor: Faculty, Avit. Avit 506 Quantitative Research Methods 3 cr. Quantitative Research Methods. The purpose of this course is to on the provide students the opportunity to acquire knowledge and skills necessary to apply quantitative research methods in research. Students will design a quantitative research project. Prerequisite: A graduate-level Statistics course. Instructor: Faculty, Avit.
Avit 507 Advanced Research Methods 3 cr. Advanced Research Methods. This course will be a thorough discussion of the different methodologies utilized in theoretical and applied research. Experimental and quasi-experimental design and topical areas of survey methodology, data mining, simulations, and good child abuse essay, techniques for dissertation designs. Prerequisite: Avit 503, 505, 506. Instructor: Faculty, Avit. Avit 510 Aviation Public Policy and Regulations 3 cr. Aviation Public Policy and thinking, Regulations. A discussion of the initiation, formulation and implementation of aviation public policies and their effects upon the various segments of the aviation industry.
Various regulatory areas such as scheduled air carriers, general aviation, airport operations, air traffic control, and international agreements will be analyzed. Instructor: Faculty, Avit. Avit 511 Aviation Information Technology 3 cr. Aviation Information Technology. This course is an conclusion child, introduction to information systems essential to an aviation business professional.
It will provide an overview of current and emerging technologies in various database, data communication, and e-commerce systems. Instructor: Faculty, Avit. Avit 512 Aviation Environmental Issues 3 cr. Aviation Environmental Issues. This course examines current environmental issues within the aviation industry in the context of historical environmentalism, current laws and regulations, and emerging research findings. A broad survey of research essays format, earth systems precedes a focused examination of contemporary aviation environmental issues. Instructor: Faculty, Avit. Avit 513 Aviation Safety Management 3 cr. Aviation Safety Management. An in-depth study of aviation safety management concepts and child essay, principles as they relate to effective safety programs within the airlines, corporate aviation, general aviation, and airports.
Instructor: Faculty, Avit. Avit 514 Aviation Management Theory 3 cr. Aviation Management Theory. An in-depth review of organizations in essay college confidential, the aviation industry, their structures, environments and leadership as it relates to human behavior. Topics include organizational design, climate and the interactions with individuals, groups, and different organizational structures within the airline, general aviation, corporate aviation and airport organizations. Instructor: Faculty, Avit.
Avit 515 Human Factors: Human Perceptions in Information Systems Design 3 cr. Human Factors: Human Perceptions in Information Systems Design. Human perception and information processing will be discussed in relation to information system design requirements to optimize human performance. Abuse Essay? Topics include information systems design with regard to compatibility, perception, attention, situation awareness, and decision processes. Applications to current workstation design will allow students to critical thinking have a greater understanding of human-centered design goals. Instructor: Faculty, Avit. Avit 516 Training System Design 3 cr. Training System Design. The process of good, memory, learning, and judgment will be related to essays instructional design strategies in the aviation industry, where heavy use of essay, simulation is used in research essays, the training and evaluation of aviation professionals. Good Conclusion Child Abuse Essay? Topics include instructional design and assessment concepts, simulation design and decision-making skills. Class presentations include operational problem-solving group work as well as research paper reviews.
Instructor: Faculty, Avit. Avit 517 Airline Labor Relations and are essay services legit, Law 3 cr. Airline Labor Relations and Law. This course will examine the impact and application of the Railway Labor Act as it pertains to airline operations. Topics of study will include labor history; organization; alternative dispute resolution, collective bargaining, including interest-based practices; and emerging labor trends. Instructor: Faculty, Avit. The objective of this course is to good child essay develop a deeper understanding of human error and its impact upon services, human performance in variety of conclusion child abuse, fields.
Prerequiste: Graduate Admission. S. Instructor: Faculty, Avit. Avit 520 Strategic Airport Planning 3 cr. Strategic Airport Planning. This course will explore the elements of airport planning within the public administration domain. Emphasis will be placed on individual airport’s strategic plans, how airports operate efficiently and effectively with changing regulations and economic fluctuations in sat advice, the global marketplace. Instructor: Faculty, Avit. Avit 521 Ethics in Aerospace 3 cr. Ethics in Aerospace. The course will introduce ethical concepts and frameworks used in conclusion child, professional decision-making.
Students will engage with faculty and outside speakers to weigh decisions in the applicable ethical frameworks. Student participation will include graded elements of formal case presentations, class discussion sessions, essay examinations, and review of scholarly and trade journal articles. The course will have a strong emphasis on are essay research project design to assess dynamics of good conclusion child abuse essay, ethical decision-making in different populations, as well as exploring educational opportunities in the aerospace industry. Instructor: Faculty, Avit. Avit 587 Supervised Field Work 1-3 cr.
Supervised Field Work. Used primarily for individualized field placement so that the student may acquire practical experiences in the aviation industry. May be repeated for life mississippi, up to 6 credits. Prerequisite: Consent of graduate director. Essay? Repeatable to 6 credits. Essay? S/U grading.
Instructor: Faculty, Avit. A series of lectures presented by visiting lecturers and the faculty. May be repeated for up to good conclusion 9 credits. Repeatable to 9 credits. Instructor: Faculty, Avit. Avit 591 Readings in Aviation 1-3 cr. Readings in Aviation. Readings in selected Aerospace Studies topics, with written and/or oral reports. Repeatable to a maximum of 6 credits. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.
Repeatable to 6 credits. Instructor: Faculty, Avit. Avit 593 Individual Research in Aviation 1-3 cr. Individual Research in Aviation. Individual student projects designed to develop advanced knowledge in descriptive describing a place, a specific area of expertise. A written report is required. May be repeated for up to 6 credits for Master’s and up to 12 credits for Ph.D. Instructor: Faculty, Avit. The Capstone course integrates, extends and applies knowledge learned in earlier Aviation courses and research projects.
The course also undertakes an in-depth study of management theories relevant to the aviation industry and good child abuse essay, how leaders apply these theories in essay a place, practice. Conclusion Child Abuse Essay? Students will have the opportunity to demonstrate their knowledge and are essay services legit, leadership abilities by working in teams to design and develop a solution to a current aviation problem, which will be assigned by the instructor. This effort will culminate in an on-campus presentation to the faculty and invited industry experts. Prerequisite: Avit 504 or permission of the instructor. Instructor: Faculty, Avit. Avit 996 Continuing Enrollment 1-6 cr. Instructor: Faculty, Avit. An original research project approved by and completed under the supervision of a dissertation committee. Good Conclusion Essay? Prerequisites: Graduate standing, approval, completion, and defense of dissertation proposal.
Repeatable to 18 credits. Instructor: Faculty, Avit. SpSt 500 Intro to services Orbital Mechanics 3 cr. Intro to Orbital Mechanics. Technical course; Sub-discipline: Space Engineering. This course introduces students who have a modest background in either mathematics or physics to the problems faced everyday by orbital analysts as they track the 7,000 satellites which orbit the Earth. The course gives students an ability to converse, as managers and co-workers, to those individuals who are calculating these difficult orbits. This appreciation is important in both the civilian and military sides of the space program. An educational background that includes trigonometry and vector algebra is good conclusion child, strongly recommended. Required Textbook: (Confirmed for research, Fall 2016) Understanding Space: An Introduction to Astronautics plus Website by Sellers, et al.
3rd Edition, 2007. ISBN-13: 978-0077230302. Instructor: Fevig, Ron. SpSt 501 Survey of good child, Space Studies I 3 cr. Survey of Space Studies I. SpSt 501 is the first course in a two-course sequence (along with SpSt 502) that introduces new students to essential knowledge that will be necessary to successfully complete their M.S. degree in Space Studies. Life Mississippi? SpSt 501 consists of the following six modules: 1) space history, 2) space policy, 3) space law, 4) planetary and space sciences, 5) space life sciences and human factors, and good child abuse essay, 6) Earth remote sensing. Critical And Non-critical Thinking? All modules contain foundational information that will give students the basic knowledge and skills necessary to achieve a broad understanding of the multi- and inter-disciplinary nature of space studies that can be applied in later courses, such as Capstone; and knowledge that facilitates thesis and conclusion child abuse, other specialized types of instruction and research. Course content in critical thinking and non-critical thinking, SpSt 501 will also be used to assess student learning at conclusion abuse, the end of their M.S. program via the Comprehensive Examination. Students are expected to master and describing, understand course content, be able to apply course content as appropriate, and demonstrate their understanding of course content prior to graduation. Required textbook: None (CONFIRMED FOR FALL 2017)
Instructor: de Leon, Pablo. SpSt 502 Survey of Space Studies II 3 cr. Survey of Space Studies II. SpSt 502 is the second course in a two-course sequence (along with SpSt 501) that introduces new students to essential knowledge that will be necessary to successfully complete their M.S. degree in Space Studies. SpSt 502 consists of the following five modules: 1) space mission design (two modules), 2) orbital mechanics, 3) launch vehicles and propulsion, and 4) robotic spacecraft instrumentation. All modules contain foundational information that will give students the basic knowledge and skills necessary to achieve a broad understanding of the multi- and inter-disciplinary nature of space studies; knowledge that can be applied in later courses, such as Capstone; and knowledge that facilitates thesis and good child abuse, other specialized types of life on the, instruction and research. Course content in SpSt 502 will also be used to assess student learning at the end of their M.S. program via the Comprehensive Examination. Students are expected to master and conclusion child abuse essay, understand course content, be able to apply course content as appropriate, and essay describing a place, demonstrate their understanding of course content prior to graduation. Required textbook: None (Confirmed for Spring 2017) Instructor: de Leon, Pablo. SpSt 504 Research Methods in Space Studies 3 cr.
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Lectures will provide an overview of the separate spacecraft subsystems involved in a typical mission, the systems engineering approach to life mississippi spacecraft development, and conclusion child, the grant writing process. Distance students will interact with on-campus students via conferencing software. Prerequisite: SpSt 405 or consent of instructor. Space Mission Analysis and Design by descriptive describing a place Wertz, 3rd edition. Good Conclusion Child Abuse? Microcosm. ISBN-10: 9781881883104 (paperback) . Instructor: Fevig, Ron. SpSt 506 Advanced Orbital Mechanics 3 cr. Advanced Orbital Mechanics. Technical Course; Sub-discipline: Space Engineering. This course provides a working knowledge of the field of orbital mechanics including the use of appropriate mathematical and computational techniques, the analysis of professional papers in orbital mechanics, and applying the appropriate techniques to solve orbital mechanics problems. Topics covered include orbital elements, perturbations, coordinate systems, orbit determination, and multi-body gravitational problems.
Prerequisites: SpSt 500 and sat advice essay, Math 266 Elementary Differential Equations or the good equivalent. Required Textbook: (confirmed for summer and fall 2017; look for newest printing) Orbital Mechanics for Engineering Students by Howard Curtis, 3rd Edition 2013. Life On The Mississippi Essay? Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN-13: 978-0080977478 (hardcover). Instructor: Fevig, Ron.
SpSt 508 Quality Engineering for the Space Industry 3 cr. Quality Engineering for the Space Industry. Sub-discipline: Space Engineering or Management. May be used as Technical or Social course. This course addresses the good conclusion child abuse essay principles and techniques for establishing quality goals, identification of customer needs and requirements, measurement of quality, and product/process engineering to improve system performance with a focus on why university essay college confidential the space industry. Good Abuse? The main objectives are to provide the descriptive essay a place student with an understanding of the principles and practice of quality and reliability engineering in good conclusion, general and to provide an in-depth understanding of the quality assurance concepts, strategies, and essays format, tools practiced in child abuse essay, the space industry. Essay? Familiarity with the techniques learned in this course will enable the student to abuse address problems in the design, implementation, measurement, and correction of production and service systems found in the space industry. Previously offered as SpSt 570. On The Essay? Do not repeat. Fundamental Quality Concepts Intellectual Foundation of good conclusion child abuse, Quality Engineering Process Fundamentals Fundamental Statistical Concepts Process Definition/Redefinition Statistical Process Control Chart Interpretation Variables Control Charts Variables Control Charts Grouped Measurements Variables Control Charts Individual Measurements Attribute Control Charts for Classification Measurement Operating Characteristics Average Run Length Attribute Control Charts for critical and non-critical thinking, Counts Anamalous Patterns Inspection Policy Process Capability Process Improvement Design of Experiments Quality Function Deployment Process-based Transformation Process-Compatible Initiatives Six Sigma, Robust Design, Theory of Constraints Lean Cycle Time/Waste Reduction Continuous Improvement, Learning Organizations, Fifth Discipline Total Quality Management, Quality Awards Process-Compatible Tools. Required textbook: (Confirmed for summer 2017)
Introduction to Statistical Quality Control by Douglas C. Montgomery, 7th Edition. Publisher: John Wiley Sons. ISBN: 978-1-118-14681-1 (hardcover). Instructor: Casler, James. SpSt 512 Human Performance in Extreme Environments 3 cr. Human Performance in Extreme Environments. Technical Course; Sub-discipline: Human Factors. This course introduces the good child area of human performance in mississippi essay, extreme environment, highlights differences and similarities between extreme environments, and demonstrates that lessons learned from one extreme environment can be effectively applied to others - though settings like space, mountains, or the ocean's depths, etc. Good Child Abuse Essay? - pose unique characteristics, the thinking and non-critical thinking human physiological and psychological reactions and adaptations to these extreme settings stay similar. Space environments vs.
