Date: 11.8.2017 / Article Rating: 5 / Votes: 474
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Student#8217;s Guide to book report poster Writing Critical Essays in Business Ethics (and beyond) The editors of the Business Ethics Journal Review hope that BEJR provides good examples of how to write a critical essay. Each of the Commentaries we publish is a short critical essay aimed at a single paper published in relation another scholarly journal. In each of the Responses we publish, the book board author whose work was critiqued in one of our Commentaries gets a chance to essay wellington defend or clarify his or her thinking. If you read a Commentary and Response, you will see accomplished scholars (professors and occasionally PhD students) in the field of business ethics applying their expertise. And remember: such scholars got to where they are today not just by being smart, and by book report knowing a lot about business ethics, but by environment essay writing being good at book report, writing clearly and convincingly. You can learn a lot from january 2012 english regents essay, them! Here is some advice for writing critical essays, in business ethics but also in book board other fields.

There is of course much more to say on the topic, but this is a start. Writing your own critical essay: What kinds of criticisms should you offer in your essay? There are a nearly infinite number of errors or problems that you might spot in an essay or book that you want to critique. Here are a few common ones to essay on india and pakistan relation look for, to book report poster board get you started: Point out writing courses, one or more logical fallacies. Report Board? Did the author present a false dilemma, for example?

Or an argument from essay courses wellington, ignorance? Has the author presented a false analogy or a hasty generalization? Critique the scope of the author#8217;s claim. For example, does the book report poster author claim that his or her conclusion applies to all cases, rather than just to the small number of cases he or she has actually argued for? Point out unjustified assumptions. Writing? Has the author made questionable assumptions about board, some matter of fact, without providing evidence? Alternatively, has the research paper thesis author assumed that readers share some questionable ethical starting point, perhaps a belief in a particular debatable principle? Point out internal contradictions.

Does the author say two things that, perhaps subtly, contradict each other? Point out undesirable implications / consequences. Does the author#8217;s position imply, perhaps accidentally, some further conclusion that the book poster author (or audience) is unlikely to want to accept, upon reflection? In general, a good critical essay should: Describe and bisness explain in neutral terms the article or book being critiqued. Before you start offering criticism, you should demonstrate that you understand the point of view you are critiquing. Be modest. Your goal should be to offer some insight, rather than to win a debate. Rather than to #8220;show that Smith is wrong#8221; or #8220;prove that Sen#8217;s view is incorrect,#8221; you should set your aims on some more reasonable goal, such as #8220;casting doubt#8221; on the view you are critiquing, or #8220;suggesting reason why so-and-so should modify her view.#8221; Be fair.

Sometimes this is referred to as the #8220;principle of charity.#8221; It has nothing to book board do with donating money. Rather, it is about giving the other side what you owe them, namely a fair reading. Your goal is not to make the author whose work you are criticizing sound dumb. Rather, the goal is to make her sound smart, but then to make yourself sound smart, too, but showing how her view could be improved. Be well structured . Environment Writing? Professors love structure. Remember: a critical essay is not just a bunch of ideas; it is an orderly attempt to book report board convince someone (in most cases, your professor) of on india and pakistan relation, a particular point of view. Your ideas will only have real punch if you put them in board a suitable structure. That#8217;s not all that hard. For example, make sure your opening paragraph acts as a roadmap for courses, what follows — telling the reader where you#8217;re going and how you propose to get there. Book Report? Make sure each paragraph in the body of your essay has a main point (a point connected to the goal of your essay!) and that its point is clearly explained.

Stick to two or maybe three main arguments . #8220;The three main problems with Jones#8217;s argument are x, y, and regents essay z.#8221; Be clear. That means not just that your essay should be clearly structured, but also that each sentence should be clear. Proof-reading is important: get someone with good writing skills to proof-read your essay for you. If you can#8217;t do that before your deadline, you can proof-read your essay yourself by reading it out loud. We#8217;re serious.

It is much easier to spot errors in your own writing if you read out loud. Book Report Poster? Cite your sources carefully. Use whichever citation method your professor says to use. If in doubt, use one of the on india and pakistan relation established methods (such as APA or Chicago). But whatever you do, make sure to give credit to the people whose ideas you use, if you want to avoid being charged with plagiarism. Use what you#8217;ve learned in report poster board class. Your professor would love nothing more than to know that you#8217;ve been paying attention. So try to make use of some of the concepts discussed in class, or in bisness your course textbook. Don#8217;t try to sound like an author. Just say what you want to say. Trying to sound like an author just leads people to use big words they don#8217;t understand and to write complex sentences that overshoot their grammatical skills.

Just write it more or less the way you would say it out loud, in short, clear sentences. Follow instructions. Failing to follow instructions is report, easily the bisness letter most common way students screw up when writing critical essays. Read the assignment instructions through carefully — twice! — and then if anything is report board, unclear, ask your professor for clarification. This is literature research thesis, a useful resource thanks Chris. Arthur Shacklock (Griffith University Queensland, Australia)

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MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for book poster Writing Research Essays. 0.1) If you’ve been asked to submit a paper in thesis, MLA style, your instructor is asking you to format the page and present the content in a specific way. Just as football referees dress a certain way, and Japanese chefs cook a certain way, writers in book report poster, certain disciplines follow a certain set of conventions. This document will show you how to writing courses, format an report poster essay in MLA style. 0.2) If, instead of questions about essay writing, putting the final formatting touches on your essay, you have questions about book poster board, what to a society essay, write, see instead my handouts on writing a short research paper, coming up with a good thesis statement, and using quotations in book board, the body of writing wellington your paper.

(no comma between the author and page number; commas and periods go outside of inline quotes) Works Cited List. (lots of book report poster board tricky details! sort alphabetically by author, not by the order the quotes appear in your paper) For the most complete information, check your campus library or writing center for the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers , 8th ed. MLA Style Format (First Page) How to format the Works Cited page of an MLA style paper. Your word processor comes with default settings (margin, line height, paragraph spacing, and 2012 regents critical essay, typeface) that will likely need adjustment. For MLA style, you need: 1-inch margins all around 2.0 line height (double-space the whole paper, including title block and Works Cited list) no extra spacing after the title, between paragraphs, or between bibliography items 12-point typeface (usually Times New Roman ) 1.1 Adjusting Document Settings in MS-Word (Windows) My copy of Microsoft Word for Windows defaults to. 1-inch margins all around 1.15 line height 10pt spacing between paragraphs Calibri 11-point typeface. Changing to poster board, MLA Style (Windows)

The default margins in my test run were fine, but if you need to change them: Page Layout - Margins - Normal (1-inch all around) The default line height is too low. Change it to 2.0. CTRL-A (select all your text) Home - Line Spacing - Remove Space After Paragraph Change the typeface to Times New Roman 12-point. Home - Font Face Selector (change to Times New Roman)

1.2 Adjusting Document Settings in MS-Word (Mac) My copy of Microsoft Word for Mac defaults to. 1.25 inch left and right margins, 1 inch top and bottom 1.0 line height no extra spacing after paragraphs Cambria 12-point typeface. In my test run, the left and right margins are too big. To change them: Layout - Margins - Normal (1-inch all around) The default line height is environment essay writing too low. Book Board! Change it to 2.0. Home - Line Spacing - 2.0 My Mac copy of MS-Word does not add extra spaces after paragraphs.

If yours does: Don’t add space between paragraphs of the same style (check this box) - OK The 12-point Cambria will probably be fine, but to essay, change the typeface: Home - Font Face Selector (change to book poster, Times New Roman) In the top right of every page, use your word processor’s “Page Header” function add an automatic page number and your surname. 2.1 Adding the Page Header in MS-Word (Windows) Insert - Page Number - Top of Page - (choose the research paper thesis right-justified “Plain Number” option) The cursor will jump automatically to book report board, the right place for writing courses you to t ype your surname . Click anywhere in the body of the book report poster board paper to exit the header area. 2.2 Adding the essay writing courses Page Header in report poster, MS-Word (Mac)

Insert (in the top menu) - Page Numbers… - (Set “Position” to “Top of Page (header)” and a society essay, “Alignment” to “Right”) Click just to the left of the new page number, and type your surname . On my test document, my name was too far over to report board, the left; grab the triangular tab adjuster just above your name, and drag it a notch to the right . In the 2012 regents lens upper left corner, type your name, your instructor’s name, the course number and book report poster board, section, and today’s date. Centered on the next line, type an informative title that actually informs the reader of your main point (not just “English Paper” or “A Comparison between Hamlet and writing, Macbeth”). Like all the other text in book report board, an MLA style paper, the title block is and pakistan relation double-spaced . The title is in the same font as the rest of the paper — it is not boldface, or enlarged. Book Poster Board! There is essay writing no extra space above or below the title. A truly informative title will include the general topic, and your precise opinion on that topic. (So, if you pan to compare Hamlet and Macbeth, your title should state the unique point you want to make about book, Hamlet and Macbeth. Reuse part of your thesis statement.) This handout presumes you already know why you should cite your sources (to establish your authority, to introduce persuasive evidence, to literature thesis, avoid plagiarism, etc.), These instructions focus on book report board how you format the january regents essay page. (For a resource to report poster, help you determine how to cover letter, cite a specific source, see the MLA Bibliography Builder). To fully cite a source requires two stages. The first happens in the body of your paper (the “in-text citation”) and poster, the second happens on essay courses wellington a separate page at the end of your paper (see “Works Cited List,” below.) 4.1 Citing a Block Quote (more than three lines)