Earth extreme environments. • Physics chemistry of space environments. - Space hazards and threats. - Human subject performance environments in conclusion abuse, space. • Specifics of research format, Operational Environments (OE): general. • Social-psychological environment: small groups under.
high stress conditions. • Space as multiple integrative stresses environment. Living working in space: space and extreme. • Human’s physiology as a response to Earth’s Biosphere. • Life Support (LS) approaches and technology readiness level. - Primary Life Support (PLS): air, water, food supplies. - Environmental control hardware operation. -- Hypobaric Hyperbaric environments. -- Alternating air compositions.
-- Temperature Humidity endurance. -- Environment toxicity microbial. -- Radiation exposure limits. -- ‘Technology dependence stress’ (Psycho- - Physiological stresses (Space Adaptation. Syndrome), tolerance countermeasures. -- Respiratory function and good abuse essay, oxygen demands. -- Heart blood vessels in ‘normal’ environments and.
Required Textbook: (TEXTBOOK INFO NOT CONFIRMED FOR FALL 2017) 1. Why University Of Chicago College? Bio-Astronautics Data Book (NASA SP 3006) Available for free download here. Recommended Textbooks for human factors specialization: 1. Good Conclusion Child Abuse Essay? Performing in Extreme Environments by Lawrence Armstrong. 2000 Edition. Publisher: Human Kinetics.
ISBN-13: 978-0880118378 (paperback). 2. Fundamentals of Space Life Sciences , Churchill S. Essay? et al. Volumes 1 2. Krieger Publishing Company. Good Child Essay? 1997. Of Chicago Essay College? ISBN-13: 978-0894640513 (hardcover). 3. Living Aloft: Human Requirements For Extended Space Flight by good abuse essay Connors, Harrison, and Akins. 1985 Edition. Publisher: NASA.
ISBN-13: 978-1410219831 (paperback) This book is available online, free of charge, from the NASA History Office webpage here. Recommended Textbook for psychological factors specialization: 1 . Bold Endeavors: Lessons from Polar and Space Exploration by Jack Stuster. 1996 Edition. Research Format? Publisher: Naval Institute Press. ISBN-13: 978-1557507495 (hardcover)
Instructor: SpSt Faculty. SpSt 515 Human Factors in Space 3 cr. Human Factors in essay, Space. Technical course; Sub-disciplines: Human Factors or Applications. A review of the major stresses experienced by humans on on the mississippi essay entering the new and alien environment of space. Examples will be taken from the good conclusion child psychological and physiological impacts experienced by U.S. and Soviet crews with emphasis on longer flights. Research? How to avoid and/or overcome these stresses will be examined as an essential and conclusion abuse essay, growing need in the future development and settlement of the space frontier. Fundamentals of Space Life Sciences by Susanne Churchill. 1997 edition. Publisher: Krieger Publishing.
ISBN-10: 0-89464-051-8. Living Aloft: Human Requirements for Extended Space Flight by Connors, Harrison and Akins. Publisher: NASA. Free download from NASA's History office available at http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/SP-483/cover.htm. Man-System Integration Standards . Describing? Publisher: NASA. Free download available at good abuse essay, http://msis.jsc.nasa.gov/ Bold Endeavors: Lessons from Polar and Space Exploration by Jack Stuster. Essays? 1996 edition. Publisher: Naval Institute Press.
ISBN-13: 978-1557507495 (hardcover). Instructor: Nelson, Travis. SpSt 519 Closed Ecological Systems for Life Support 3 cr. Closed Ecological Systems for conclusion abuse essay, Life Support. Technical course; Sub-discipline: Human Factors or Applications. Closed ecological systems have been suggested during the descriptive describing a place early decades of space exploration for extended life support in good conclusion abuse, space operations. In reality, this principle of long-term life support mimics global bio-geochemical cycles supporting life on are essay writing services legit Earth. The course covers the multiple interactions of human/bio-regenerative life support based on physical/chemical regeneration (hybrid) life support environments. Extensive research in this area during more than five decades showed that material turnover in small closed environments becomes unstable compared to conclusion abuse essay a planetary environment.
Specific attention is paid to the limits of stability for closed material cycles functioning during long-term remote confined missions; and the importance of the human factor as a target link, main sensor, and main integrator and control element for the system providing significant self-sustainability under proper motivations. Advanced scenarios for space life support based on ecological and in situ resource utilization approaches are discussed. Prerequisite/Co-requisite: SpSt 501 or permission of the instructor. Required Textbooks: (Verified for Spring 2017) Manmade Closed Ecological Systems by Gitelson Lisovsky, 2003 Ed by life on the mississippi Taylor Francis, ISBN: 9780415299985. Fundamentals of conclusion abuse, Space Life Sciences by S. Churchill, 1997 Ed by Krieger, ISBN: 9780894640513.
Space Life Support Bio/Spherics by Peter Eckart. 1996 edition. Essay? Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht/Boston/London. ISBN 1-881883-04-3 (paperback) ISBN 0-7923-3889-8 (hardcover). Space Physiology and Medicine by Nicogossian, Hunton Pool.
1994 edition. Good Abuse? Publusher: Lea Febiger, A Waverly Company. ISBN-10: 0812115953 ISBN-13 : 978-0812115956. Other Recommended Materials: Silent Running , DVD; Universal Studios, 1972 (the time of public optimism in descriptive essay a place, regard to space exploration). Life Under Glass: The Inside Story of Biosphere 2 by Alling, Nelson Silverstone. Publisher: The Biosphere Press, 1993. ISBN 1-882428-07-2 (paperback) ISBN 1-882428-10-2 (hardcover). Instructor: SpSt Faculty. SpSt 520 Asteroids, Meteorites Comets 3 cr.
Asteroids, Meteorites Comets. Technical course; Sub-discipline: Planetary Science. The small bodies of the solar system provide clues to the origin and early history of the solar system. The planets and larger moons have all been chemically transformed erasing their records of conclusion child abuse essay, their formation. Why University Of Chicago College Confidential? By contrast, many asteroids, meteorites and comets are essentially unmodified from the time of their origin 4.5 billion years ago and thus preserve a record of the formation epoch. Each of these classes of objects is investigated separately, and relationships between them are examined. Implications for impact hazards and for extraterrestrial resources are also explored. Conclusion Child Abuse Essay? The results of recent and are essay writing legit, current spacecraft missions to conclusion essay asteroids (e.g., Galileo, NEAR, DAWN, Hayabusa, Rosetta, OSIRIS-Rex, etc.) and to sat advice essay comets (e.g. Giotto, Vega 1, Stardust, Deep Impact, Rosetta, etc.) are reviewed.
Introduction to Course / Overview of Topics Basics of Mineralogy and Geochemistry Introduction to Meteorites Introduction to Asteroids Basics Principles of Orbits Overview and History of Meteoritics Chondrites Achondrites Iron and Stony-iron Meteorites Asteroid Sizes, Rotations and Families Asteroid Surface Compositions Chondritic Parent Bodies Achondrite Parent Bodies Iron and good essay, Stony-Iron Parent Bodies Diversity of why university essay college confidential, Asteroids and Meteorite Parent Bodies Delivering Meteorites from Asteroids Gaspra, Ida, Mathilde, and Eros Importance of conclusion abuse, Asteroids and Meteorites Compositions of Comets Origin and Evolution of Comets Interplanetary Dust Meteor Showers Lunar and Martian Meteorites, Tektites Impacts Comets, Asteroids and the Origin of the Solar System Comets, Asteroids and the Origin of Life Summary and Overview. Required Textbooks: (Confirmed for summer 2017) Meteorites and Their Parent Bodies (2nd ed.) by H. Y. McSween, Jr. Publisher: Cambridge. ISBN: 0-521-58751-4 (paperback). The New Solar System (4th ed.) by Beatty, Petersen and Chaikin Publisher: Cambridge. ISBN: 0-521-64183-7 (hardcover). NOTE: The pages of this book can be downloaded---somewhat awkwardly--following instructions provided on sat advice essay the class website. Currently, this book is out of print but relatively inexpensive copies can be obtained from a variety of internet book dealers. Instructor: Gaffey, Mike.
The Planet Mars. Technical course; Sub-discipline: Planetary Science. This course provides an conclusion essay, in-depth review of the present state of our knowledge of Mars. Topics to be covered include: the origin and evolution of the planet, the surface geology and geological processes, the geophysical properties of the Martian interior, the origin and evolution of the Martian atmosphere, the present and past climates of Mars, the Martian moons, and sat advice, the possibility of past or present life on Mars. The American and Soviet/Russian Mars exploration programs are reviewed and the course incorporates the most recent results from spacecraft missions such as Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, the Mars Exploration Rovers, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and Mars Science Laboratory (Curiosity Rover). Potential future manned and unmanned missions are also discussed.
Required Textbook: No textbooks required or recommended for this course. Access to free materials will be provided. Instructor: Gaffey, Mike. SpSt 522 Remote Sensing Principles 3 cr. Remote Sensing Principles. Technical Course; Sub-discipline: Applications. This course covers the basic concepts and foundations of remote sensing, a review of good, major Earth observing satellite and sat advice, aircraft platforms, and an investigation of the conclusion abuse flow of data from satellite to Earth, what is represents, and how to interpret it using both visual and college confidential, digital image processing techniques.
A field visit to the EROS Data Center in Sioux Falls may also be arranged. This course was previously offered as SpSt 522 Satellite Information Processing. Do not repeat. Required Textbook : None. Details provided in syllabus, or contact instructor. Instructor: SpSt Faculty. SpSt 523 Remote Sensing Applications 3 cr. Remote Sensing Applications. Technical Course; Sub-discipline: Applications. This course covers the use of good, advanced image processing algorithms and information extraction techniques for various Earth resource applications such as land cover/land use, environmental change detection, geology, oceanography, agriculture, forestry, rangeland, water resources, urban planning, natural disaster assessment, etc. P reviously offered as SpSt 570, or as SpSt 523 Advanced Image Processing.
Do not repeat. Required Textbooks: None. Instructor will provide selected readings. Instructor: SpSt Faculty. SpSt 524 Current Topics in Astrobiology 3 cr. Current Topics in thinking, Astrobiology. Technical Course; Sub-discipline: Planetary Science. This is a multi-disciplinary, literature-intensive examination of astrobiology, which is the study of life in the universe. Students will read scientific research and review papers from a variety of disciplines including astronomy, planetary science, chemistry, biology and conclusion child abuse, geology. Course goals include: developing proficiency at reading/analyzing diverse scientific papers, developing the ability to incorporate knowledge from multiple disciplines in the study of astrobiological research, and developing the on the mississippi essay ability to good conclusion essay effectively write summary papers to show basic understanding of course material. Prerequisites : SpSt 460 or consent of instructor.
Instructor: SpSt Faculty. SpSt 525 Technical Issues in Space 1-3 cr. Technical Issues in Space. Technical Course; Sub-discipline: Space Engineering. An examination of the mississippi essay technological base for conclusion abuse, the exploration and development of space.
An understanding of thinking and non-critical, this technology and of its impact is essential to an understanding of the issues and problems associated with our continuing efforts to explore and settle this new frontier. May be repeated if the topic is different. Instructor: SpSt Faculty. SpSt 526 Advanced Astronomical and Spacecraft Instrumentation 3 cr. Advanced Astronomical and Spacecraft Instrumentation. Technical Course; Sub-discipline: Applications or Space Engineering. This course will concentrate on essay instrument design, operation, and the resulting data products generated by writing legit ground- and space-based astronomical observatories, as well as common instrumentation used in NASA scientific solar system spacecraft. Key goals for this course include gaining a solid understanding of instrumental principles of operation, the conclusion child essay types of raw data that are generated, and the types of data reduction processes that lead to interpretable data. The course will include an investigation of different types of spectrographs and spectroscopy data products, solar instrumentation (ground- and space-based), terrestrial and Jovian spacecraft orbiter/flyby instrumentation, terrestrial planet rover and lander instrumentation, and extra-solar system astrophysical instrumentation. Students will have the opportunity to examine, reduce, and life on the essay, interpret select data sets. Prerequisites : SpSt 425 and MATH 165 or consent of instructor.
Electronic Imaging in Astronomy: Detectors and Instrumentation , 2nd edition (2008) by good child Ian S. McLean. Publisher: Springer. ISBN 978-3642095320 (paperback). Instructor: Fieber-Beyer, Sherry. SpSt 527 Extraterrestrial Resources 3 cr. Technical Course; Sub-discipline: Planetary Science. This course focuses on on the mississippi essay the inventory, accessibility, acquisition, processing and conclusion child, utilization of extraterrestrial resources (space resources) from sat advice essay, celestial bodies such as the Moon, Mars, asteroids, and comets. Consideration will be given to extraterrestrial resources for in situ utilization (such as a Lunar or Martian base), for space operations (such as supporting large scale near-Earth activities or a human Mars mission), and for terrestrial markets. The course will focus on the interplay between the scientific, technical, and economic aspects of acquiring and utilizing such resources. The course will also explore some of the legal and political ramifications and limitations of claiming and recovering space resources.
Introduction and Course Structure Why consider extraterrestrial resources? The Way the Future Was - History of Space Resources Getting there and back - Orbital Mechanics Inventory of good conclusion abuse essay, Space Resources: Lunar Geology Inventory of on the mississippi essay, Space Resources: Meteorites Inventory of Space Resources: Asteroids NEOs Inventory of Space Resources: Mars Geology Inventory of Space Resources: Martian Moons Shuttle tanks / “Dead” satellites / Space debris Resource utilization: History as a guide to future Demand / Markets for Space Resources Propulsion options - Chemical / Ion / Nuclear Propulsion options - Solar Sail / “Mass driver” / Exotic Mining and Extracting Raw Materials General Mining and Extracting Space Resources by Object Processing Space Resources General Case Study: Propellant production Lunar Case Study: Propellant production Mars Mars Propellant Production: Implications for Martian activities Asteroid Space Mining - Options, Prospects and Products Future Space Activities: Demand? / Pricing? / Where? Infrastructure - Minimum Optimum Infrastructure - Minimum optimum Resources and good child abuse essay, Hazard Abatement ET Resource Implementation: Social and Cultural Aspects Summary and research, Review. Required Textbook: None. Students will be directed to good conclusion essay online readings in are essay writing services legit, the course syllabus. Instructor: Gaffey, Mike. SpSt 528 Space Environment and the Sun 3 cr. Space Environment and the Sun. Technical Course; Sub-discipline: Planetary Science.
This course will provide an in-depth study of the science and child abuse, observations of the Sun, space weather, and effects of the Sun on astronauts, Earth, and the space environment. Topics that will be covered include the solar photosphere and active surface phenomena such as sunspots, flares, and coronal mass ejections; the nature of the quiet Sun; the solar interior and helioseismology; space weather and impact of solar particles on the space environment and Earth; the hazards posed to astronauts by life on the mississippi solar eruptions; common techniques of solar observations; and a review of the primary types of solar instrumentation and the observatories that currently study the good conclusion Sun. Students will be able to observe the Sun using the critical and non-critical UND Observatory's small solar telescopes; all students will have the opportunity to good conclusion child analyze solar datasets to aid their understanding of the Sun. Prerequisite : Math 165 or consent of the instructor. Prerequisite/Co-requisite: SpSt 501. Physics of the Sun: A First Course by D.J.
Mullan. 1st edition. 2009. Publisher: Chapman and essay, Hall. ISBN-13: 978-1-4200-8307-1 (hardcover). Research articles in PDF format will be provided by the instructor. Instructor: SpSt Faculty. SpSt 540 Space Economics and Commerce 3 cr. Space Economics and Commerce. Social Course; Sub-discipline: Management.
A study of the economic aspects of space activities, with analysis of the possibilities and the barriers. Key areas include launch services, satellite communications, remote sensing, microgravity materials processing, and interaction with the government. Conclusion Child? Global competition against subsidies or government-sponsored entities is examined. Why economics? Review of relevant economic theory Relationships of thinking and non-critical, space industry with economic environment Economic impact of commercial space on good conclusion child abuse U.S. economy Government space budgets Structure of selected space industries Regulatory issues International effects Insurance in support of space industry Economic analyses Engineering economic considerations Financial effects of quality and reliability Cost estimation of space systems (CER) Life cycle costing Economics of Apollo, Faster-Better-Cheaper (FBC), Constellation Launch costing Investment and why university essay, entrepreneurship Economics of New Space and space tourism. Required Textbook : None. Good Conclusion Child Abuse Essay? See course syllabus for further details. (confirmed for Spring 2017) Instructor: Casler, James. SpSt 541 Management of Space Enterprises 3 cr. Management of Space Enterprises.
Social Course; Sub-discipline: Management. This course investigates the essays management of space organizations. Good Child Essay? These include organizations that are public and private, RD and operations, profit and sat advice, non-profit. You will learn the basics of management theory, the history of systems management, and good conclusion child abuse, the technical issues that must be considered in the management of space RD and operations. Role of research format, management Management approaches Leadership Motivation Communication Ethics Decision theory Organizational structure Organizational change Organizational culture Organizational behavior Strategic decision making Controlling and Management Human resource management Risk management Technical management Project management Management of civil space organizations Management of large space business Management of small space business Entrepreneurship. Required Textbook: (confirmed for fall 2016) Applied Project Management for Space Systems by Chesley, Larson, McQuade and Menrad. Publisher: Learning Solutions. ISBN-13: 978-0073408859 (paperback).
The Secret of Apollo: Systems Management in American and good conclusion abuse, European Space Programs by on the mississippi essay former UND Space Studies Professor Stephen B. Child Essay? Johnson, PHD. Publisher: John Hopkins University Press. ISBN-13: 978-0801868986 (hardcover). Instructor: Casler, James. SpSt 542 Risk Management of format, Space Organizations 3 cr. Risk Management of Space Organizations. Social course; Sub-discipline: Management. This course includes a systematic approach to the principles and practices of risk management in good conclusion child essay, the space industry from project initiation through planning, implementation, control and closeout. It discusses various techniques and models for qualitative and quantitative risk assessment and risk mitigation in such areas as cost, schedule, and performance. Decision making under conditions of uncertainty and risk is also discussed. Analytical methods for risk management: A systems engineering perspective by P. R. Garvey.
Publisher: Chapman Hall, 2008. ISBN-13: 978-1-58488-637-2 (hardcover). Required Supplemental Work: The black swan: The impact of the highly improbable , by N. N. Taleb 2010 2 nd edition, New York: Random House. ISBN 13: 978-0812973815 (paperback) (confirmed for Spring 2016) Instructor: Casler, James. SpSt 545 Space and thinking and non-critical, the Environment 3 cr. Space and the Environment.
Social Course; Sub-discipline: Policy. This course is an advanced graduate-level review of international relations theories as applied to the international implications of global commons. The course introduces the concept of global commons, examines the theories and practices concerning management of global commons, and good essay, analyzes the global commons dealing with the problems of collective action as applied to global environmental change and the uses of outer space. Required Textbooks: (Confirmed for Spring 2017) 1) Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action by Elinor Ostrom, 9th Edition. Publisher: Cambridge University Press. ISBN-13: 978-1107569782 (Paperback) Instructor: Dodge, Michael. SpSt 551 History of the Space Age 3 cr. History of the Space Age.
Social Course; Sub-discipline: History. This course introduces students to the history of human endeavors in space. Why University Of Chicago College Confidential? These include the conclusion development of rocketry, the influence of amateur societies and science fiction, the military development of ballistic missiles, and human and robotic spaceflight. Intro Science Fiction Visionaries Pioneers WW2 Space Cadets Nukes ICBMs IGY Sputnik and Explorer Early Military Spaceflight Space Policy 1955-1961 NASA, Mercury and sat advice essay, Gemini Apollo Space Applications Golden Age of Planetary Exploration Beginnings of Space Astrophysics Shuttle ISS Solar System Exploration The Exploration of Mars Great Observatories Commercial Space Militarization of Space International Space. This New Ocean : The Story of the First Space Age by William E. Burrows, 1985 Modern Library ISBN: 978-0375754852. Space and the American Imagination by conclusion child essay Howard E. McCurdy. 2011. Publisher: John Hopkins University Press.
ISBN-13: 978-0801898686 (paperback). The Heavens and the Earth : A Political History of the why university confidential Space Age by good conclusion abuse essay Walter A. Why University Of Chicago Confidential? McDougall. Good Child Essay? 2008. Publisher: ACLS Humanities, ISBN: 978-1597404280 (paperback). Instructor: SpSt Faculty. SpSt 552 History of Astronomy and Cosmology 3 cr. History of Astronomy and Cosmology.
Social Course; Sub-discipline: History. This course investigates the format history of human endeavors to understand the stars, planets, and cosmos as a whole from a scientific perspective. Good Abuse? It covers the describing early observations and abuse essay, theories of the Babylonians and Greeks through the European Scientific Revolution, and sat advice, finally to the development of astrophysics and modern cosmology using space vehicles. Cosmos: An Illustrated History of good essay, Astronomy and Cosmology by John North, University of Chicago Press, 2008. ISBN: 978-0226594415 (paperback).
Instructor: SpSt Faculty. SpSt 555 Military Space Programs 3 cr. Military Space Programs. Social course; Sub-discipline: Policy or History. An introduction to the military uses of life on the mississippi essay, space by the United States, Russia, and other nations. The course introduces ballistic missiles, anti-ballistic missile and anti-satellite systems, space-based reconnaissance and conclusion child essay, intelligence-gathering, communications, navigation, acquisition, and military space treaties.
Previously offered as SpSt 555 Strategic Implications of Space. Do not repeat . Course Outline Spring 2017. Introduction to Military SpaceLeaders and Theorists Post World War II Policy and are essay services, Weapons The Cold War and Military Space Programs ICBMs Reconnaissance Satellites U.S. vs. Conclusion Essay? USSR Space Race Arms Control Strategic Warning and Strategic Defense Space Warfare Desert Storm to the Present Space Power Theory. Required Texts (confirmed for essay, Spring 2017) Toward a Theory of Space Power , Charles D. Good Conclusion Essay? Lutes and Peter L. Hays (eds.), with Vincent A Manzo, Lisa M. Yambrick, and M. Elaine Bunn.
Publisher: Washington, DC: National Defense University, 2011. Life Mississippi Essay? Available free on the web http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a546585.pdf. Beyond Horizons: A Half Century of Air Force Space Leadership by David N. Conclusion Abuse? Spires, (Washington: GPO, 1998). Reprinted by University Press of the Pacific 2002. ASIN: B003HKQH66 (paperback) Available free on the web http://www.afhso.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-110125-038.pdf. Harnessing The Heavens: National Defense Through Space Paul G. Gillespie and Grant T. Weller (eds.) Chicago: Imprint, 2008. ISBN-13: 978-1-879176-45-4 (paperback). Instructor: Kugler, David. SpSt 560 Space Politics and Policy 3 cr. Space Politics and Policy.
Social Course; Sub-discipline: Policy or History. This course serves as a graduate-level introduction to the field of Public Policy as applied to Space Policy. The course surveys the evolution of Space Policy at sat advice, several levels of analysis including context, political actors and institutions, political processes, and good abuse, policy outcomes, and assesses the descriptive essay describing symbiotic relationships between policy, technology, and science. . The Heavens and the Earth: A Political History of the Space Age by Walter A. McDougall, 1997 Johns Hopkins Paperback Edition. ISBN: 0-8018-5748-1. After Apollo? Richard Nixon on the American Space Program by John M. Logsdon, 2015 Edition, Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN: 978-1-137-43852-2. This New Ocean by William E Burrows, 1st Edition 1998, Modern Library.
ISBN: 0-375-75485-7. Instructor: Dodge, Michael. SpSt 561 Public Administration of Space Technology 3 cr. Public Administration of Space Technology. Social course; Sub-discipline: Management.
This course is an advanced graduate-level review of Public Administration theories as applied to the implementation of good abuse essay, space technology programs. Life On The Mississippi? In this course, the political, organizational, and abuse, technical variables that affect the of chicago essay college management processes of good conclusion abuse essay, space organizations are examined. Prerequisite: SpSt 560 or SpSt 541. This course was previously offered as SpSt 525 Public Administration and Technology Assessment of descriptive a place, Space Technology. D o not repeat. Historical perspective Intellectual heritage Political heritage Stateless origins “Chinking in” Rise of professional technocracy 20 th Century development Contemporary public administration Rational model New Public Administration model New Public Management model Principles practices of good abuse, US Federal space-related organizations Review of Federal government organization Regulatory environment Operations environment Planning, Programming, Budgeting process Specific principals actors Organizational culture Formative NASA culture Apollo Post-Apollo FBC Post-Columbia Organizational decision-making Challenger launch decision Faster, Better, Cheaper philosophy Columbia Management of space technology Program management Systems management Case study: Apollo Case study: Space Shuttle Case study: Constellation. Required textbooks (TEXTBOOK INFO CONFIRMED FOR FALL 2017) Denhardt, R. B. (2014).
Theories of public organization , 7 th ed. Belmont, CA: Thomson-Wadsworth. Life On The Mississippi? ISBN-13: 978-1285436333. Stillman, R. J. II (1999). Good Conclusion Abuse? Preface to public administration: A search for themes and direction , 2 nd ed. Burke, VA: Chatelaine Press. ISBN-13: 978-1574200652. Instructor: Kugler, David. Social Course: Sub-discipline: Law.
This course serves as a graduate-level introduction to why university of chicago college confidential the field of child abuse essay, Law as applied to are essay writing Space Law. The course examines the good child abuse origins and evolution of the laws of outer space from the beginnings of the space age to the present. International laws governing access and format, use of space, and national laws regulating governmental and commercial activities in conclusion abuse essay, space are reviewed and analyzed. Origins Bodies of Law General Principles of Law Statutory Interpretation Cannons of Construction Airspace v. Outer Space Legal Theory Maritime Law (Origins) Interpretation US Air Law International Law The Space Law Treaties - Outer Space Treaty of 1967 Rescue Agreement of 1968 Liability Convention of descriptive essay describing a place, 1972 Registration Convention of 1975 Moon Treaty of 1979 Meteorology Communications Remote Sensing UAS Issues Private Space Flight Issues Geostationary Issues Large Space Structures Commercial Use Commercial Use Nuclear Power Use Environmental Issues UNCOPUOS Guest Lecture Peaceful Purposes. Handbook of International Law by child abuse Anthony Aust, 2nd Edition, ISBN-10 0521133491, ISBN-13 978-0521133494. ( confirmed for spring 2016) Instructor: Dodge, Michael. SpSt 570 Quality Engineering for the Space Industry 3 cr. Quality Engineering for the Space Industry. Technical Course; Sub-disclipline: Space Engineering or Management. This course addresses the principles and techniques for establishing quality goals, identification of customer needs and requirements, measurement of quality, and product/process engineering to improve system performance with a focus on the space industry. The course covers the principles and practice of descriptive describing a place, quality and reliability engineering in good essay, general and the quality assurance concepts, strategies, and tools practiced in the space industry.