Long quotes can start to look like filler. Book Report! Only use a block quote if you have a very good reason to include the whole passage. Environment Essay Writing! (You can usually make your point with a shorter quote.) If you do have a good reason to quote a passage that is several lines long: Select the book poster text and click the “ Increase Indent ” icon (see image, right). Place the parenthetical citation (the author’s name and the page number) after the period . (This is different from inline quotes, below.) There is no comma between the environment author’s name and the page number. If the quotation runs across more than one page: (Wordsworth-Fuller 20-21) or (Wordsworth-Fuller 420-21). Skip wordy introductions such as, “In his informative guide The Amazing Writing Book , published by Elizabeth Mount College in 2010, the book report board noted composition expert Maxwell Wordsworth-Fuller describes the importance of essay courses wellington citations in book poster, MLA style papers.” Cutting the filler leaves more room to environment essay writing, develop your own original ideas. (See “Integrating Quotations.”) 4.2 Citing an Inline Quotation. When the passage you want to quote is less than three lines long, use inline style. Here we have two brief passages, taken from the book same page of the same source, so we can handle both with a single parenthetical citation. The parenthetical citation appears outside the quoted material. The period that ends the sentence comes after the close parenthesis . Essay On India And Pakistan Relation! (This is report poster board different from block quotes, above.) In this example, we have changed the first word a little, lowercasing it in order to fit it into our own sentence. To let the reader know what we changed, we put [] around it.

Again, note the absence of a full sentence that explains who Wordsworth-Fuller is and where the quote comes from. All that info will be in the Works Cited list, so we leave it out of the body of the essay writing paper. Let’s imagine we want to report poster board, reference Wordsworth-Fuller’s general idea about citation as a way to establish credibility, but we don’t need to environment writing, include any of the technical details. We can save space, and make it much easier on book report board our reader, if we paraphrase: Use paraphrasing for relation variety, or to book report, make a passing reference without taking up much space. If we use an author’s idea, rephrased in january lens essay, our own words, we must still cite the idea. A research paper isn’t a research paper unless you end with full bibliographical details on every source you cited.

This part can be tedious and tricky; leave yourself plenty of book board time to do it. Start a new page . MS-Word Wind: Insert - Page Break - New Page. MS-Word Mac: Document Elements - Break - Page. Title your new page: Works Cited. MLA style calls for no extra spaces above or below the page title; no special formatting. 5.1. How to Create an Individual Works Cited Entry.

Exactly what goes into each item in your bibliography depends on what kind of item it is. January English Regents! The following pages give you some questions to answer, then let you push a button to get an individual works-cited entry. If you prefer a more narrative explanation, see Purdue OWL’s handouts for how to create a bibliography entry for a book, an article in a periodical (such as a journal or newspaper), or an electronic source (such as an email, web page or a YouTube clip). See also this list of other common sources (such as a personal interview or a movie). 5.2. How to book poster board, Organize Your Works Cited list. Sort the english entries alphabetically by the author ‘s last name.

If the author is an organization (such as a government agency or non-profit foundation), alphabetize according to the name of the organization . If you are citing a painting, or a composer, then obviously “author” has to be interpreted a little loosely. Unless your instructor ask you to book report, organize your Works Cited list differently, everything should be alphabetized together, in a single list. MLA does not require that you separate works of different kinds, or that you cite works in the order that they appeared in your paper, or that you write annotations to go along with each item. Use double-spaced line height. (in my copy of Word, I select the essay and pakistan relation text and choose Format - Paragraph - Line spacing - Double - OK.) Use hanging indent paragraph format. (In my copy of word, I select the book report board text then choose Format - Paragraph - Indentation - Special - Hanging Indent.) 29 May 2011 — new document posted, replacing outdated handout written in 1999. 06 Jun 2011 — expanded section on organizing the Works Cited list, since several readers asked for clarification. 07 Jun 2011 — reorganized for emphasis. 19 Apr 2012 — added numbers to more subheads.

30 Nov 2016 — added annotated Works Cited sample image. If your college instructor wants you to cite every fact or opinion you find in an outside source, how do you make room for your own opinion? Paraphrase, quote selectively, and avoid summary.Dennis G. Jerz. MLA Works Cited Citation Builder. 0 thoughts on a society essay “ MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for Writing Research Essays ” I think you should add an book explanation about regents lens, page numbers. Book Board! That was what I was looking for, but I couldn’t find the significant area.

Section 2 explains how to put page numbers in a society essay, the header, and section 4 discusses page numbers in citations. How do you in text cite a website? I didnt really see much about book poster board, that. Very good information, I really needed this incite on research paper formats. It has such thorough details and that make it so much easier to understand. when you say page numbers (Wordworth-Fuller 20), are you referring to the page number within the MLA document or the page number the text appears on within the 2012 english critical lens authors works? That means the quote is from page 20 of the book or article written by Wordsworth-Fuller. Thank you for valuable information. Before my college year in America I didn’t know what MLA Format was, but with this delicate information I will survive my college year. Thank you for useful information about report poster, how to write MLA format essay.

Before my college year I didn’t know there were many different forms of essay. When my professor asked me to essay on india relation, write MLA format I had no idea how to write it, but with your delicate information I think I will survive my college year. Thank you again. I’m glad to know you found this page helpful. Most instructors will be happy to help if you stop by report poster board during their office hours, and if your prof is environment too busy for that most universities will have a writing center where you can get help at any stage of any assignment involving writing.

With your delicate information about to write MLA format essay in right way will lead me to successful college year. when you say page numbers (Wordworth-Fuller 20), are you referring to the page number within the MLA document or the page number the report board text appears on writing within the authors works? In this case, your paper would be referring to something you found on report page 20 of the text by 2012 regents lens Wordsworth-Fuller. i think you should add an explanation about page header. that was what i was looking for. Is the Table of Contents double spaced – MLA? “@pretti_slimm: @Thyler_Jonzy http://t.co/QIf00vlgws try this site looks helpful”I just found a sample paper on Google. Im in middle school and I have to do this.

I have never heard of MLA Format and this helped ALOT. Thanks so much! Hopefully I get a good grade on this paper! I really find this useful (especially fudging the line spacing to 2.1). Good job! Can you put what information is supposed to be in each paragraph. Emma, I’m afraid I don’t understand the question. I feel like you’ve asked me what emotions are supposed to be in each verse of a song, or what colors are supposed to be in a painting. There are many different kinds of songs and report poster board, paintings, created for different reasons; likewise, there are many different kinds of bisness letter paragraphs, written for different reasons. that was beautiful.

I am writing to request permission to link your webpage, “MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for Writing Research Essays” to our website. Lansdale School of Business. I am glad you found this page helpful. Yes, you are welcome to include a link and a brief extract. Thank you so much!! I love the Bib builder!!

I’m glad to report poster, hear you found it helpful! RT @DennisJerz: MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for Writing Research Essays #mlastyle http://t.co/B6pGb3Pkeh. How do you add footnotes to an MLA style paper? Most word processors will have an Insert - Footnote or Insert - Note (footnote or endnote) option. Most short college papers don’t need footnotes. (They aren’t for documenting sources — use an in-text citation and a Works Cited list instead.) I suggest you talk to bisness, your instructor about whether you really do need to use a footnote. When using MLA format, do you list the book title, the title of the article or both? For guidance on citing individual sources, see the link in item 4, above. Book Report Poster! This page is about formatting the paper once you’ve already written it. I wrote a paper and january regents lens essay, it looks just like your example. Book Poster! I followed everything to a society essay, the “t” and my professor says that my header is book report indented and my paragraphs are double indented and the page numbers are in wrong format.

What can I do? Winston, I suggest you talk to your professor. A Society Essay! I have been teaching from thiis handout for book report years, and when a student makes a formatting error on research paper a rough draft, I just ask them to fix it for book report the revision. 2012 English Regents Critical Lens! But your instructor is the one who designed the assignment and who evaluates your submissions, so he or she is the person to approach with questions. I agree. Report Poster! .let me ask you this. Cover! Are your headers indented? The screenshot was taken from board a page that I created following the instructions for using MS-Word with a MacBook Pro. I followed the instructions that are on the page.

But surely your instructor gave you guidelines, in a handout or an assigned textbook, which is why I encourage you to have this conversation with your instructor. Whether your instructor does or does not agree with the on india information on this page really doesn’t matter, since your instructor created the book assignment and evaluates it according to his or her own criteria. I suggest you let your your teacher know you are confused about what you did wrong, and ask for writing an opportunity to book board, make minor formatting changes to a paper that, we hope, met all the major criteria. We get asked often about bisness cover, what “format” the book report poster board college application essay should be in. Although not generally… http://t.co/v1TTNxtE4e.

seems easy enough. Dennis, what lends itself to science in the APA system? And what lends itself to the Humanities with the environment writing MLA? TIA. As compared to MLA papers, APA papers tend to be shorter, and divided up into sections. Authors who use APA style tend to publish more frequently, because their knowledge goes out of date more quickly; so the book poster board date is prominent in APA citations, and page numbers are rare. By contrast, people who use MLA style tend to write longer essays that aren’t divided up into january critical essay standard sections like “procedure” and “conclusions.” Humanities scholarship generally doesn’t go out of date quickly. Instead of conducting experiments, humanists read and write a lot of report poster longer essays and environment writing, books, re-interpreting and report poster board, quoting passages from them. MLA style makes the a society essay page numbers prominent, so that other scholars can easily find and re-read those same passages for themselves, and further the work of scholarship as it is conducted in the humanities.

Thanks for the reply. Report Poster Board! What do you mean by ” MLA style tend to paper thesis, write longer essays that aren’t divided up into standard sections like “procedure” and “conclusions.”? Are we not suppose to use conclusions in MLA format? In my English class, we use MLA with conclusions, but what do you mean by “procedure” and book board, “conclusions”? I understand each instructor is different but is it right to use conclusions in research, an MLA paper…or am I getting confused? Typically papers written in MLA style DO have a conclusion, but it would not be set off in board, a separate section under the subheading “Conclusion.” MLA papers tend NOT to follow a standard, particular structure.

Papers written in the sciences DO have a fairly rigid set of 2012 english regents critical sections, with separate subheadings. But it’s best for book poster you to talk to a society essay, your teacher about the specifics of any asisgnment. Ok, thanks. I just wanted to ask and clarify it. Also, doesn’t the word “humanist” means something else entirely? The Humanist term today implies ‘human’ and is often used for poster board atheists, for example… or am I wrong? I used the term “humanist” to mean “a person who studies the essay and pakistan culture of humans,” without intending the more specific meaning you mention.

At my school, the humanities division includes theologians. this was very helpful i got an A 95 percent. hi my name is Jessie i have to writ a 2 pages Essay about MLA can someone help me. thank u i got an A 97 percent. u a real nigga dennis. This wasn’t helpful at all. Shavez, what were you looking for? This page is about formatting a paper you have already written. The first section includes links to book report board, pages about how to write essays. Thank you very much for this useful information. As a freshman in highschool, my biology teacher asked for on india and pakistan relation me to write an essay in report, mLA format about evolution.

I had no clue what mLA format was,so I searched it up and cover letter, it brought me here. Report Poster Board! In middle school I never wrote an essay in this format before,but I feel very confident to type my first mLA essay and I’m excited to do so! (Right after I finish my draft .) thank you very much! (???)? I’m using a book title and author as my paper heading. How is that formatted? I would tell my own students that a book title and a society essay, the name of an author is not a good paper title, and I would ask them to write a title that catches the book report poster reader’s attention, identifies the topic, and identifies what position the literature thesis paper is going to take on the topic. But if you are not my student, then I’m not the book person who will be evaluating your paper. MLA style puts the book title in italics. Other than that, I really don’t have any advice for you. Very informative. It helped introduce my tired old mind to the MLA format.

So, I can better help coach and prepare my wife for her English course. Thank you very much. which writing style (MLA, APA) have more importance for students of social sciences, media sciences and literature research paper thesis, business? I think you should include online resource citation instructions. Click on “Citing” at report poster board, the top of the lens page. One of the poster board options on the other end of that link is how to cite a web page. This article..thing is the only reason I am passing my online college class. Especially the citation builder. Essay Courses! Thank you! cool it was helpful. is the text or what you wrote supposed to be centered in the page or to the left margin.

How do I cite a photo that I found online? Is it a historical photograph or a photograph published in a book that someone scanned and posted on line, is it a photograph of something like a sculpture? Is your paper focused on book report poster board the work of the photographer, the makeup artist who prepared the model, the digital image enhancer who altered the image, the model? There is no single correct way to cite a photograph, because there are many different reasons to cite a photograph. Your instructor would be able to give you more specific advice. In general, though, the 8th edition of the MLA guide would say something like this:

Olsen, Jimmy. “Superman Rescues Boy Scouts from cover Lava Pit.” Photograph. Poster! The Daily Planet . July 22, 1956. If you found the essay picture on book report board a blog or a Flickr gallery, adjust the citation accordingly. If you found the image as the result of literature research a Google search for book something, you might very well end up finding a page that re-uses someone else’s picture without appropriately giving credit. There are many variables. Talk to your instructor, who will be the 2012 english essay one grading your work, and will therefore be the report board right person to advise you on what to do.

hahahah xD me too same. I would Like You To Give Simple Instructions Not Complicated Ones , and writing wellington, Include also how much Papers Should be worked on. Khalid, if there is any particular detail you are confused about, please let me know what question you have and perhaps I can help. There is no specific answer to how much a paper should be worked on. It depends on what grade you want to earn, how much time you have, whether your instructor is willing to meet with you before the due date, whether your instructor will give you the chance to revise your work, and many other factors. This article..thing is the only reason I am passing my online college class.

Especially the citation builder. Thank you!

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Types of book report Speech #038; Language Disorders. A.D.D. Related Language/Listening Disorders. Studies show that children with ADD are at risk for articulation disorders, which affect their ability to produce letter sounds appropriate for their age. Beyond that, they also commonly have differences in fluency and vocal quality when speaking. One study even detected ADD through these speech differences. Compared to peers with learning disabilities alone, children with ADD showed increased volume and variability in bisness cover, pitch when talking, along with particular patterns such as increased number of book report vocal pauses. There are various treatment approaches used for apraxia.

How effective they are can vary from person to essay, person. For the best results, apraxia treatment must be developed to meet a given individual’s needs. Therapy for childhood apraxia of speech aims to improve speech coordination. Most children with apraxia of speech benefit from meeting one on one with a speech-language pathologist three to report board, five times a week. They may also need to work with their parents or guardians to practice the january regents critical essay, skills they are developing. An articulation disorder involves problems making sounds. Sounds can be substituted, left off, added or changed. Report Poster! These errors may make it hard for essay writing courses people to book board, understand you.

Young children often make speech errors. Environment! For instance, many young children sound like they are making a “w” sound for an “r” sound (e.g., “wabbit” for report poster board “rabbit”) or may leave sounds out of words, such as “nana” for “banana.” The child may have an articulation disorder if these errors continue past the expected age. A phonological process disorder involves patterns of sound errors. For example, substituting all sounds made in the back of the mouth like “k” and “g” for those in the front of the research paper thesis, mouth like “t” and “d” (e.g., saying “tup” for “cup” or “das” for “gas”). Another rule of speech is that some words start with two consonants, such as broken or spoon. When children don’t follow this rule and say only one of the sounds (“boken” for report poster broken or “poon” for spoon), it is more difficult for the listener to understand the child. While it is common for young children learning speech to leave one of the sounds out of the a society essay, word, it is not expected as a child gets older. If a child continues to demonstrate such cluster reduction, he or she may have a phonological process disorder. Information taken from ASHA.org. Children with APD may exhibit a variety of book poster board listening and related complaints.

For example, they may have difficulty understanding speech in noisy environments, following directions, and discriminating (or telling the difference between) similar-sounding speech sounds. Courses! Sometimes they may behave as if a hearing loss is present, often asking for repetition or clarification. Book! In school, children with APD may have difficulty with spelling, reading, and understanding information presented verbally in paper, the classroom. Often their performance in classes that don’t rely heavily on poster board, listening is essay courses much better, and book report they typically are able to complete a task independently once they know what is expected of them. However, it is critical to critical lens, understand that these same types of symptoms may be apparent in children who do not exhibit APD. Therefore, we should always keep in mind that not all language and learning problems are due to book poster, APD, and all cases of APD do not lead to language and a society essay learning problems. Book Poster Board! APD cannot be diagnosed from a symptoms checklist. Essay Writing! No matter how many symptoms of APD a child may have, only careful and accurate diagnostics can determine the underlying cause. A multidisciplinary team approach is book report board critical to fully assess and understand the cluster of problems exhibited by children with APD.

Thus, a teacher or educational diagnostician may shed light on academic difficulties; a psychologist may evaluate cognitive functioning in a variety of cover letter different areas; a speech-language pathologist may investigate written and oral language, speech, and report poster board related capabilities; and so forth. Some of these professionals may actually use test tools that incorporate the terms “auditory processing” or “auditory perception” in their evaluation, and may even suggest that a child exhibits an “auditory processing disorder.” Yet it is important to know that, however valuable the information from the a society essay, multidisciplinary team is in understanding the child’s overall areas of strength and weakness, none of the test tools used by these professionals are diagnostic tools for APD, and the actual diagnosis of book poster board APD must be made by an audiologist. To diagnose APD, the audiologist will administer a series of on india and pakistan relation tests in book report poster, a sound-treated room. These tests require listeners to attend to a variety of signals and to english regents critical lens, respond to them via repetition, pushing a button, or in some other way. Other tests that measure the auditory system’s physiologic responses to book board, sound may also be administered.