Introduction to Statistical Quality Control by Douglas C. Montgomery, 7th Edition. Publisher: John Wiley Sons ISBN: 978-1-118-14681-1 (hardcover). Instructor: Casler, James. SpSt 574 Remote Sensing in Developing Countries 3 cr. Remote Sensing in sat advice essay, Developing Countries. May be considered a Social or Technical course; Sub-disciplines: Applications/Technical or Policy/Social. This course will introduce students to remote sensing programs in developing countries and typical remote sensing application areas pertinent to developing countries, such as potable water, forest fires, vector diseases, environmental degradation, food security, fisheries, floods, droughts, crop pests, etc., with case studies. Instructor: SpSt Faculty.
SpSt 575 Remote Sensing Law Policy 3 cr. Remote Sensing Law Policy. Social Course; Sub-discipline: Law. This course focuses on the evolving laws, policies, and institutions that have long-term ramifications for earth observations. Some topics addressed are the United Nations Principles on Remote Sensing; the United Kingdom's 1984 National Remote Sensing Policy; the Montreal Protocol; and, the U.S. Land Remote Sensing Policy Act of 1992. Ground segment institutions considered are the Landsat Ground Stations Operations Working Group and good conclusion child essay, the Global Land 1-KM AVHRR Project. Are Essay Writing Legit? Remote sensing litigation that has begun to address various applications of remote sensing will also be considered.
Cases include Dow vs. U.S. and EOSAT vs. NASA and good conclusion child abuse essay, NOAA. Unmanned Aircraft in the National Airspace: Critical Issues, Technology and the Law by Donna A. Dulo, Editor, 2015, 1st Edition. Publisher: ABA Publishing. ISBN 13: 978-1-62722-998-2 (paperback). (Confirmed for critical thinking and non-critical, summer 2016) Instructor: Dodge, Michael. SpSt 581 Field Visits to Space Centers 1-3 cr. Field Visits to Space Centers.
Social Course; Sub-discipline: Policy. This course will provide a first-hand knowledge of selected space centers in conclusion, the U.S. Research? and/or abroad through an good child essay, organized field visit. The field visit will be led by a space studies faculty and will include prior preparation through readings, class seminars, lectures and written assignments. May be repeated up to a maximum of writing services, 3 credits. Graded as pass/fail (S/U). Required Textbook: None (Confirmed for Spring 2017)
Instructor: Seelan, Santhosh. SpSt 590 Space Studies Colloquium 1 cr. Space Studies Colloquium. A series of good essay, invited lectures presented by services visiting lecturers and faculty. May be repeated up to 2 credits.
Graded as pass/fail (S/U). Required Textbooks: None (Confirmed for Spring 2017) Instructor: SpSt Faculty. SpSt 591 Readings in good child essay, Space Studies 1-3 cr. Readings in Space Studies.
Readings in selected Space Studies topics, with written and/or oral reports. Repeatable to why university of chicago essay college a maximum of good child essay, 6 credits. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. Instructor: SpSt Faculty. SpSt 593 Individual Research in Space Studies 1-3 cr. Individual Research in Space Studies. Individual student projects designed to why university of chicago develop advanced knowledge in a specific area of expertise. Good Conclusion Abuse? A written report is required. May be repeated for thinking, up to 6 credits for good essay, Master's and up to 12 credits for Ph.D. Instructor: SpSt Faculty. An original research project approved by and completed under the supervision of a dissertation committee.
Prerequisite: Graduate standing, approval, completion and sat advice essay, defense of abuse, dissertation proposal. S/U grading only. Instructor: SpSt Faculty. Courses from other departments may be included with the consent of the student’s advisor.
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ACT/SAT Essay Prompts and Sample Essays with Comments Grades. ACT and SAT essays are scored on a scale of 1 to good abuse 6 (6 being the best) by at least two graders. The scores are then added together for a final composite score. If the scores of the graders differ by more than one point, then a third grader grades the essay, providing a score which is then doubled to compute the final composite score. The following are examples of ACT and SAT essays written by our students and the comments they received from thinking thinking, our Expert On-Line Essay Graders. All essays are graded according to the College Board and ACT essay scoring rubric. Review sample essays, critiques, and grades. As you read the passage below, consider how Paul Bogard uses evidence, such as facts or examples, to good essay support claims; reasoning to essay develop ideas and to child essay connect claims and evidence; and stylistic or persuasive elements, such as word choice or appeals to are essay writing services emotion, to add power to the ideas expressed. Good Child Essay. Adapted from Paul Bogard, “Let There Be Dark.” ©2012 by Los Angeles Times. 1 At my family’s cabin on a Minnesota lake, I knew woods so dark that my hands disappeared before my eyes. I knew night skies in which meteors left smoky trails across sugary spreads of stars.
But now, when 8 of 10 children born in the United States will never know a sky dark enough for the Milky Way, I worry we are rapidly losing night’s natural darkness before realizing its worth. This winter solstice, as we cheer the days’ gradual movement back toward light, let us also remember the irreplaceable value of darkness. 2 All life evolved to essays format the steady rhythm of bright days and abuse dark nights. Today, though, when we feel the closeness of nightfall, we reach quickly for a light switch. And too little darkness, meaning too much artificial light at night, spells trouble for all. 3 Already the World Health Organization classifies working the night shift as a probable human carcinogen, and writing legit the American Medical Association has voiced its unanimous support for “light pollution reduction efforts and glare reduction efforts at good child essay, both the national and and non-critical thinking state levels.” Our bodies need darkness to produce the hormone melatonin, which keeps certain cancers from developing, and our bodies need darkness for sleep. Sleep disorders have been linked to good child essay diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease and depression, and recent research suggests one main cause of “short sleep” is “long light.” Whether we work at night or simply take our tablets, notebooks and smartphones to bed, there isn’t a place for this much artificial light in our lives. 4 The rest of the world depends on darkness as well, including nocturnal and research format crepuscular species of conclusion essay, birds, insects, mammals, fish and reptiles. Some examples are well known—the 400 species of birds that migrate at night in North America, the sea turtles that come ashore to research format lay their eggs—and some are not, such as the bats that save American farmers billions in conclusion child abuse essay, pest control and the moths that pollinate 80% of the world’s flora.
Ecological light pollution is like the bulldozer of the night, wrecking habitat and disrupting ecosystems several billion years in the making. Simply put, without darkness, Earth’s ecology would collapse. . . . 5 In today’s crowded, louder, more fast-paced world, night’s darkness can provide solitude, quiet and stillness, qualities increasingly in short supply. Every religious tradition has considered darkness invaluable for thinking a soulful life, and abuse the chance to witness the universe has inspired artists, philosophers and life on the everyday stargazers since time began. In a world awash with electric light . . . howwould Van Gogh have given the world his “Starry Night”? Who knows what this vision of the night sky might inspire in each of us, in our children or grandchildren? 6 Yet all over the world, our nights are growing brighter. In the good conclusion abuse, United States and Western Europe, the amount of light in the sky increases an average of about 6% every year. Computer images of the United States at night, based on NASA photographs, show that what was a very dark country as recently as the 1950s is now nearly covered with a blanket of descriptive describing a place, light. Much of this light is wasted energy, which means wasted dollars.
Those of us over good conclusion, 35 are perhaps among the descriptive essay describing a place, last generation to good child essay have known truly dark nights. Even the sat advice, northern lake where I was lucky to conclusion spend my summers has seen its darkness diminish. 7 It doesn’t have to be this way. Light pollution is readily within our ability to solve, using new lighting technologies and shielding existing lights. Already, many cities and towns across North America and Europe are changing to LED streetlights, which offer dramatic possibilities for controlling wasted light. Other communities are finding success with simply turning off portions of their public lighting after midnight. Even Paris, the famed “city of essays format, light,” which already turns off its monument lighting after 1 a.m., will this summer start to require its shops, offices and public buildings to turn off lights after 2 a.m.
Though primarily designed to save energy, such reductions in light will also go far in addressing light pollution. But we will never truly address the problem of light pollution until we become aware of the irreplaceable value and beauty of the darkness we are losing. Write an essay, essay in which you explain how Paul Bogard builds an argument to writing services legit persuade his audience that natural darkness should be preserved. In your essay, analyze how Bogard uses one or more of the features listed in the box above (or features of your own choice) to strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of his argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on child, the most relevant features of the passage. Your essay should not explain whether you agree with Bogard’s claims, but rather explain how Bogard builds an argument to persuade his audience. Paul Bogard’s “Let There Be Dark” employs a wide range of rhetorical techniques to craft one important message: humans must initiate efforts to preserve natural darkness before darkness’ extensive list of benefits is permanently lost. Life Essay. Bogard’s argument is built upon his appeal to the broad spectrum of benefits offered by natural darkness, including those pertaining to health, the environment, and the economy. Utilizing outside sources to conclusion child essay back the validity of these benefits, Bogard completes his message with a tone of hope, imploring his audience to sat advice join him in his course.
Bogard begins his argument with a personal anecdote to juxtapose his personal experiences with the beauty of darkness against the modern trend of children never witnessing true natural darkness. His powerful image of “woods so dark that [his] hands disappeared before [his] eyes” captivates his audience with a striking visual. Also, Bogard’s use of the statistic of “8 of 10 children… never know[ing] a sky dark enough for the milky way” reinforces the good abuse essay, sense of urgency for preserving darkness that he builds through out the passage. After opening with his sensory story, Bogard pivots to assemble the bulk of his argument, barraging the reader with examples of the benefits of darkness. His first piece of sat advice essay, evidence involves the health benefits of natural darkness, particularly its role in preventing cancer. After beginning his point by including the support of good child abuse, two highly reputable health organizations, the WHO and AMA, to provide a sense of validity to his argument, Bogard highlights the mississippi essay, benefits of darkness and a good night’s sleep.
He then moves from the conclusion child, health of humans to the health of sat advice, nature and the natural environment. Appealing to a desire for child abuse essay ecological preservation, Bogard lists animals that depend on darkness, then explains the critical role these animals play in our lives, such as bats that assist in descriptive, pest control and child abuse essay moths that polinate the world’s flowers. The utilization of the life mississippi, simile relating light pollution to “the bulldozer of the conclusion, night” encapsulates the destructiveness of light pollution that Bogard wishes to convey. Bogards next piece of evidence revolves around the economic benefits of on the, darkness preservation. First using NASA as a source for backing the rate at which darkness is good child essay, being lost, Bogard’s logic of excess light being “wasted energy, which means wasted dollars” provides the reader with a simple benefit of reducing light pollution: saving money.
After stringing together his extensive range of benefits of preserving natural darkness, Bogard turns to the future, Including current efforts for preservation such as those in essay, Paris. His final line completes his argument with his original appeal, that to the “beauty of the child abuse, darkness”. Research Essays Format. Overall, Paul Bogard’s argument is carefully constructed, consisting of abuse, support from a wide range of sources, examples of the many benefits of darkness, and the interweaving of techniques such as similes to research embellish his argument. Overall, this excellent essay displays that the writer did a very close reading of Bogard’s essay and understood the central ideas as well as the interrelation of ideas as Bogard builds his argument. The student discusses most of the persuasive and stylistic elements Bogard uses, with a few exceptions—paragraph 5 is never addressed, which addresses the more meditative, soulful aspects of darkness: for example, as a source of inspiration for good conclusion child essay art (Van Gogh’s “Starry Night”).
Although the sat advice, use of good abuse essay, a simile is noted, the sat advice essay, almost magical language Bogard uses to describe a night sky (“meteors left smoky trails across sugars spreads of stars”) could have been explored in more depth. Finally, the student quotes fairly effectively from the text to support his claims. In terms of analysis, the two main weaknesses in this essay are the good conclusion child essay, omission of the analysis of paragraph 5 from Bogard’s essay and on the mississippi the student’s lack of analysis in the second-to-last paragraph (beginning with “After stringing together…”) about why Bogard turns toward the good child abuse, future. It’s not enough just to say that the author “turns to the future.” What is his purpose in doing so? What effect does that have on the reader?
What emotion is he trying to tap in the reader? This second-to-last paragraph consists of just two sentences and basically paraphrases rather than analyzes. This student displays an excellent command of sat advice, language and is very adept at guiding the reader through most of the salient points in Bogard’s essay. There is conclusion, a precise central claim presented in the introduction and research format a fairly strong conclusion. There is a lot of sentence variety, and the student’s word choice and tone strike the right chord for good conclusion child essay a formal essay. Transitional phrasing is used effectively between paragraphs and to of chicago essay college confidential bridge ideas. A few typos appear in good conclusion essay, the essay that don’t detract from meaning (e.g., in the first sentence, possessive form should be “darkness’s”; in paragraph 2, “throughout” is one word; in paragraph 3, the correct spelling is “pollinate”; in the first sentence of paragraph 4, the essays format, possessive form is “Bogard’s”; in paragraph 5, “Including” should not be capitalized). In our modern day society we think of abuse, light polution as a side effect of living. However, Paul Bogard makes the compelling argument that light polution is actually destroying our sleep. Bogard takes from NASA and other trusted organizations to prove his point, though not all of Bogards refrences are strickly based on descriptive essay a place, information. Bogard tells stories of sleeping under starfilled skies during his childhood.
These nostalgic stories bring out emotion in readers, causing them to rethink their stances. Bogard uses facts, figures and good conclusion child abuse emotions to build a touching and compelling argument against light polution in our society. The human body is why university of chicago essay, not a machine that can function perfectly during both night and day. In the good conclusion child abuse essay, thrid paragraph of Paul Bogard’s essay “Let There Be Dark,” it is stated that the lack of darkness can lead to cancer. “Our bodies need darkness to produce the hormone melatonin, which keeps certain cancers from sat advice essay, developing, and our bodies need darkness for sleep.” (3) Without darkness, the body cannot sleep. Good Conclusion Child Abuse. Some people have tried to research work around that fundamental rule, but failed. Bogart brings up the point that a lack of sleep can cause some sevear medical problems, such as: depression, diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Read big, threatening words like diabetes and depression are enough to good conclusion abuse snap any reader into attention. Services. fear always has, and always will be a great motivator for the human race. Child Abuse. Bogard uses these threatening medical facts as a way to grab the research format, reader’s attentions through their emotions. There is constant talk of how our society is ruining the world, and themselfs, through technological advancements. In the seventh paragraph of “Let There Be Dark” Paul Bogard mentions that light polution is not an good conclusion, unstoppable force.
“Light Polution is readily within our ability to solve, using new lighting technologies and format shielding existing lights.” (7) Bogard brings up his ideas on how to stop the light epidemic. Rarly do you find someone ready with well thoughtout ideas to solve the very problem they are complaining about. Bogart proves to his readers that he is more that just a man with hatred rooted inside of him. Instead, Paul Bogard is a man who ready and willing to solve the problems that lay before him. Bogard gains the trust of his readers, by essay showing them there is a way to fight the light epidemic. As more advancements are made by our society more problems arise as well. For the most part, technological advancements have made day to day life easier Though, our day to day lifes have also been filled with countless arguments of how we are ruining our planet. On The Mississippi. It can be hard for good conclusion abuse essay the average person to understand how technology is affecting our planet.
Paul Bogard tries to explain to the public the new challenges we face, in a comprehensible way. In the third paragraph of “Let There Be Dark”, Bogard explains how we keep ourselfs from sleep by spending too much time on are essay, technology. “Weathe we work at night or simply take our tablets, notebooks and smartphones to bed, there isn’t a place for this much artificial light in our lives.” (3) Nowadays, almost everyone obtains some sort of conclusion essay, “smart” device that they like to sat advice use before bed. Breaking down problems into good conclusion child abuse, everyday life is are essay legit, what makes them understandable to the public. Bogard is able to connect with his audience by using everyday examples for his argument. Most members of the average public are not science or english majors. It is important to essay realise that when making an argument, even everyday people should be able to understand. Paul Bogard perfects the idea of crafting an writing legit, complex argument that is easy to understand. By making different thoughts and ideas more accesible, more people can join in on changing the world.
This essay shows some understanding of the original text but lacks a strong thesis to really hook ideas onto. Good Conclusion Child. The writer starts off by saying the author’s argument is that “light pollution is destroying our sleep,” but, by the end, the research format, student is down to “more people can join in on changing the world,” which shows that he’s lost the thread of the argument in an effort to conclusion child use evidence from the text. Although it has a few strong quotes, the explanations tend to drift into vagueness: “big, threatening words;” “Instead, Paul Bogard is a man who ready and willing to solve the problems that lay before him.” (this is an empty platitude and says nothing about the of chicago essay college confidential, text); “our day to day lifes have also been filled with countless arguments of how we are ruining our planet” (filler; off topic to the essay). Additionally, the introduction gives an example of an emotional appeal to which the essay never returns. The writer should avoid giving examples in the introduction; he can list the types of techniques the author uses to do his job but should wait for the body for the examples. In terms of formatting, the student does not need to start a new paragraph before every quotation. Most of the very short introductory paragraphs can lead right into child abuse, the quotes that follow without a paragraph break.
Transitions between the paragraphs need some work; the essay jumps from one idea to the next. The essay could benefit from critical and non-critical thinking, phrases like “in addition,” “another technique the author uses,” or “in the next few paragraphs of the passage.” “Pollution” is misspelled every time. A writer should be extra careful about correct spelling of words used in the prompt. “Themselfs” and “ourselfs” should be “themselves” and “ourselves.” The write should have left time at the end to read over his essay and check for minor errors. READING: 2, ANALYSIS: 2, WRITING: 3. critiques, and grades. Parental Expectations Based on Gender. Abuse. For every 10 Google searches about boys being overweight (Is my son overweight?) there are 17 about girls (Is my daughter overweight?). For every 10 Google searches about life on the mississippi essay daughters being gifted, (Is my daughter gifted?), there are 25 for conclusion child essay boys (Is my son gifted?). This recent study of Internet search data suggests that parents may hold different expectations for essay their children based on child, gender; it appears that parents may be want their girls thinner and their boys smarter. The data on the search is writing services, accurate, but is the explanation?
Do parents hope for different things for their sons and daughters? Read and carefully consider these perspectives. Each suggests a particular way of thinking about parents' expectations of their children. Even though parents are more worried more about their daughters being overweight than their sons, it doesn't mean they want less for their daughters. They just realize that kids can be crueler to girls than boys when it comes to weight. Because teachers are more likely to recognize giftedness in girls than in boys, who can appear to be less studious in school, parents aren't searching about girls.
Boys are often underestimated in the classroom, so parents have to pick up the slack. As a whole, parents hold different standards for their kids based on gender, but it's not done consciously. Since society places so much pressure on girls to be thin and boys to be smart, those stereotypes get absorbed without the parents knowing it. Write a unified, coherent essay in which you evaluate multiple perspectives on parents' expectations for their children based on gender. Conclusion. In your essay, be sure to: analyze and evaluate the perspectives given state and a place develop your own perspective on the issue explain the relationship between your perspective and those given.
Your perspective may be in conclusion child essay, full agreement with any of the others, in partial agreement, or wholly different. Whatever the case, support your ideas with logical reasoning and detailed, persuasive examples. You may wish to consider the following as you think critically about the task: Strengths and weaknesses of the three given perspectives. What insights do they offer, and are essay writing services what do they fail to consider? Why might they be persuasive to others, or why might they fail to persuade? Your own knowledge, experience, and good conclusion abuse values. What is your perspective on this issue, and what are its strengths and weaknesses?
How will you support your perspective in are essay services, your essay? Parents may expect things from their children, depending on their genders. Genders have become stereotyped and it leads people to have expectations for each one of them. Sometimes, parents expect these things so that their child could be happy, but it could make the child upset and feel unwanted. Society can put so much pressure on good, a girl’s weight and a place a boy’s intelligence that parents start to good abuse essay take in these thoughts. The pressure and expectations on a girl’s weight differs from the pressure on boys. Critical Thinking. Parents only expect girls to be thinner to avoid seeing their daughter get bullied. Peers can be more harsh to fat girls than they can be to fat boys. Because of this, parents might force their daughters to excersize more or eat less. These kind of treatments from society and good conclusion abuse essay parents could lead to anorexia or depression, even if the girl may not seem fat. I don’t think anyone should care about the weight of anyone.
People should only pay attention to themselves. Having different expectations about weight, boys have another quality that concerns parents. Seeming less studious in class, parents underestimate their sons and push them to do better. Teachers can see intelligence in essays format, girls because of essay, their behaviour in why university college confidential, class. The stereotype that boys do not behave as well as girls in class leads teachers to think that boys do not seem very smart. Parents could see this too, but they may not consider how the teacher treats their students. Good Conclusion. I think people should not judge someone’s intelligence based on their behaviour. There are many people who are very smart, but they may also like to have a good time. Expecting one’s son to do better in of chicago college confidential, school could lead to stress and anxiety.
It is the stereotypes and pressure from society and peers that adds to the expectations from conclusion abuse, parents. Parents can absorb thoughts from essay describing a place, others without realizing it. Their standards start to hurt the child because of what peers think. Good. The child could develop depression, but the essay, parent would not realize because they are too focused on the standards. Parents should take the time to talk to their child and figure out any problems the child faces.
Parents tend to good conclusion child abuse essay put pressure on their children because of the way society thinks of fat girls and boys who have low grades. Parents want girls to be thin to avoid having the girls hurt, but it only leads to writing more trouble. A boy’s intelligence is pushed by good abuse parents so much and it becomes a bigger problem. These are because of the way one’s peers thinks, and the ideas start to be pushed into other people’s heads. IDEAS AND ANALYSIS: 3. Overall, this essay discusses the issues presented in a fairly simplistic way and does not analyze the issues in depth or put forth the writer’s own viewpoint in sat advice essay, a cohesive way. Good Child Abuse Essay. Each perspective is touched on, but the analysis of the third perspective especially veers off track because it focuses more on discussing one possible repercussion (depression) of pressuring one’s children (both genders) rather than focusing on whether parents hold gender-based expectations. Research Format. The final paragraph doesn’t feel like a conclusion, and the final sentence digresses into talking about peers rather than parents. Stay on good conclusion child abuse essay, message. DEVELOPMENT AND SUPPORT: 3. There is some attempt on the part of the writer to develop his ideas (e.g., that parents’ pressure on children to maintain a healthy weight could lead to of chicago confidential eating disorders or depression, and good child abuse that boys’ seeming less studious is essay describing a place, not necessarily a true indicator of good conclusion abuse, their actual intelligence), but the reasoning is also simplistic at times: e.g., “I don’t think anyone should care about the weight of describing a place, anyone. People should only pay attention to themselves”—this statement is too extreme and doesn’t take into conclusion child abuse essay, account the parental duty of monitoring their child’s health.
The essay uses a five-paragraph structure—an intro, three body paragraphs discussing each of the three perspectives, and a conclusion. Thinking. There is very little attempt to transition between paragraphs or to link or contrast perspectives. Each body paragraph seems to stand alone. There are some grammar errors: a dangling modifier in good child abuse, the 1 st sentence of the 3 rd paragraph, subject/verb agreement error in descriptive a place, last sentence of 3 rd paragraph. Child Abuse Essay. A few typos, but they don’t distract from meaning—here are the correct spellings: behavior, exercise, stereotype. More generally, some word choices could be more precise (“may expect things” and on the mississippi “parents expect these things”—what things?) or more sophisticated (“parents start to take in these thoughts” and “ideas start to be pushed into other people’s heads”). Avoid wordiness. There are too many instances of good conclusion child essay, vague pronouns or pronouns that don’t agree with the antecedent. More sentence variety is needed—too many start with “Parents…” The overall tone of the essay is appropriate. Life On The Essay. I agree with perspective three, parents do hold different standards based on good child, gender, however these standards are subconscious and descriptive essay are more influenced by conclusion abuse essay todays society.
It’s evident in our everyday lives that girls and boys are held to different standards. We see these different standards on magazines, tv, and in everyday interactions. When you pick up a magazine it’s usually a model who has the “perfect body”; the perfect body in todays society is life, someone who is thin and tuned. We also see the standard for boys to be smart in our everyday interactions. Good Child. It’s mainly men who dominate the math and science fields, and why university those two subjects are seen as harder than English and conclusion child abuse social studies.
Also, even though times have changed it’s more common and “acceptable” to have the man at the house be the main provider. To be the main provider you must have the better job, which in theory if you have the better job you are smarter. Parents want the best for their kids so they unconsciously hold their children to different standards based on on the essay, society. As stated above today’s society places great emphasis on girls being thin. From even before your child is born they are already being prejudiced based on their gender. If your expecting a girl you automatically decorated your childs room pink, princesses, ballarinas; a “girly” room. So as your little girl is growing up, she already has expectations if she looks on her walls she will see princesses and abuse ballrinas on her walls, and of course they are all thin; nno has ever seen a “fat” princess or ballarina? So even before they have time to think for themselves they have a preconcived idea about what they should look like. This “perfect image” continues on all throughout their lives; on billboards, magazines, and t.v. all the are essay writing services legit, girls are thin and good conclusion essay pretty. Girls don’t consider all the on the essay, photoshopping that took place in order to produce that image. All they are focused on is what they can do to look like that.
And since parents are influenced by good conclusion child abuse these images they will do whatever they can to facilitate their child “living up” to that image. In parents eyes they are helping that child if she is worried about her weight because if she’s thin she automatically won’t get picked on and will have great self esteem. Just like girls boys are held to different standards too, however these standards vary. Are Essay Writing. Unlike girls, boys are held to higher academic standards. As your son is gowing up he will probably see more men in charge than woman. In America’s society it is still expected that men will be the C.E.O’s at companies, bosses, and the man in charge of the house. So it isn’t a surprise that while raising your child you emphasis these standards. You want your child to be happy and successful.Therefore you will pressure the good conclusion child essay, idea that boys should be smart, and obviously boys should be smarter than girls. This idea is descriptive a place, not done in good child abuse, a cynical way, in fact it’s quiet the opposite. Parents don’t mean to belittle their daughter, or any girl, by assuming their son is smarter, they do it subconsciously to coinside with societies standards.
Boys are expected to excel in essays, the harder subjects in good abuse essay, school, like math and science. All parents just want whats best for their kids so they will pressure their son to do better in school. Before a child is born the parents will place them in descriptive essay a place, appropiate stereotypes, however this is not done consciously. Parents already know societies expectations, so they will subconsciously inforce these stereotypes on the children. Parents are not cynically trying to oppress their children by placing them in sterotypes. Conclusion Essay. Instead they are looking out for life on the mississippi their children. It’s a harsh and critical world in todays society. Child Abuse Essay. So the more your child is conforming the why university of chicago essay confidential, less problems your child will have. No parent wants their child to stand out negatively or get picked on so they see it has in their childs best interest to have them match up with societies expectations. Although the writer addressed point three, she neglected to address points one and two. Failure to conclusion child address all three points will not result in a high scoring essay; the writer must find some way to include the other two points in her argument.
The ACT essay is critical thinking, not simply a persuasive essay but an argumentative essay. The writer should consider how she would argue these points if she were doing an in-class debate. The whole essay is child abuse essay, spent defending why parents adhere to stereotypes. Are there parents who don’t? Why don’t they? Is every girl focused on her looks and uninterested in math and science? Do all mothers stay home?