Most of the tests of APD require that a child be at least 7 or 8 years of age because the variability in brain function is so marked in younger children that test interpretation may not be possible. Once a diagnosis of APD is essay writing courses made, the nature of the disorder is determined. There are many types of auditory processing deficits and, because each child is an individual, APD may manifest itself in poster board, a variety of ways. Therefore, it is essay necessary to determine the report board, type of paper thesis auditory deficit a given child exhibits so that individualized management and treatment activities may be recommended that address his or her specific areas of difficulty. It is important to understand that there is not one, sure-fire, cure-all method of treating APD. Notwithstanding anecdotal reports of “miracle cures” available in report poster board, popular literature or on the internet, treatment of APD must be highly individualized and deficit-specific. No matter how successful a particular therapy approach may have been for another child, it does not mean that it will be effective for your child.

Therefore, the key to appropriate treatment is accurate and careful diagnosis by on india, an audiologist. Treatment of APD generally focuses on poster board, three primary areas: changing the learning or communication environment, recruiting higher-order skills to help compensate for the disorder, and remediation of the auditory deficit itself. The primary purpose of environmental modifications is to research paper thesis, improve access to auditorily presented information. Suggestions may include use of electronic devices that assist listening, teacher-oriented suggestions to improve delivery of information, and other methods of altering the report board, learning environment so that the child with APD can focus his or her attention on the message. Compensatory strategies usually consist of a society essay suggestions for assisting listeners in strengthening central resources (language, problem-solving, memory, attention, other cognitive skills) so that they can be used to book report board, help overcome the on india and pakistan relation, auditory disorder. In addition, many compensatory strategy approaches teach children with APD to take responsibility for book their own listening success or failure and to be an january 2012 regents critical lens essay active participant in daily listening activities through a variety of active listening and problem-solving techniques. Finally, direct treatment of APD seeks to report poster board, remediate the a society essay, disorder, itself. There exist a wide variety of treatment activities to address specific auditory deficits. Book Report Poster! Some may be computer- assisted, others may include one-on-one training with a therapist. Sometimes home-based programs are appropriate whereas others may require children to attend therapy sessions in school or at a local clinic. Once again, it should be emphasized that there is no one treatment approach that is appropriate for all children with APD.

The type, frequency, and intensity of therapy, like all aspects of APD intervention, should be highly individualized and relation programmed for the specific type of auditory disorder that is present. The degree to which an individual child’s auditory deficits will improve with therapy cannot be determined in advance. Whereas some children with APD experience complete amelioration of their difficulties or seem to “grow out of” their disorders, others may exhibit some residual degree of deficit forever. However, with appropriate intervention, all children with APD can learn to become active participants in their own listening, learning, and communication success rather than hapless (and helpless) victims of an insidious impairment. Book Report! Thus, when the journey is navigated carefully, accurately, and appropriately, there can be light at the end of the bisness, tunnel for the millions of children afflicted with APD. APD is an report poster auditory disorder that is not the result of higher-order, more global deficit such as autism, mental retardation, attention deficits, or similar impairments. Not all learning, language, and communication deficits are due to APD. No matter how many symptoms of APD a child has, only careful and accurate diagnosis can determine if APD is, indeed, present. Although a multidisciplinary team approach is important in courses, fully understanding the cluster of problems associated with APD, the diagnosis of APD can only be made by book report poster board, an audiologist. Treatment of APD is essay highly individualized.

There is no one treatment approach that is appropriate for all children with APD. Information from the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Autism/Pervasive Developmental Disorders. Psychologists and psychiatrists sometimes use the term “pervasive developmental disorders” and book report board “autism spectrum disorders” (ASD) interchangeably. As such, PDD-NOS became the diagnosis applied to children or adults who are on the autism spectrum but do not fully meet the criteria for essay relation another ASD such as autistic disorder (sometimes called “classic” autism) or Asperger Syndrome. Like all forms of autism, PDD-NOS can occur in book report poster, conjunction with a wide spectrum of intellectual ability. Its defining features are significant challenges in essay, social and book poster board language development. Some developmental health professionals refer to PDD-NOS as “subthreshold autism.” In other words, it’s the diagnosis they use for someone who has some but not all characteristics of autism or who has relatively mild symptoms. A Society Essay! For instance, a person may have significant autism symptoms in one core area such as social deficits, but mild or no symptoms in another core area such as restricted, repetitive behaviors. As a diagnosis, PDD-NOS remains relatively new, dating back only book poster 15 years or so.

As a result, some physicians and educators may not be familiar with the term or may use it incorrectly. The current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) spells out the a society essay, criteria for a diagnosis of PDD-NOS. Report! Unfortunately, this description consists of a single paragraph, which mainly asserts what it is literature research not: “This category should be used when there is severe and pervasive impairment in the development of reciprocal social interaction associated with impairment in book report board, either verbal or nonverbal communication skills or with the writing, presence of stereotyped behavior, interests, and activities, but the criteria are not met for a specific Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Schizophrenia, Schizotypal Personality Disorder, or Avoidant Personality Disorder. For example, this category includes “atypical autism” – presentations that do not meet the criteria for Autistic Disorder because of book report board late age at onset, atypical symptomatology, or subthreshold symptomatology, or all of these.” More helpful, perhaps, are studies suggesting that persons with PDD-NOS can be placed in one of three very different subgroups: A high-functioning group (around 25 percent) whose symptoms largely overlap with that of Asperger syndrome, but who differ in terms of having a lag in language development and bisness cover mild cognitive impairment. (Asperger syndrome does not generally involve speech delay or cognitive impairment). A second group (around 25 percent) whose symptoms more closely resemble those of autistic disorder, but do not fully meet all its diagnostic signs and symptoms.

A third group (around 50 percent) who meet all the diagnostic criteria for autistic disorder, but whose stereotypical and board repetitive behaviors are noticeably mild. As these findings suggest, individuals with PDD-NOS vary widely in their strengths and research paper challenges. Information taken from book poster AutismSpeaks.org. Broadly stated, (Central) Auditory Processing [(C)AP] refers to the efficiency and january effectiveness by which the central nervous system (CNS) utilizes auditory information. Narrowly defined, (C)AP refers to book report poster, the perceptual processing of auditory information in the CNS and the neurobiologic activity that underlies that processing and gives rise to english regents lens, electrophysiologic auditory potentials. (C)AP includes the auditory mechanisms that underlie the following abilities or skills: sound localization and lateralization; auditory discrimination; auditory pattern recognition; temporal aspects of report poster audition, including temporal integration, temporal discrimination (e.g., temporal gap detection), temporal ordering, and temporal masking; auditory performance in competing acoustic signals (including dichotic listening); and auditory performance with degraded acoustic signals (ASHA, 1996; Bellis, 2003; Chermak Musiek, 1997). A Society Essay! (Central) Auditory Processing Disorder [(C)APD] refers to difficulties in the perceptual processing of board auditory information in the CNS as demonstrated by a society essay, poor performance in one or more of the above skills. Although abilities such as phonological awareness, attention to book report, and memory for auditory information, auditory synthesis, comprehension and interpretation of auditorily presented information, and similar skills may be reliant on english regents critical lens essay, or associated with intact central auditory function, they are considered higher order cognitive-communicative and/or language-related functions and, thus, are not included in the definition of (C)AP. Definitions of other key terms used in this report can be found in book report, the Appendix. – Information taken from environment writing asha.org. The development of communication skills begins in infancy, before the report poster, emergence of the first word. Any speech or language problem is likely to have a significant effect on the child’s social and academic skills and behavior. The earlier a child’s speech and language problems are identified and treated, the less likely it is that problems will persist or get worse. Early speech and paper thesis language intervention can help children be more successful with reading, writing, schoolwork, and report board interpersonal relationships.

This information represents, on average, the age by which most monolingual speaking children will accomplish the listed milestones. Children typically do not master all items in a category until they reach the upper age in each age range. Just because your child has not accomplished one skill within an age range does not mean the child has a disorder. However, if you have answered no to the majority of items in an age range, seek the essay and pakistan relation, advice of an ASHA-certified speech-language pathologist or audiologist. Information taken from asha.org. Autism is a developmental disability. Children with autism, also known as autism spectrum disorder or ASD, have social, communication and language problems.

They also have restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities, such as flipping objects, echolalia, or excessive smelling or touching of objects. Autism may be mild or severe. All children with autism don’t have the exact same problems. Children with autism may have the following social and communication skills and common behaviors: Your child may have problems using social skills to connect with other people.

He may seem to be in report poster, his own world. It may be hard for him to share a common focus with another person about the same object or event-known as joint attention; play with others and english regents essay share toys; understand feelings; make and keep friends. Your child may have trouble with communication skills like understanding, talking with others, reading or writing. Report! Sometimes, she might lose words or other skills that she’s used before. Your child may have problems understanding and literature research using gestures, like pointing, waving, or showing objects to others; following directions; understanding and using words; having conversations; learning to read or write.

Or she may read early but without understanding the meaning—called hyperlexia. Your child also may repeat words just heard or words heard days or weeks earlier-called echolalia (pronounced ek-o-lay-le-a); talk with little expression or use a sing-song voice; use tantrums to tell you what he does or does not want. A child with autism may have trouble changing from one activity to book report poster board, the next; flap hands, rock, spin or stare; get upset by certain sounds; like only a few foods; have limited and unusual interests-for example, talk about only one topic or keep staring at one toy. It is important to have your child evaluated by professionals who know about a society essay, autism. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs), typically as part of a team, may diagnose autism. The team might include pediatricians, neurologists, occupational therapists, physical therapists, and developmental specialists, among others. SLPs play a key role because problems with social skills and communication are often the book report board, first symptoms of paper thesis autism. Book Report Poster Board! SLPs should be consulted early in a society essay, the evaluation process.

There are a number of tests and observational checklists available to evaluate children with developmental problems. The most important information, however, comes from parents and caregivers who know the child best and can tell the book poster board, SLP and others all about the child’s behavior. Information taken from asha.org. Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder. The muscles of the mouth, face, and paper respiratory system may become weak, move slowly, or not move at all after a stroke or other brain injury. The type and severity of board dysarthria depend on which area of the nervous system is affected. Some causes of dysarthria include stroke, head injury, cerebral palsy, and on india and pakistan relation muscular dystrophy. Both children and book report adults can have dysarthria. A person with dysarthria may experience any of the following symptoms, depending on the extent and location of damage to the nervous system: “Slurred” speech Speaking softly or barely able to whisper Slow rate of speech Rapid rate of speech with a “mumbling” quality Limited tongue, lip, and jaw movement Abnormal intonation (rhythm) when speaking Changes in vocal quality (“nasal” speech or sounding “stuffy”) Hoarseness Breathiness Drooling or poor control of saliva Chewing and swallowing difficulty.

Information taken from ASHA website. A communication disorder in which there are difficulties with verbal and written expression. It is a specific language impairment characterized by an ability to use expressive spoken language that is markedly below the literature paper, appropriate level for the mental age, but with a language comprehension that is within normal limits. There can be problems with vocabulary, producing complex sentences, and remembering words and there may or may not be abnormalities in articulation (speech). Set of report board all mental abilities and processes related to a society essay, knowledge: attention, memory working memory, judgment evaluation, reasoning “computation”, problem solving decision making, comprehension production of language, etc. Report! Cognition is by humans conscious and a society essay unconscious, concrete or abstract, as well as intuitive (like knowledge of a language) and conceptual (like a model of a language). Cognitive processes use existing knowledge and generate new knowledge. Oral-motor skills involve the movements of the report poster board, lips, jaw, tongue, and cheeks. These muscles are important for eating, drinking and speech.

Examples of oral-motor activities including drinking from january regents critical lens a straw, chewing, and blowing a toy horn. Children who struggle in this area may have problems tolerating different food textures, drinking from a cup, having their teeth brushed, and may overstuff their mouth with food. Phonemic-Phonological Awareness Skills. Though there is a distinction between phonological awareness and phonemic awareness the two terms are often used interchangeably. For the most part both are used to refer to what is technically phonological awareness. The more common term used to encompass both skill sets is report poster phonemic awareness. In most literature on reading you will see “phonemic awareness” used. Know when you see this term usually the writer is literature research thesis actually referring to “phonological awareness”. Phonological awareness provides the basis for phonics.

Phonics, the understanding that sounds and print letters are connected, is the book report poster, first step towards the act we call reading. When measuring a child’s phonological awareness look at his ability to apply several different skills. A child with strong phonological awareness should be able to recognize and use rhyme, break words into syllables, blend phonemes into syllables and words, identify the beginning and letter ending sounds in a syllable and see smaller words within larger words (ie. “cat” in book, “catalog”). Phonological Development is the essay writing wellington, process of book learning to speak and environment essay writing is most closely associated with children. The physiological systems, which take part in book poster board, this process, are the auditory and the vocal systems. The auditory system includes the a society essay, ears, ear canal and brain. The vocal system includes the vocal chords, the throat, the mouth, teeth and tongue. The jaw is included in report poster board, the vocal system due to on india relation, the necessary jaw movements needed to create sounds, which make words. Language Disorders, or language impairments, are disorders that involve the processing of linguistic information. Problems that may be experienced can involve grammar (syntax and/or morphology), semantics (meaning), or other aspects of language.

These problems may be receptive (involving impaired language comprehension), expressive (involving language production), or a combination of both. Examples include specific language impairment and aphasia, among others. Language disorders can affect both spoken and written language, and can also affect sign language; typically, all forms of language will be impaired. Note that these are distinct from speech disorders, which involve difficulty with the act of speech production, but not with language. Some children have difficulties with reading and writing, and often these children also have a problem with speech and language. Speech/language therapy/strategies and activities can assist children with literacy difficulties as well as taking an holistic approach by report, looking at activities that can benefit speech, language and literacy together. Language Processing Disorder and Treatment. Language Processing Disorder and Treatment refers to the way we use words to communicate their ideas and 2012 regents lens feelings, as well as how these types of communications are processed and understood. Simply put, it is how the brain creates and understands language. A Language processing disorder (“LPD”) is categorized when a person has difficulty understanding and book poster board making sense of what is essay writing courses heard.

Those who have LPD usually have normal hearing abilities, however, their brains just do not process or interpret what they “hear” (the information) properly. Book Poster Board! LPD sometimes occurs in essay, those who have speech and language difficulties, learning disabilities, attention deficit disorder, as well as developmental disabilities. Some students with LPD may have a difficult time hearing the differences between sounds in book report poster, words, even if those sounds are very clear and loud. These problems are more obvious when the child is in a noisy environment such as a classroom. Stuttering affects the fluency of speech. It begins during childhood and, in some cases, lasts throughout life. The disorder is characterized by disruptions in the production of speech sounds, also called “disfluencies.” Most people produce brief disfluencies from time to time. For instance, some words are repeated and others are preceded by a society essay, “um” or “uh.” Disfluencies are not necessarily a problem; however, they can impede communication when a person produces too many of book report poster them. For some people, communication difficulties only happen during specific activities, for example, talking on the telephone or talking before large groups.

For most others, however, communication difficulties occur across a number of a society essay activities at home, school, or work. Book Poster! Some people may limit their participation in certain activities. Such “participation restrictions” often occur because the person is concerned about a society essay, how others might react to disfluent speech. Other people may try to hide their disfluent speech from others by rearranging the words in their sentence (circumlocution), pretending to book board, forget what they wanted to say, or declining to speak. Other people may find that they are excluded from bisness participating in certain activities because of book poster board stuttering.

Clearly, the a society essay, impact of stuttering on daily life can be affected by how the person and others react to the disorder. Information taken from ASHA website. When a child has receptive language disorder, he or she exhibits significant deficits in the level of development of comprehension of book language. These deficits affect how the child functions socially or academically. Children with receptive language problems can have great difficulty understanding what is said to them. Most children with a receptive language disorder will also have an expressive language disorder (difficulty using language to express ideas).Children with a receptive language disorder can have difficulty with any of the following: Understanding what gestures mean Following directions Understanding questions Identifying objects and pictures Taking turns when talking with others Understanding the order of words in a sentence Understanding plurals and on india relation verb tenses Understanding age-appropriate vocabulary and knowledge about objects and sequence of events Knowledge of the goals or functions of language (e.g. to book report, obtain a desired object, tell a story, ask questions, comment) Knowledge of how to environment writing, use language to achieve goals (e.g. appropriately using language to book report poster board, get a desired object, ) Carrying out essay on india relation, cooperative conversations (e.g. perspective-taking and turn-taking) An individual with pragmatic problems may: say inappropriate or unrelated things during conversations, tell stories in a disorganized way or have very little variety in language use.

It is book not unusual for children to have pragmatic problems in only a few situations. Environment Essay Writing! However, if problems in social language use occur often and seem inappropriate considering the child’s age, a pragmatic disorder may exist. Report! Pragmatic disorders often coexist with other language problems such as vocabulary development or grammar. Pragmatic problems can lower social acceptance. Peers may avoid having conversations with an essay on india and pakistan individual with a pragmatic disorder. Tongue thrust (also called “reverse” or “immature” swallow) is the common name given to orofacial muscular imbalance, a human behavioral pattern in book, which the tongue protrudes through the anterior incisors during swallowing, speech and while the tongue is at essay wellington rest. Nearly all young children exhibit a swallowing pattern involving tongue protrusion, but by the age of 6 most have automatically switched to a normal swallowing pattern. To correct tongue thrust, speech pathologists prescribe exercises designed to promote a normal swallowing pattern, as well as correct speech production.

In the evaluation session the book poster, patient will be given swallowing and articulation inventory tests.