The writer could improve her analysis and critical thinking and non-critical thinking support scores by broadening her response and thinking about the conclusion, other side of the issue. The essay is organized with a clear introduction and conclusion and sufficient transitions, but it contains many language errors. Comma splices and semicolons need to be reviewed (e.g., the first sentence: “I agree with perspective three, parents do hold different standards based on gender, however these standards are subconscious and sat advice essay are more influenced by todays society.”) as well as possessive apostrophes (“todays society,” “childs room,” or “societies expectations”). “Ballerina” is spelled three different ways and “quiet” was written instead of “quite.” The writer should leave time to reread her essay and check for good conclusion child these small errors. IDEAS AND ANALYSIS: 3. DEVELOPMENT AND SUPPORT: 3. Essay Prompts used with the permission of research format, Summit Educational Group, College Prep Tips, Study Hints, Education News for the Parents and Students in the Philadelphia Area. Sign up to receive weekly article updates . Improve your odds of a better SAT or ACT score today! Find out more about good child essay our test prep and skill builder programs. To reserve your personal tutor, contact us today!
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The Causes and Effects of Child Abuse
Essay, Research Paper: Mel Brooks As Jewish Comedian. impossible to dispute. The question is whether or not his comedy is atypical. Satirizing Jewish history and klutzy old Jewish men is normal for Jewish comedy. However, Don't be stupid, be a smarty, come and join the Nazi party, is something that you would not expect to hear in typical Jewish comedy (The. Producers). Defined broadly, there are two forms which Mel Brooks's Jewish humor. takes. Child Abuse! The first form is to discuss specifically Jewish topics in a funny way. This is evident in The Producers and in the Inquisition scene from History of. the World, Part I. The other form is to use certain aspects of Judaism for.
comedic value. This form, is typically used by essays format, Brooks' as a means for good conclusion child abuse essay, a quick. laugh as opposed to why university essay college confidential a major source of good conclusion child essay plot definition, and is most apparent in. such scenes as that with the Yiddish-speaking Indian in on the essay Blazing Saddles. While. exploring Brooks's types of Jewish humor, this paper will limit its scope. Abuse Essay! Only.
four of Brooks's films will be discussed in this paper-The Producers, Blazing. Saddles, History of the World, Part I, and To Be or Not To Be. These films were. chosen because the essays format quantity of Jewish content in all of conclusion child them is life on the mississippi, considerably. more than in his other films such as Young Frankenstein or Silent Movie. The. four films chosen do an excellent job of portraying the complete range of the. types of Jewish-related humor, which Brooks uses.
To understand Mel Brooks. identity as a specifically Jewish comedian it is conclusion abuse, important to understand how. Jewish he actually was. Melvin Kaminsky was born as the youngest of four. brothers in critical thinking and non-critical thinking a crowded New York City apartment to Kitty and Max Kaminsky. Good Conclusion Child Abuse Essay! He grew. up in a very Jewish area were on Saturdays, the shops were closed, the. pushcarts parked, and Yiddish replaced with Hebrew in over seventy orthodox. synagogues. However, Brooks himself spent his Saturdays enjoying matinees. at the Marcy Theater.
He married a non-Jewish woman and thinking and non-critical thinking, allowed his son, Max, to. be baptized only as long as he was allowed to have a bar-mitzvah. When asked by. the media if he wanted his wife to convert he replied She don't have to. convert. Good Abuse Essay! She a star! (Yacowar 10-14).
Before discussing the films, it is. crucial to identify a recurring theme in Brooks's work-Germans and, more. specifically, Nazis. He had a brief military career in World War II with very. little combat experience, and sat advice, he actually ended up being the conclusion essay entertainment. coordinator for the army. Yacowar analyzes Brooks' later feelings towards.
Germans as subconscious frustration because of his inability to. actually fight the Nazis (Yacowar 17). In an interview he was asked about his. obsession with Germans, and he replied: Me not like Germans? Why should I not. like Germans? Just because they're arrogant and have fat necks and do anything. they're told as long as it is cruel, and killed millions of Jews in. concentration camps and made soap out of sat advice their bodies and lamp shades out abuse, of. their skins? Is that any reason to hate their f-king guts? (Yacowar 32) Brooks.
has mocked Germans in various works such as in essay Your Show of Shows and on the. Carl Reiner and good conclusion child, Mel Brooks at writing legit the Cannes film festival audio recording. Regardless, of the origin of his interest with Nazis, if one looks at enough of. his work, one cannot help but notice that this theme is an obsession for good child, Brooks. (Yacowar 34-35, 48). Mel Brooks made his first feature film, The Producers, in. 1967. It is about a Jewish Broadway producer (Max Bialystock) who convinces his.
Jewish accountant (Leo Bloom) to research format finance a guaranteed to essay fail play with the idea. that they would take the profits and why university of chicago college confidential, run to conclusion abuse South America. The guaranteed to. fail play, Springtime for Hitler turned out to and non-critical thinking be a huge success. The two main characters both represent completely different Jewish stereotypes. and the third area of Jewish interest in the film is the role of good conclusion Germans both in. the play and the ex-Nazi author, Frank Liebkind (Altman 39). Max Bialystock. (played by Zero Mostel) is life on the essay, obviously not a first generation American because of. his name and his accent. Although he never does anything specifically Jewish, he.
is still Jewish so it is good conclusion essay, relevant to look at critical and non-critical his relationship to Jewish. stereotypes. In his book, Telushkin discusses the tradition of having big and. lavish bar mitzvahs, he say's that the Jewish tradition has few curbs to. halt such excesses(74). It is interesting to see how Bialystock chooses to. live in almost poverty. Although he is so poor that he say's Look at me. now-I'm wearing a cardboard belt, he also wears a reasonably nice jacket, has a leather coach, and keeps every old lady's picture in a decent frame. Later.
in the film, when he gets a lot of money, he spends it on a chauffeured car, a. sexy secretary, lavish offices and new clothes, rather then spending it on new. office equipment or investing it for essay, future financial security (Telushkin 83). Leo Bloom, the accountant (played by Gene Wilder), represents the opposite. stereotype from Bialystock. He represents the meek Jew, the Jew-as-doormat. In. the beginning of the movie, he walks in on on the mississippi Max trying to get some money from an. investor (he catches them lying on top of each other) and good conclusion, is so surprised and in.
shock that he has to descriptive describing a place be told to say oops (The Producers). This fits. right into the stereotype of Jews as remorseful and ashamed of their. sexual desires (The Poducers). Bialystock fulfills the other stereotype of. Jewish men who have been portrayed as sex-hungry animals in many. jokes. Blooms choice of career is also known as a Jewish career.
In the end, he, like Bialystock, ends up fulfilling one of the most basic stereotypes of Jews-he. gives in to his greed (Telushkin 93). Good Conclusion Essay! There are also many small Jewish. references in the film. Research! There is an ignorant, and very gay, director named Roger.
DeBris, who directs Springtime for Hitler and has a familiar Yiddish. term in his name (Telushkin 86-87). Also, in the beginning of the movie. Bialystock has a funny dialogue with his landlord and it is the only part of the. movie in good child abuse which religion is involved.
Bialystock: Murderer, thief, how can you. take the last penny out of a poor man's pocket? Landlord: I have to, I'm a. landlord. And Non-critical Thinking! Bialystock: Oh lord, hear my plea: Destroy him, he maketh a blight on. the land. Landlord: Don't listen to him-he's crazy (The Producers). When one. hears the conversation, with the Landlord speaking in a Jewish accent and. Bialystock calling out at the heavens, sounding like an child, abused Jewish mother, it. is a lot funnier and the Jewish element is a lot clearer as well. Brooks' message in this movie has been largely debated.
Lester D. Freidman thinks, Bialystock and essay, Bloom fail to find their flop because they underestimate. their audience's deadened sensibilities (173). Conclusion Child Abuse Essay! Brooks is trying to point. out that the why university essay shock and horror that everyone should view the holocaust in, is. mainly a Jewish mindset. In the movie, he made two perfect Jews, and good child, their. perfection caused them two have a mindset that was different from the rest of. the American public. Therefore, the critical thinking and non-critical thinking movie is about more than a pair of child abuse essay corrupt. showmen.
It is about the segregation of Jews. Bailystock and Bloom are not yet. Americans, they still carry a separate identity. In 1974, Brooks came out with. Blazing Saddles which is much less Jewish than The Producers. The movie is about. a town with a corrupt Attorney General who wants take over the town. The. townspeople get the governor to send a new sheriff to restore order. He sends.
Sheriff Bart who is a black man with Gucci saddlebags on his horse. Descriptive Essay Describing A Place! The. townspeople end up working with the child abuse new Sheriff to defeat Hedley Lamarr (the. attorney general) and descriptive essay a place, his band of child abuse essay hooligans. Jewish topics are in the film as. occasional funny parts and not as major parts of the sat advice plot. The funniest and most. recognizable part of the movie where Judaism is involved is Sheriff Bart's. recollection of conclusion essay how his family got to the west. According to the Sheriff, strange Indians attacked their wagon. Brooks, who plays the Indian chief, allows.
Bart and his family to go, he tells his tribe, Zeit nishe meshugge. Loz em. gaien. Life On The Essay! Abee gezint. Which basically means, take off. Some feel this. is Brooks trying to good child abuse get some cheap laughs by using Yiddish, but Friedman points. out that it is comically appropriate that the West's most conspicuous. outsider, the Indian, should speak in the tongue of history's traditional.
outsider, the why university of chicago confidential Jew (77). Other than this reference, Blazing Saddles use of. Judaism is conclusion abuse, really little more than an sat advice essay, occasional punch line. When Hedley Lamarr. is looking for a way to get the citizens of Rock Ridge to leave, his associate. recommends killing the first-born male child in every family, to which Lamarr.
replies-too Jewish (Blazing Saddles). When Mongo (a gigantic. ruffian) comes into the saloon, someone in good the background says Gottenew (Oh God!), another Yiddish term (Yacowar 110). Sat Advice! Not surprisingly, Mel Brooks. finds a way to squeeze Germans into a movie set in the late 19th Century's Wild. West. In the good abuse essay finale of the services legit movie, Lamarr recruits an army of lowlifes. In the.
army there is a small group of German soldiers who spend much of the fistfight. sitting with a Ms. Lily von Shtupp (a not so talented lounge singer) singing the. same war song heard in The Producers (Blazing Saddles). Finally, the Indian on. many movie promotional materials (including the video cover) has the Hebrew for. kosher for conclusion, Passover inscribed in why university of chicago essay college his headband. Strangely enough, these relatively small Jewish references got the attention of the Jewish Film. Advisory Committee, whose director, Allen Rivkin, spoke to a writer about the. offensiveness of the Jewish material. The writer's response was, Dad, get.
with it. This is another century(Doneson 128) Blazing Saddles is a movie. of the second type identified. It does not deal with specifically Jewish topics. It does, however, use Jewish topics as a way of forwarding the plot and the.
comedy. Whether the critics were right that Brooks was just using Yiddish. because he found it funny, or if he was using it because he wanted to good conclusion child abuse make a. point about racism and exclusion, what is most important is that he actually. used Yiddish, instead of something more expected (Yacowar 110). 1981's History. of the World, Part I, falls somewhere between The Producers and Blazing Saddles. in its level of Jewish content (Freidman 236). The movie, is basically, a quick. tour through history going from the discovery of fire to the French Revolution. Within the movie, there are two skits that are specifically of Jewish interest. (Moses on Mount Sinai and a place, the Spanish Inquisition.) In the Old.
Testament, God identifies himself as the Lord, and asks Moses if he can. hear Him. Mel Brooks, in a robe and white beard say's Yes. I hear you. I. hear you. A deaf man could hear you. When Moses tells the people of the. new laws, he says, The Lord, the good conclusion abuse Lord Jehovah has given onto these 15. [crash] 10, 10 Commandments for all to obey. Although Moses obviously had. to be Jewish, one wonders why he had to be so klutzy a comic.
In Rome, Gregory. Hines, playing Josephus, a slave who is not sold in the auction, attempts to descriptive essay a place get. out of being sent to the Coliseum where he would be lion food. His excuse is. that the lions only eat Christians, Christians, and I am a Jew-Jewish. person. To prove this, he starts singing Havah Negilah and. gets the entire crowd to join him. Abuse Essay! He even tells the slave trader to essay call Sammus.
Davis Jr. (after calling the temple and the rabbi). Eventually, the trader looks. down his pants, to prove he is conclusion essay, not Jewish (History of the World, Part I). Empress Nympho, Caesar's wife, is a strange cross between a J.A.P. and a sex. maniac. She has a classic Jewish mother accent and uses Yiddish. occasionally-We'll shlep him along, for example.
Towards the end of. the movie, Brooks calls a courtier of Louis XVI a petite putz (History of the World, Part I). This is obviously a strange place to life hear. Yiddish, unless the intent is comic effect. Good Conclusion Child Abuse! Finally, though, the most. outrageous scene, and services, the one that some Jews have found quite. objectionable is the one about the Spanish Inquisition. It should be noted. that Brooks's portrayal of the Inquisition as being directed against Jews is. historically inaccurate. It was really directed against child essay heretical Christians.
Because of critical and non-critical thinking this inaccuracy, it is safe to assume that Brooks wanted to put this. scene in conclusion child abuse essay as a Jewish note into his film, as he did with the confidential other films. discussed. The Inquisition scene is filmed in a medieval dungeon. It starts by. introducing the good conclusion child abuse Grand Inquisitor Torquemada (Mel Brooks) with Torquemada-do. not implore him for compassion. Essay! Torquemada-do not beg him for. forgiveness.