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An Illustrated Guide to Linda Nochlin’s “Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?” First published in ARTnews in 1971, Nochlin#8217;s essay is considered to be one of the first major works of feminist art history. Linda Nochlin’s “Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?” (1971) is generally considered the first major work of feminist art history. Maura Reilly, a curator, writer, and collaborator of Nochlin’s, described the work as “a dramatic feminist rallying cry.” “This canonical essay precipitated a paradigm shift within the discipline of art history,” Reilly states in her preface to board, Women Artists: The Linda Nochlin Reader (2015), “and as such her name became inseparable from the phrase, ‘feminist art,’ on a global scale.” A dryly humored analysis of the values by which artists are historicized and cover discussed, “Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?” posited the first methodological approach for the discipline: that instead of bolstering the reputations of critically neglected or forgotten women artists, the book report poster board feminist art historian should pick apart, analyze, and question the social and institutional structures that underpin artistic production, the art world, and art history. In her own words, Nochlin grew up in “a secular, leftist, intellectual Jewish family” in Crown Heights, Brooklyn. In 1951, she graduated with a BA in philosophy and a minor in Greek and environment writing art history at Vassar College. Vassar is one of the so-called “Seven Sisters,” a group of historic women’s colleges along the Northeastern US (it became coeducational in 1969). “The good thing about a women’s college…was that women had a chance to do everything,” Nochlin stated in a 2015 interview with Reilly. “We were not pushed to the margins because there were no gendered margins…we were all there was.” In 1952, Nochlin obtained a masters in English literature at book report board Columbia before undertaking her PhD in art history at the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University, where she wrote her doctorate on the work of Gustave Courbet. Aside from “Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?,” Nochlin is perhaps best known for her 1971 book, Realism , a landmark study on the 19th-century movement. Shortly after she began teaching art history at Vassar, Nochlin had a conversation with an (unnamed) acquaintance that changed her life. She recalls the exchange in her 1994 essay, “Starting from Scratch”: “Have you heard about Women’s Liberation?” she asked me.

I already was, I said, a liberated woman and I knew enough about feminism — suffragettes and cover such — to realize that we, in 1969, were beyond such things. “Read these,” she said brusquely, “and you will change your mind.” Nochlin’s friend handed her a stack of second-wave feminist literature. It included publications such as Redstockings Newsletter and Everywoman . “This was brilliant, furious, polemical stuff, written from the guts and book the heart,” Nochlin wrote. “That night, reading until two a.m., making discovery after discovery, cartoonish light bulbs going off in my head at a frantic pace, my consciousness was indeed raised, as it was to be over environment writing, and over again within the course of the next year or so.” Nochlin amended the subject of her upcoming seminar (listed simply as “Art 364b”) to The Image of Women in the 19th and 20th Centuries . Book Poster Board. Together with her students, Nochlin combed through the visual tropes of art history. Among the course’s listed subjects were ‘Woman as angel and devil in 19th-century art,’ ‘Pornography and sexual imagery,’ and ‘The theme of the prostitute.’ “We were doing the spadework of feminist art history,” Nochlin recalled, “and we knew it.” A year later, Nochlin attended a Vassar graduation ceremony where Gloria Steinem was the speaker. Steinem was invited by Brenda Feigen, a friend of Nochlin’s, and the sister of art dealer Richard Feigen. Nochlin later cited her interaction with the literature thesis art dealer as the catalyst for “Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?”: Afterwards, Richard turned to me and said, “Linda, I would love to show women artists, but I can’t find any good ones. Why are there no great women artists?” He actually asked me that question. I went home and thought about this issue for days. Book Poster. It haunted me. A Society Essay. It made me think, because, first of all, it implied that there were no great women artists. Second, because it assumed this was a natural condition.

It just lit up my mind. Report. [It] stimulated me to do a great deal of further research in literature research paper a variety of book poster board, fields in order to “answer” the question and regents lens its implications. Building upon report board the research she conducted with her students, Nochlin wrote the essay for inclusion in Vivian Gornick and Barbara Moran’s Women in Sexist Society (1971), where it was originally titled “Why Are There No Great Women Artists?” However, the essay first appeared in the January 1971 edition of ArtNews , an issue specially dedicated to “Women’s Liberation. Woman Artists, and Art History.” The issue’s cover reproduced an 1801 portrait of #8220;Marie Josephine Charlotte du Val d’Ognes#8221; from the january 2012 regents essay Metropolitan Museum of Art’s collection, which was once thought to have been painted by Jacques-Louis David. The choice of this painting was pertinent, not only book report poster, because it depicted a woman drawing, but because it had recently been reattributed to a woman, Constance Marie Charpentier (1767–1849). An ArtNews editorial note describes the portrait as “perhaps the greatest picture ever painted by on india relation, a woman.” Nine years later, the painting was reattributed to book report poster, another artist, Marie Denise Villers (1774–1821). Writing. The Met Museum also clarified its stance on the painting’s subject, retitling the work more cautiously as “Young Woman Drawing.” The painting’s shaky attribution underlines the fact that feminist art history should not be understood as just a necessary corrective — or to use Nochlin’s words, as something to be “ grafted on to a serious, established discipline” — but as an ongoing project. A feminist art history, as Nochlin views it, would not only entail a more thorough investigation of the painting’s provenance and history, but would necessitate an investigation into why the painting was misattributed as well as the reasons for its art historical and critical neglect. The women’s question, Nochlin argues, “can become a catalyst, an intellectual instrument, probing basic and #8216;natural#8217; assumptions, providing a paradigm for book report board, other kinds of internal questioning, and in turn providing links with paradigms established by environment essay, radical approaches in other fields.” The first half of poster, “Why Are There No Great Women Artists?” is bisness letter, devoted to Nochlin’s methodological thesis. She argues that Women’s Liberation has been “chiefly emotional — personal, psychological, and subjective — centered,” but she asserts that in report order to be effective it also “must come to grips with the intellectual and ideological basis of various intellectual [and] scholarly disciplines.” In this regard, she refers to John Stuart Mill’s observation that we tend to accept whatever is writing wellington, commonplace as “natural.” “Those who have privileges invariably hold on to them,” wrote Nochlin. “In reality the white-male-position-accepted as-natural, or the hidden #8216;he#8217; as the subject of all scholarly predicates — is a decided advantage, rather than merely a hindrance or a subjective distortion.” In art history, the white, Western male viewpoint is “unconsciously accepted as the viewpoint of the art historian.” Nochlin’s stated mission is to prove that this perspective is not only objectionable “on moral and ethical grounds, or because it is elitist” but because it is intellectually inadequate.

The question in book report poster board “Why Are There No Great Women Artists?” is implicitly biased. It insidiously assumes that there aren’t any — that unlike men, women aren’t capable of achieving artistic greatness. “The feminist’s first reaction is to cover, swallow the bait,” wrote Nochlin. “That is, to dig up examples of worthy or insufficiently appreciated women artists throughout history.” Though Nochlin affirmed that such work is “certainly worth the effort,” she rejected the approach on the basis that it does “nothing to question the board assumptions lying behind the paper question.” “On the contrary, by attempting to answer it, they tacitly reinforce its negative implications,” Nochlin concluded. This passage remains the book poster board most controversial section of Nochlin’s essay, in essay part because she went on to curate high-profile exhibitions of work by women artists; for instance, Women Artists: 1550–1950 at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (1976) and book report poster board Global Feminisms at the Brooklyn Museum (2007). As Nochlin surmised in “Starting from writing, Scratch,” such exhibition work “directly contradicted” her earlier stance. “I said that I thought that simply looking into woman artists of the past would not really change our estimation of their value,” Nochlin states in her interview with Reilly. “Nevertheless, I went on report poster to look into some women artists of the past and I found that my own estimations and values had in fact changed.” That this criticism has been leveled at Nochlin is essay courses wellington, not entirely fair. She clearly didn’t denigrate the rehabilitation of neglected artists. Book Report Poster. Rather, her point was that the approach does nothing to address art history’s patriarchal value system.

How is art history structured? Who is asking the questions, how are they framed, and what assumptions do they carry? Why are male artists such as Michelangelo or Picasso typically described as “geniuses,” while women such as Berthe Morisot or Rosa Bonheur are not? Most importantly, how is art historical value conferred? In what is literature, perhaps the most quoted passage of the essay, Nochlin writes: There are no women equivalents for Michelangelo or Rembrandt, Delacroix or Cezanne, Picasso or Matisse, or even in very recent times, for board, de Kooning or Warhol, any more than there are black American equivalents for the same. If there actually were large numbers of “hidden” great women artists, or if there really should be different standards for women’s art as opposed to a society essay, men’s — and one can’t have it both ways — then what are feminists fighting for? If women have in poster fact achieved the same status as men in the arts, then the status quo is courses, fine as it is. But in actuality, as we all know, things as they are and as they have been, in the arts as in report poster a hundred other areas, are stultifying, oppressive, and discouraging to all those, women among them, who did not have the letter good fortune to be born white, preferably middle class and above all, male.

The fault lies not in our stars, our hormones, our menstrual cycles, or our empty internal spaces, but in book poster board our institutions and essay on india and pakistan relation our education. There are a couple of key points to unpack in this passage. Report Board. The first is that Nochlin is not an essentialist. She does not believe that there is such a thing as an innate “feminine” style (this sets her apart from other feminists such as the artist Judy Chicago, who has argued the research opposite). “In every instance, women artists and writers would seem to be closer to other artists and writers of their own period and book report poster outlook than they are to each other,” Nochlin observed. Patterns in subject matter, such as the scenes of motherhood and child-rearing depicted by artists such as Berthe Morisot or Mary Cassatt, can be attributed to and pakistan, sociological factors, artistic expectations, or personal predilection, not to gender. “If women have turned to scenes of domestic life, or of children, so did Jan Steen, Chardin, and the Impressionists — Renoir and Monet as well as Morisot and Cassatt. The mere choice of a certain realm of subject matter, or the restriction to certain subjects, is not to be equated with a style, much less with some sort of book report board, quintessentially feminine style,” Nochlin wrote. Nochlin argued that terms such as “great” and paper thesis “genius” are loaded with “unquestioned, often unconscious, meta-historical premises.” These premises are then compounded by book poster, art history’s “romantic, elitist, individual-glorifying, and monograph-producing substructure.” She demonstrates this fact by outlining certain patterns in art historical biographies — namely the essay on india relation discovery of certain “geniuses.” As told by the Renaissance artist and biographer, Giorgio Vasari, Giotto’s talent was discovered, when, as a young shepherd boy, he was observed drawing sheep on a stone. Book Report Poster Board. Other artists such as Mantegna, Zurbaran, and Goya “were all discovered in similar pastoral circumstances,” Nochlin jokingly observes. She doesn’t dispute the truth of such stories, but notes that they “tend both to reflect and perpetuate the attitudes they subsume.” Picasso’s completion of essay, all his required art school examinations in board a single day is january english critical lens essay, a modern variant of what is poster, effectively the same story, a highly fetishized and mythologized moment of english regents essay, talent and discovery. Book Report Board. Leonardo da Vinci, Pablo Picasso, and Julian Schnabel.

Nochlin rejects the values of greatness and genius, not only because they are demonstrably patriarchal, but because their application typically involves a complete disregard for historical or sociological context. On India And Pakistan. Today, the book vast majority of contemporary art historians tend to literature thesis, avoid the use of such terminology and consider “genius” to be a facile concept. However, the notion of the masterful individual continues to retain a powerful allure over book report poster board, art-going audiences. Research Thesis. The “romantic, elitist, individual-glorifying, and monograph-producing substructure” that Nochlin described, remains the stock-in-trade of the art industry, especially in regards to book report poster board, the marketing of artists and exhibitions. A Society Essay. This brings us to Nochlin’s final field of book, inquiry: the exclusion of essay, women from art education. Discouraged from the arts (and indeed the majority of intellectual pursuits), talented women have not had their artistic origins or moments of genius documented or discussed. This exclusion, combined with the intellectually impoverished and patriarchal values of “genius” or “greatness,” explains why there are “no women equivalents for Michelangelo or Rembrandt, Delacroix.” The playing field and system of report poster board, values are simply not the writing same.

The latter half of Nochlin’s essay examines the institutional exclusion and poster board treatment of women artists. It is divided into four sections — ‘The Question of the Nude,’ ‘The Lady’s Accomplishment,’ ‘Successes,’ and ‘Rosa Bonheur’ — the first of bisness cover, which focuses on the institutionalization of book poster, life drawing. Environment Writing. From the Renaissance through to the 19th century, the drawing of the poster nude was considered an on india relation, essential artistic skill. The exact parameters of this belief changed over time, but by report board, the 18th century it had coalesced into a highly codified and hierarchical structure. Different genres of painting were ranked.

History painting (i.e. historical and mythological scenes) was considered the highest artistic form. It was followed respectively by portraiture, genre, landscape, and still life painting. History painting could not seriously be attempted or lauded unless an artist had demonstrably perfected the male nude. This meant copying from a society essay, other works, sculptures, and poster board eventually from letter, live models. But it was considered improper for women to attend life drawing classes until the late 19th century. When women were eventually admitted, they were usually supervised by men and their models were often purposefully (and counter-productively) draped. As Nochlin surmised, “to be deprived of this ultimate stage of training meant, in effect, to report poster board, be deprived of the possibility of creating major art works.” Nochlin provides a brief historic overview of life drawing, while also examining depictions of artistic pedagogy.

She notes with a wry sense of humor that Angelica Kaufmann (1741–1807) could not be represented in person in Johann Zoffany’s 1771–1772 group portrait, “The Academicians of the Royal Academy,” since the scene depicted includes a nude male model. A Society Essay. Instead, she is book poster board, represented in environment writing the form of an effigy on report poster board the back wall. A Society Essay. Kauffmann was an extraordinarily rare example of poster, a successful woman artist from the period. In France, the best-known women artists were Elisabeth Louise Vigee Le Brun (1755–1842) and Adelaide Labille-Guiard (1749–1803). The two artists were pitted as rivals and were subject to essay writing, salacious and unfounded rumors regarding their integrity and conduct, particularly Le Brun, whose association with Marie Antoinette made her an active target of pamphleteers and letter writers. Nochlin suggests that the rare and book report unique “successes” of artists such as Le Brun and Kaufmann were due, in part, to bisness letter, family ties. “They all, almost without exception, were either the daughters of artist fathers, or, generally later, in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, had a close personal connection with a stronger or more dominant male artistic personality,” Nochlin wrote. She also observes, but does not delve into, the connection between women artists and “the roles of benign, if not outright encouraging fathers.” Although this section of the essay is less rigorously argued, Nochlin’s theory that familial connections enabled some women to circumnavigate the book report board institutional strictures placed on them, is a society essay, convincing. Aside from Kaufmann and Le Brun, she also cites Marietta Robusti, Artemisia Gentileschi, Lavinia Fontana, and book report poster board Elizabeth Cheron as examples. Relation. As the restrictions placed on report artistic practice began to wane over the course of the 19th century, women began to “strike out on their own.” The glacial breakdown of bisness cover, these strictures was accompanied by the rise and establishment of a particular stereotype, that of #8220;the lady painter.#8221; In #8220;The Lady’s Accomplishment,#8221; Nochlin attributes this trope to report poster board, 19th-century etiquette guides and literature.

By way of example, she quotes a number of a society essay, passages from Mrs. [Sarah Stickney] Ellis’s The Family Monitor and Domestic Guide : To be able to do a great many things tolerably well, is of infinitely more value to a woman, than to be able to excel in any one. Drawing is, of book report poster, all other occupations, the one most calculated to keep the mind from brooding upon self, and to maintain that general cheerfulness which is part of social and domestic duty… [it can also] be laid down and research thesis resumed, as circumstance or inclination may direct, and that without any serious loss. In works such as these, Nochlin argued, “the insistence upon a modest, proficient level of amateurism…transforms serious commitment into frivolous, self-indulgence, busy work, or occupational therapy.” These attitudes perpetuated certain patriarchal advantages: Such an outlook helps guard men from unwanted competition in their “serious” professional activities and book poster board assures them of “well-rounded” assistance on the home front, so that they can have sex and family in addition to essay on india relation, the fulfillment of their own specialized talents at the same time. Such attitudes persist today, particularly in regards to the tension between family life and work. For instance, the lack of institutional support for both maternity and paternity leave and report the absence of cover letter, universal child care makes it exceptionally difficult, if not impossible, for many women to resume their professions and book report poster board creative passions. “The choice for women seems always to be marriage or a career,” wrote Nochlin. “I.e., solitude as the price of success or sex and essay writing companionship at report poster board the price of professional renunciation.” Nochlin’s essay ends with an extended profile of Rosa Bonheur (1822–1899), “one of the most successful and accomplished women painters of all time.” Bonheur specialized in bisness letter equine and report board bovine scenes and was awarded numerous accolades, including a first medal at 2012 english critical essay the Paris Salon.

Consistent with her methodological mission, Nochlin is less interested in the specifics of Bonheur’s work than she is in analyzing how the book report board artist navigated the artistic and institutional strictures of her time. Bonheur functions as the ultimate exemplar for Nochlin’s essay, as her circumstances chimed with many of the art historian’s observations and conclusions about women in the arts. For instance, like Le Brun and Kaufmann, Bonheur was born into an artistic family. Furthermore, her father had been a member of the Saint-Simonian community, a political movement dedicated to “true equality,” whose female members made a point of writing wellington, their emancipation by poster, wearing trousers. “My father…reiterated to me that woman’s mission was to elevate the human race, that she was the bisness cover Messiah of future centuries,” Bonheur told an interviewer. “It is to his doctrines that I owe the great noble ambition I have conceived for poster, the sex which I proudly affirm to be mine.” Bonheur’s career coincided with the bisness cover letter decline of history painting and the rise of middle-class patronage. By combining her artistic naturalism with a focused specialty, Bonheur was able to book report board, stand out in the nascent art market. Paper. As Nochlin surmised, Bonheur’s success “firmly establishes the role of institutions, and book report board institutional change, as a necessary, if not a sufficient cause of achievement in research thesis art.” However, despite her enlightened roots, Bonheur continually felt the report need to justify her unconventional artistic standing. She maintained that she wore trousers because she needed to study animals at fairs. Referring to her shorn head at the age of 16 — a look she briefly adopted following her mother’s death — Bonheur retorted, “who would have taken care of my curls?” The expectation to explain away so-called “masculine” needs and behaviors led Bonheur to police herself and her public image. In examining and scrutinizing Bonheur’s attitudes, Nochlin effectively signposted a psychoanalytic approach to art history.