Let's face it, you can't Torquemada [talk him outta] anything, then the good child abuse music starts. One of the lines in and non-critical the song is A. fact you're ignoring, it's better to lose your skullcap with your skull, which is emphasized by conclusion child essay, two old Jewish men in stocks singing oy oy gevalt. After a few descriptions of the actual torture which individual Jews suffered, he points out that nothing is mississippi, working, send in the nuns. The nuns. perform a synchronized swimming routine in which Jews are sent down a chute into. a pool to be dragged under by conclusion abuse, nuns. At the end of the scene, seven nuns are. standing on a menorah with sparklers on their heads, while the chorus, led by. Torquemada, sings, Come on you Moslems and you Jews.
We've got big news. for all of youse. You'd better change your points of views today. Cause the. Inquisition's here, and it's here to stay. When Brooks was criticized for. this scene he replied: Nothing can burst the balloon of pomposity and.
dictatorial splendor better than comedy. In a sense, my comedy is serious, and. I need a serious background to play against. Poking fun at descriptive essay describing a place the Grand. Inquisitor, Torquemada, is a wonderful counterpart to the horrors he committed.
(Friedman 236). Good Conclusion Child Abuse! This would make History of the World, Part I comparable to The. Producers in essay a place its satire of Hitler, and makes Blazing Saddles also comparable. through its satirical treatment of racism. If one still thought that Brooks made. History of the World, Part I with only good intentions, one should also consider. the treatment of Jews and Germans in good abuse essay the ending of the film. The promo for.
History of the World, Part II includes scenes such as Hitler on Ice, and Jews in Space, in sat advice which Jews are in a space craft singing We're Jews out in conclusion space. We're zooming along protecting the Hebrew race. When. Goyim attacks us, we'll give em a slap. We'll smack em right back in the. face. It definitely seems that History of the World, Part I is a. combination, (just as the others movies discussed are) of exploitation for easy. laughs and of exposing the sat advice evils of the tyrants who have tormented the Jews.
throughout history. In To Be or Not To Be, Mel Brooks plays Fredrick Bronski, the head actor in a Polish stage revue, around the child time of the Nazi annexation. of Poland. Life Mississippi! His wife, Anna Bronski (Anna Bancroft) falls in love with an Air. Force lieutenant working in good child abuse the Polish platoon of the RAF. The main focus of the. movie is how they make fun of, get around, outwit, and ultimately escape the.
Nazis. This movie is actually a remake of an older film, but it still has a. distinctively Mel Brooks feel. Research! The main target of Brooks's satire is the head of. the Gestapo, Colonel Erhardt (Charles Durning) who is a babbling fool. For. example, when on the phone, he say's What?
Why? Where When? When in doubt, arrest them, arrest them, arrest them! Then shoot them and interrogate them. [pause] Oh you are right, just shoot them. Soon after this, he is good, led to. believe that the shoot first policy led to the deaths of two useful figures and. after asking what idiot formed the policy, he got mad at Shultz, his assistant, for reminding him that he made the policy. Later on, he has this exchange with.
Shultz: Erhardt: What idiot gave the order to close the Bronski's theater? Schultz: You did, sir. Erhardt: Open it up immediately. And once and for all. stop blaming everything that goes wrong on me (To Be or Not To Be). After being.
warned to stop making jokes about sat advice essay Hitler, Erhardt promises, No. Never, never, never again, [emphasis added] strange words to child abuse essay hear from life mississippi, a nazi. Although this movie is not about Jews, there are a few Jewish characters and. encounters. Bronski hides a Jewish family in his theater's cellar and good conclusion abuse essay, during the. course of the movie, they're number increases. At one point, the intelligence.
agent goes to the theater to find his lover, Bronski's wife. The Jewish women. hiding there tells him You know that big house on descriptive essay Posen Street? Well don't. go there, it's Gestapo headquarters, before actually telling where she was. staying (To Be or Not To Be). At the end of the movie, they dress up all the. Jews hiding in good conclusion abuse essay the cellar (closer to 20 than the 3 who originally hid out in the. cellar) as clowns to have them run through the aisle (in the middle of a. performance for Hitler) to a truck to safety. One old lady panics in the aisle, surrounded by Nazis. To save the old lady, another clown runs up to them and.
pins an oversized yellow star, yelling Juden!, this causes an. enormous laughter from the describing Nazi audience. To stall the child abuse Gestapo, Brooks dresses. up as Hitler, and listens to a Jewish actor perform the Hath not a Jew. eyes speech from descriptive essay describing, Merchant of good conclusion abuse essay Venice. To Be or Not To Be appears to be. Brooks's final way of coping with his lack of combat in WWII. While he has The. Producers make a play in describing which they portray the Nazis comically, the ultimate. message is that the two Jews in the movie still find them to be patently.
offensive, and therefore, worthy of some form of respect. In To Be or Not To Be. he makes the Nazis into purely comical characters, and good child abuse essay, this is a step further. than Brooks went in The Producers. However, this simply may be because at sat advice the. point of To Be or Not To Be, Brooks was well into his career as an established. moviemaker, so he had more freedom to be offensive. Unfortunately, To Be or Not.
To Be ended the golden age of good child Mel Brooks movies, at essay least from a specifically. Jewish point-of-view. His later films make only small mentions of good conclusion child Jewish topics. An example of this is Spaceballs, a parody of Star Wars where the main. characters have to why university of chicago college confidential save a princess from Planet Druidia (Funny, she doesn't. look Druish) from the evil Dark Helmet (Rick Moranis) (Spaceballs). The.
only Jewish reference in the movie were playing off the theme of the Druish. princess and a short scene with Mel Brooks as Yogurt, a reinterpretation of Yoda. as an old, Jewish man. Brooks also renamed the Force from Star Wars. to something more ethnic-the Schwartz.
Although these Jewish. references may be equal to the Yiddish-speaking Indian in Blazing Saddles, it is. too big of a stretch to link a deeper meaning to them as can be done in good his. earlier films. In the Big Book of Jewish Humor, Jewish humor is defined as. having these five qualities: 1. It is substantive in that it is essay describing a place, about some. larger topic.
2. It, in many cases, has a point-the appropriate response. is not laughter, but rather a bitter nod or a commiserating sign of. recognition. 3. It is anti-authoritarian, in that it. ridicules grandiosity and self-indulgence, exposes hypocrisy, and. is strongly. democratic.
4. It frequently has a critical edge which creates. discomfort in making its point. 5. It is unsparing-it satirizes anyone and. everyone (Novak and Waldoks xx-xxii). Abuse Essay! Telushkin's definition of a Jewish joke is.
much simpler. He say's it must express a Jewish sensibility (16). To. Bernard Saper, a uniquely Jewish joke must contain incongruity, a sudden. twist of unexpected elements (76). Christie Davies, points out that. people such as Jews, who belong to a minority or peripheral ethnic groups tell.
jokes both about the majority group and about their own group, and descriptive essay describing, they may tell. more ethnic jokes about their own group (and find them funnier) than about the. majority(29-30). Are the four films discussed within these definitions? Brooks' movies definitely fit the Telushkin test of expressing Jewish. sensibility, weather it is through how he attacks the Nazis or the abuse essay random. Yiddish expressions that he uses. A lot of descriptive essay describing Brooks' humor is also incongruous. For example, having a Nazi say never again, fulfills Saper's. requirement. Child Abuse Essay! Brooks' films have a lot of ethnic jokes in them, which deal with.
Jews or Jewish topics. Brooks probably put these jokes in his movies because he. found them funny, therefore fulfilling the why university essay college confidential Davies test. The definition in The. Big Book of conclusion child Jewish Humor is harder to fit because it is in and non-critical thinking greater detail. However, the films that were discussed fit them well. Many of conclusion child Brooks's films are. substantive in essay that he deals with racism and Anti-Semitism in almost all of his. movies.
The point of his films may not be so sharp that when people see them. they automatically feel bitterness toward someone, but his movies are definently. not pure slapstick which fulfills the second part of the definition. Brooks. never attacked Jewish leadership but his films are anti-authoritarian because he.
clearly attacks government officials such as the Nazis and good child abuse essay, the Grand Inquisitor. Since there is constant controversy about Brooks' films there is always. potential for discomfort to arise. Finally, Brooks leaves out nobody from his. satire-Nazis, cowboys, and 15th century Spanish Jews are all satirized and made.
fun of in these films. Even though some of and non-critical his scenes or individual jokes are. not typical Jewish humor, he is a Jewish comedian who, most importantly, makes. Jewish jokes. Brooks's movies represent the classical paradox in good essay Jewish humor. and Jewish experience between: first, the legitimate pride that Jews have taken. in their distinctive and learned religious and ethical tradition and in why university of chicago the. remarkable intellectual eminence and entrepreneurial and professional. achievement of conclusion individual members of their community, and second, the. anti-Semitic abuse and denigration from hostile outsiders whose malice was.
fueled by Jewish autonomy and achievement (Davies 42-43). The greatest lesson. that Brooks has to are essay writing teach American Jews of today is the expansion of our. boundaries. Through his use of Jewish humor to topics which where previously. considered off-limits, he allows his viewers to cope with painful parts of.
history which they may not have been able to cope with in the past. Brooks. describes his role as a comedian by saying, for every ten Jews beating. their breasts, God designated one to be crazy and amuse the breast beaters. Good Conclusion! By.
the time I was five I knew I was that one (Friedman 171-172). Why University College! He explains. that his comedy derives from the feeling that, as a Jew and as a person, you don't fit the mainstream of conclusion abuse American society. It comes from the legit realization. that even though you're better and smarter, you'll never belong (Friedman. 172). Mel Brooks's experience is very similar to that of every American Jew, and. his comedy speaks uniquely to the American Jew. So, even Brooks's most offensive. work is rooted deeply within both typical Jewish Humor and the modern Jewish. experience.
The greatest lesson that Brooks has to teach American Jews of today. is the expansion of our boundaries. Through his use of Jewish humor to topics. which where previously considered off-limits, he allows his viewers to cope with. painful parts of history which they may not have been able to cope with in the. past. Brooks describes his role as a comedian by saying, for every ten. Jews beating their breasts, God designated one to be crazy and amuse the breast. beaters.
By the time I was five I knew I was that one (Friedman 171-172). He explains that his comedy derives from the feeling that, as a Jew and child, as. a person, you don't fit the mainstream of American society. It comes from the. realization that even though you're better and smarter, you'll never. belong (Friedman 172). Mel Brooks's experience is on the mississippi, very similar to that of. every American Jew, and his comedy speaks uniquely to the American Jew. So, even. Brooks's most offensive work is rooted deeply within both typical Jewish Humor.
and the modern Jewish experience. Altman, Sig. The Comic Image of the Jew. Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson. UP, 1971. Good Child Abuse Essay! Blazing Saddles. Sat Advice Essay! Dir. Mel Brooks. With Gene Wilder and Cleavon Little.
Warner Brothers, 1974. Davies, Christie. Exploring the Thesis of theSelf-Deprecating. Jewish Sense Of Humor. Semites and Stereotypes: Characterisitics of Jewish. Humor. Eds.
Avner Ziv and Anat Zajdman. Good Conclusion Child Essay! Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993. 29-46. Doneson, Judith E. Essay! The Holocaust in American Film. Philadelphia: Jewish. Publication Society, 1987. Friedman, Lester D. The Jewish Image in American.
Film. Secaucus, NJ: Citadel Press, 1987. Abuse Essay! History of the World, Part I. Dir. Mel. Brooks. With Mel Brooks and Madeline Kahn.Brooksfilms/Twentieth Century Fox, 1981. Internet Movie Database. On the of chicago essay World Wide Web at child http://www.msstate.edu/movies. (Used for cast listings of films) Novak, William and Moshe Waldoks, eds.
The Big. Book of Jewish Humor. New York: HarperPerennial, 1990. Critical Thinking And Non-critical! The Producers. Dir. Mel. Brooks. With Gene Wilder and Zero Mostel. Avco Embassy, 1968. Saper, Bernard. Since When Is Jewish Humor Not Anti-Semitic.
Semites and. Stereotypes: Characteristics of Jewish Humor. Eds. Avner Ziv and child abuse, Anat Zajdman. Westport, CT: Greewood Press, 1993. Essay Describing A Place! SpaceBalls. Dir. Good Conclusion Essay! Mel Brooks. With Mel.
Brooks, John Candy and sat advice essay, Rick Moranis. MGM, 1987. Telushkin, Rabbi Joseph. Jewish. Humor: What the Best Jewish Jokes Say About the Jews. New York: William Morrow. and Co, 1992. To Be or Not To Be. Dir. Alan Johnson. With Mel Brooks and Anne.
Bancroft. Brooksfilms/Twentieth Century Fox, 1983. Yacowar, Maurice. Method in. Madness: The Comic Art of Mel Brooks. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1981. Help other users to find the good and worthy free term papers and trash the bad ones. Get a Custom Paper on Literature: Frankenstein:
Free papers will not meet the guidelines of your specific project. If you need a custom essay on Literature: Frankenstein: , we can write you a high quality authentic essay. Child Abuse Essay! While free essays can be traced by Turnitin (plagiarism detection program), our custom written papers will pass any plagiarism test, guaranteed. Our writing service will save you time and research essays, grade.
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Personal essay sentence starters for persuasive essays
essay lise meitner Lise Meitner (1878-1968) helped to develop the theory behind nuclear fission, and became the good abuse first woman professor in Germany. The prototypical female scientist of the early twentieth century was a woman devoted to her work, sacrificing family and writing services legit, personal relationships in good child essay favor of science; modestly brilliant; generous; and underrecognized. In many ways Austrian-born physicist Lise Meitner embodies that image. In 1938, along with her nephew Otto Robert Frisch, Meitner developed the theory behind nuclear fission that would eventually make possible the creation of the thinking and non-critical atomic bomb. She and lifelong collaborator Otto Hahn made several other key contributions to the field of nuclear physics. Although Hahn received the good conclusion essay Nobel Prize in 1944, Meitner did not share the honor—one of the more frequently cited examples of the sexism rife in the scientific community in the first half of this century. Elise Meitner was born November 7, 1878 to an affluent Vienna family.
Her father Philipp was a lawyer and her mother Hedwig travelled in the same Vienna intellectual circles as Sigmund Freud. From the early years of her life, Meitner gained experience that would later be invaluable in combatting—or overlooking—the slights she received as a woman in a field dominated by men. Are Essay Services Legit! The third of eight children, she expressed interest in pursuing a scientific career, but her practical father made her attend the Elevated High School for Girls in Vienna to earn a diploma that would enable her to teach French—a much more sensible career for a woman. Child Essay! After completing this program, Meitner's desire to become a scientist was greater than ever. In 1899, she began studying with a local tutor who prepped students for the difficult university entrance exam.
She worked so hard that she successfully prepared for the test in two years rather than the average four. Shortly before she turned twenty three, Meitner became one of the few women students at the University of Vienna. At the beginning of her university career in 1901, Meitner could not decide between physics or mathematics; later, inspired by her physics teacher Ludwig Boltzmann, she opted for the latter. In 1906, after becoming the second woman ever to sat advice, earn a Ph.D. in good child physics from the University of Vienna, she decided to research essays format, stay on in Boltzmann's laboratory as an conclusion essay, assistant to his assistant. This was hardly a typical career path for a recent doctorate, but Meitner had no other offers, as universities at the time did not hire women faculty.
Less than a year after Meitner entered the professor's lab, Boltzmann committed suicide, leaving the future of the sat advice essay research team uncertain. In an effort to recruit the noted physicist Max Planck to conclusion abuse essay, take Boltzmann's place, the university invited him to come visit the lab. Although Planck refused the offer, he met Meitner during the visit and talked with her about quantum physics and radiation research. Inspired by this conversation, Meitner left Vienna in the winter of 1907 to go to life on the mississippi, the Institute for Experimental Physics in Berlin to study with Planck. Soon after her arrival in Berlin, Meitner met a young chemist named Otto Hahn at one of the weekly symposia. Hahn worked at Berlin's Chemical Institute under the good child abuse essay supervision of Emil Fischer, surrounded by organic chemists—none of whom shared his research interests in of chicago essay confidential radiochemistry. Four months older than Hahn, Meitner was not only intrigued by abuse essay, the same research problems but had the training in physics that Hahn lacked. Unfortunately, Hahn's supervisor balked at the idea of allowing a woman researcher to enter the on the mississippi essay all-male Chemical Institute.
Finally, Fischer allowed Meitner and Hahn to abuse essay, set up a laboratory in a converted woodworking shop in the Institute's basement, as long as Meitner agreed never to why university of chicago essay college confidential, enter the higher floors of the building. This incident was neither the first nor the conclusion child abuse essay last experience of sexism that Meitner encountered in her career. According to one famous anecdote, she was solicited to write an article by an encyclopedia editor who had read an article she wrote on the physical aspects of radioactivity. When she answered the letter addressed to Herr Meitner and essay, explained she was a woman, the editor wrote back to retract his request, saying he would never publish the work of a woman. Even in her collaboration with Hahn, Meitner at conclusion child abuse, times conformed to gender roles. When British physicist Sir Ernest Rutherford visited their Berlin laboratory on his way back from the Nobel ceremonies in life 1908, Meitner spent the day shopping with his wife Mary while the good abuse two men talked about their work. Within her first year at the Institute, the school opened its classes to women, and Meitner was allowed to roam the building. For the most part, however, the early days of the collaboration between Hahn and Meitner were filled with their investigations into the behavior of beta rays as they passed through aluminum. By today's standards, the laboratory in which they worked would be appalling. College! Hahn and Meitner frequently suffered from headaches brought on by their adverse working conditions. In 1912 when the Kaiser-Wilhelm Institute was built in the nearby suburb of Dahlem, Hahn received an appointment in the small radioactivity department there and invited Meitner to join him in his laboratory.
Soon thereafter, Planck asked Meitner to lecture as an assistant professor at the Institute for Theoretical Physics. The first woman in Germany to hold such a position, Meitner drew several members of the good conclusion child abuse essay news media to research, her opening lecture. When World War I started in 1914, Meitner interrupted her laboratory work to volunteer as an X-ray technician in the Austrian army. Hahn entered the German military. The two scientists arranged their leaves to coincide and good conclusion abuse, throughout the war returned periodically to Dahlem where they continued trying to discover the precursor of the element actinium. By the end of the war, they announced that they had found this elusive element and college, named it protactinium, the missing link on the periodic table between thorium (previously number 90) and uranium (number 91). A few years later Meitner received the Leibniz Medal from the Berlin Academic of conclusion essay, Science and the Leibniz Prize from the essay a place Austrian Academy of Science for this work. Shortly after she helped discover protactinium in 1917, Meitner accepted the conclusion child essay job of establishing a radioactive physics department at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute. Hahn remained in the chemistry department, and the two ceased working together to concentrate on why university college research more suited to their individual training.
For Meitner, this constituted a return to beta radiation studies. Throughout the 1920s, Meitner continued her work in good conclusion essay beta radiation, winning several prizes. In 1928, the Association to Aid Women in Science upgraded its Ellen Richards Prize—billing it as a Nobel Prize for women—and named Meitner and chemist Pauline Ramart-Lucas of the of chicago essay University of Paris its first recipients. In addition to the awards she received, Meitner acquired a reputation in physics circles for some of her personal quirks as well. Years later, her nephew Otto Frisch, also a physicist, would recall that she drank large quantities of strong coffee, embarked on ten mile walks whenever she had free time, and would sometimes indulge in piano duets with him. By middle age, Meitner had also adopted some of the mannerisms stereotypically associated with her male colleagues.
Not the good abuse least of these, Hahn later recalled, was absent-mindedness. On one occasion, a student approached her at a lecture, saying they had met earlier. Research Essays Format! Knowing she had never met the good abuse essay student, Meitner responded earnestly, You probably mistake me for Professor Hahn. Meitner and Hahn resumed their collaboration in 1934, after Enrico Fermi published his seminal article on transuranic uranium. Research Format! The Italian physicist announced that when he bombarded uranium with neutrons, he produced two new elements—number 93 and 94, in a mixture of lighter elements. Meitner and Hahn joined with a young German chemist named Fritz Strassmann to draw up a list of conclusion child essay, all the substances the heaviest natural elements produced when bombarded with neutrons. Why University Essay! In three years, the three confirmed Fermi's result and expanded the good conclusion abuse list to essay, include about ten additional substances that resulted from bombarding these elements with neutrons. Meanwhile, physicists Irene Joliot-Curie and Pavle Savitch announced that they had created a new radioactive substance by bombarding uranium by neutrons. The French team speculated that this new mysterious substance might be thorium, but Meitner, Hahn, and Strassmann could not confirm this finding. No matter how many times they bombarded uranium with neutrons, no thorium resulted.
Hahn and Meitner sent a private letter to the French physicists suggesting that perhaps they had erred. Although Joliot-Curie did not reply directly, a few months later she published a paper retracting her earlier assertions and said the substance she had noted was not thorium. Current events soon took Meitner's mind off these professional squabbles. Although her father, a proponent of cultural assimilation, had all his children baptized, Meitner was Jewish by birth. Because she continued to conclusion essay, maintain her Austrian citizenship, she was at first relatively impervious to the political turmoil in Weimar Germany.
In the sat advice mid-1930s she had been asked to stop lecturing at the university but she continued her research. When Germany annexed Austria in 1938, Meitner became a German citizen and began to look for good abuse essay a research position in an environment hospitable to Jews. Her tentative plans grew urgent in the spring of 1938, when Germany announced that academics could no longer leave the country. Colleagues devised an elaborate scheme to smuggle her out of Germany to critical and non-critical, Stockholm where she had made temporary arrangements to conclusion, work at descriptive, the Institute of the good conclusion Academy of Sciences under the sponsorship of are essay writing legit, a Nobel grant. By late fall, however, Meitner's position in Sweden looked dubious: her grant provided no money for equipment and assistance, and the administration at the Stockholm Institute would offer her no help. Christmas found her depressed and vacationing in a town in the west of Sweden. Back in Germany, Hahn and Strassmann had not let their colleague's departure slow their research efforts. The two read and reread the paper Joliot-Curie had published detailing her research techniques.
Looking it over, they thought they had found an explanation for child abuse Joliot-Curie's confusion: perhaps instead of college confidential, finding one new substance after bombarding uranium, as she had thought, she had actually found two new substances! They repeated her experiments and good conclusion child abuse, indeed found two substances in the final mixture, one of which was barium. This result seemed to critical and non-critical, suggest that bombarding uranium with neutrons led it to split up into a number of smaller elements. Hahn immediately wrote to Meitner to share this perplexing development with her. Good Child Essay! Meitner received his letter on her vacation in the village of Kungalv, as she awaited the arrival of her nephew, Frisch, who was currently working in Copenhagen under the direction of essay, physicist Niels Bohr.
Frisch hoped to discuss a problem in his own work with Meitner, but it was clear soon after they met that the only thing on her mind was Hahn and Strassmann's observation. Meitner and abuse essay, Frisch set off for a walk in the snowy woods—Frisch on skis, with his aunt trotting along—continuing to puzzle out how uranium could possibly yield barium. When they paused for a rest on a log, Meitner began to posit a theory, sketching diagrams in the snow. If, as Bohr had previously suggested, the research format nucleus behaved like a liquid drop, Meitner reasoned that when this drop of a nucleus was bombarded by neutrons, it might elongate and divide itself into two smaller droplets. The forces of electrical repulsion would act to child abuse essay, prevent it from maintaining its circular shape by forming the nucleus into a dumbbell shape that would—as the bombarding forces grew stronger—sever at the middle to essay a place, yield two droplets—two completely different nuclei.
But one problem still remained. When Meitner added together the weights of the resultant products, she found that the sum did not equal the weight of the original uranium. The only place the good abuse essay missing mass could be lost was in energy expended during the reaction. Frisch rushed back to life mississippi essay, Copenhagen, eager to abuse essay, test the revelations from their walk in the woods on his mentor and on the, boss, Bohr. He caught Bohr just as the scientist was leaving for an American tour, but as Bohr listened to conclusion, what Frisch was urgently telling him, he responded: Oh, what idiots we have been.
We could have foreseen it all! This is just as it must be! Buoyed by Bohr's obvious admiration, Frisch and Meitner spent hours on mississippi essay a long-distance telephone writing the paper that would publicize their theory. At the suggestion of a biologist friend, Frisch coined the word fission to child essay, describe the splitting of the nucleus in a process that seemed to him analogous to why university of chicago college confidential, cell division. The paper On the Products of the Fission of Uranium and Thorium appeared in Nature on February 11, 1939. Although it would be another five and good abuse essay, a half years before the American military would successfully explode an atom bomb over Hiroshima, many physicists consider Meitner and Frisch's paper akin to critical thinking and non-critical thinking, opening a Pandora's box of atomic weapons. Physicists were not the conclusion child only ones to services legit, view Meitner as an conclusion child essay, important participant in essays format the harnessing of nuclear energy. After the bomb was dropped in 1944, a radio station asked First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt to conduct a transatlantic interview with Meitner. In this interview, the two women talked extensively about the implications and future of nuclear energy. After the good abuse war, Hahn found himself in life on the one of the more enviable positions for a scientist—the winner of the 1944 Nobel prize in chemistry—although, because of the good conclusion war, Hahn did not accept his prize until two years later.
Although she attended the ceremony, Meitner did not share in the honor. But Meitner's life after the war was not without its plaudits and pleasures. Life Essay! In the early part of 1946, she travelled to good, America to visit her sister—working in services legit the U.S. as a chemist—for the first time in decades. While there, Meitner delivered a lecture series at Catholic University in Washington, D.C. Good Conclusion Child Abuse! In the following years, she won the Max Planck Medal and was awarded numerous honorary degrees from both American and European universities. Descriptive Essay Describing! In 1966 she, Hahn, and Strassmann split the $50,000 Enrico Fermi Award given by good abuse essay, the Atomic Energy Commission. Unfortunately, by this time Meitner had become too ill to travel, so the chairman of the A. E. C. Why University Essay! delivered it to her in Cambridge, England, where she had retired a few years earlier. Meitner died just a few weeks before her 90th birthday on good abuse essay October 27, 1968.
Crawford, Deborah, Lise Meitner, Atomic Pioneer, Crown, 1969. Irving, David, The German Atomic Bomb: The History of life, Nuclear Research in Nazi Germany, Simon Schuster, 1967. Rhodes, Richard, The Making of the good abuse Atom Bomb, Simon Schuster, 1988. Watkins, Sallie, Lise Meitner and are essay writing services, the Beta-ray Energy Controversy: An Historical Perspective, in American Journal of Physics, Volume 51, 1983, pp. Good Child! 551-553.
Watkins, Sallie, Lise Meitner: The Making of a Physicist, in Physics Teacher, January, 1984, pp. 12-15. Words near Lise Meitner in the dictionary. Create and save customized word lists. Sign up today and sat advice, start improving your vocabulary! Please set a username for yourself.
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