In addition to yielding a great deal of information about institutional structures and customs, the study of Bonheur’s career also provides a case study of the literature research paper internalized pressures and contradictory attitudes that women are continually forced to book report poster, navigate. Perhaps the most extraordinary feature of Nochlin’s essay is its presaging and active encouragement of a multi-disciplinary approach to art history. Aside from research, psychoanalytic enquiries (vis-a-vis Bonheur’s statements and biography), Nochlin also delved into report board, semiotics (‘genius’ and ‘greatness’) and social art history (institutions and academic structures). “Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?” was written during a watershed year for bisness cover letter, the Women’s Liberation movement. 1970 marked the report 50th anniversary of the passing of the 19th amendment. In the letter same year both Sisterhood is Powerful (an anthology of feminist writings) and Germaine Greer’s The Female Eunuch were published, the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) passed the report poster board US House, the on india Ad Hoc Women Artist’s Committee was founded in New York, and Judy Chicago established the first ever feminist art program at Fresno State College, California (Nochlin later visited Womanhouse , a pioneering installation work created by Chicago and Miriam Schapiro’s students at CalArts). The publication of book poster board, Nochlin’s essay in ArtNews was hugely significant in cover letter that it catalyzed the art world to confront the so-called “women’s issue,” as well as the historic and poster contemporaneous treatment of women artists. The immediate reaction to Nochlin’s article was decidedly mixed. The January ’71 issue of ArtNews featured a number of responses to Nochlin’s essay, including a dialogue between artists Elaine de Kooning and Rosalyn Drexler, who had markedly different reactions to the essay. When de Kooning posits that “the status quo in the arts is fine as it is,” Drexler dissents: What this woman who wrote the article may mean is environment writing, there are people who manipulate the art world — who can decide by tumeling up business, by talking, by maybe buying articles, by collecting, by publishing — that they can build a reputation, and report the people who do this may feel subliminally — no matter what they say — that they wouldn’t do this for 2012 english regents critical essay, a woman, or, at least, not for book poster board, many women.” Rosalyn Drexler and Elaine de Kooning.

Later in the exchange, when de Kooning rejects the notion of including women in essay courses exhibitions “on the basis of book report, some democratic procedure or statistics” as “ridiculous,” Drexler replies that “you have to start somewhere.” Their conversation, as well as the contributions by artists such as Rosemarie Castoro, Marjorie Strider, and Lynda Benglis, demonstrate that the renewed and growing discourse on structural and systemic discrimination was still very much nascent in and pakistan the art world, despite the activism of marginalized groups and factions such as the Art Workers Coalition (AWC), Black Emergency Cultural Coalition (BECC), and the Ad Hoc Women Artist’s Committee. Although Nochlin’s essay did not provide a comprehensive or systematic model for a feminist art history, it did posit a clear methodological approach, which she keenly reiterates in her conclusion: By stressing the institutional , rather than the individual , or private, preconditions for book report poster board, achievement or the lack of it in the arts, I have tried to provide a paradigm for january 2012 regents critical lens essay, the investigations of other areas in the field […] I have suggested that it was indeed institutionally made impossible for women to achieve artistic excellence, or success, on the same footing as men, no matter what the potency of their so-called talent, or genius. As one of the first major works of the field, “Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?” inspired countless artists and scholars to poster board, embark on their own fields of inquiry. Indeed, the january 2012 english regents essay essay is best understood as part of a larger post-structuralist rejection of book report, perceived binary oppositions (men/women, black/white, heterosexual/homosexual, cisgender/transgender) and essay on india relation the inherently unequal and unjust dichotomies that they perpetuate. “Nochlin nailed the problem four decades ago,” wrote Eleanor Heartney in a 2015 tribute to the art historian. “That her thinking is still so current says some sad things about contemporary culture.” Though its proponents may share the poster same basic values, not all feminist art historians adhere to the same conclusions or concerns. Feminist art history, like feminism itself, is not a monolithic methodology.

Opinions regarding gender, race, essentialism, and essay courses wellington the canon vary greatly throughout the discipline. One of the few maxims generally held to be true is that there is no such thing as a feminist art history. Rather, there are feminist art histories . Linda Nochlin’s “Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?” stands as one of the poster first major strides into a rich, ongoing, and utterly essential discipline. Wellington. I am nonreligious and I don#8217;t practice Yom Kippur#8217;s rituals, but I appreciate its teachings.

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essay erotic dancers Copyright 2003 Journal of Criminal Justice and report, Popular Culture. All rights reserved. Journal of Criminal Justice and Popular Culture , 10(1) (2003) 1-11. EXOTIC DANCERS: GENDER DIFFERENCES IN SOCIETAL REACTION, SUBCULTURAL TIES, AND CONVENTIONAL SUPPORT * Old Dominion University. Department of essay and pakistan, Sociology and Criminal Justice.

We explore the world of female and male exotic dancers. Utilizing Hirschi’s Bonding theory, we look at poster board gender differences in societal reaction, subcultural ties, and conventional support among dancers in a large metropolitan area. We surveyed 56 respondents from 18 exotic dancing establishments. Female dancers are less likely than male dancers to receive community support for dancing as a way to earn a living. Female dancers are also less likely than male dancers to recommend this work to a friend.

The majority of female respondents dance for a living. Few of our male respondents relied on dancing as their primary source of income. On India? While strong bonds are established within the subculture of exotic dancing, dancers also maintain bonds within mainstream society. In other words, a majority of the dancers had strong conventional ties (Hirschi’s attachment, commitment, involvement, and poster, belief) as measured by education, religion, and supportive family, friends, and significant others. ON EXOTIC DANCERS. Little research has been done on the topic of exotic dancing. Environment Essay Writing? Popular research on exotic dancing is interesting and informative; however, most of it lacks empirical data.

Research to book report poster board date focuses on how one becomes an exotic dancer and a society essay, the adaptations one must endure within this profession (Calhoun, Fisher, and Cannon, 1998; Calhoun, Cannon, and Fisher, 1998; Cannon, Calhoun, and book, Fisher, 1998; Lewis, 1998; McCaghy and Skipper, 1969; Carey, Peterson, and Sharpe, 1974; Forsyth, 1992; Forsyth and Deshotels, 1997); the relationships and interactions between dancers and customers (Wood, 2000; Boles and Garbin, 1974; Petersen and Dressel, 1982; Enck and Preston, 1988; Ronae and Ellis, 1989); and the use of neutralization techniques by the dancers in order to literature research thesis justify their occupation and accept the stigmatizing components attached to the role of an exotic dancer (Peretti and O’Connor, 1989; Thompson and Harred, 1992; Reid, Epstein and Benson, 1994; Maticka-Tyndale et. al., 2000). Past researchers assume that exotic dancing is a deviant subculture. More recent research examines the roles of [End page 1] male exotic dancers and how those roles compare and contrast to female exotic dancers (Tewksbury, 1993; Calhoun, Cannon, and book, Fisher, 1996). An exotic dancer is essay wellington, defined as one who removes all or most of her clothing in a sexually suggestive fashion to a paying audience in a performance environment (Skipper and McCaghy, 1970). This definition purposely excludes males because of the identity and role differences between male and female dancers. In this paper, we will use the terms interchangeably between female and male dancers. Exotic dancers are also known as strippers, stripteasers, table dancers, go-go dancers, and adult entertainers (Skipper and McCaghy, 1970). Many reasons have been cited as to why women become exotic dancers; however, the overriding motivation is to report board make money. The more attractive the dancer, the more business she generates. Therefore, beauty and sexuality act as the currency in this profession (Forsyth and Deshotels, 1997).

There are no job prerequisites to become an exotic dancer. January Essay? Formal training is report board, minimal. Dancers learn a set of rules, such as: never leave money unattended (Enck and Preston, 1988); never leave the club with a customer; and never refuse a table dance (Forsyth and Deshotels, 1997). January 2012 English Lens? As long as she can sell herself, she is capable of becoming an report poster, exotic dancer. The setting of a dance club is prone to writing deviant activity, such as prostitution and report board, illegal drug use; therefore, the profession of 2012 lens essay, exotic dancing is generally considered deviant (Boles and Garbin, 1974, 1977). Further, other conservative forms of deviance, such as lesbianism, may arise.

Boles and Garbin (1974, 1977) argue that exotic dancers become lesbians because of their isolation from effective social relationships and their overall dissatisfaction with males. McCaghy and Skipper (1969) argue that women enhance and broaden their sexual activities through lesbian relationships. Book Poster? They then carry those attributes into their profession. Finally, Peretti and a society essay, O’Connor (1989) suggest that because female exotic dancers are continually exploited, they may develop hostile and frigid attitudes towards men. Thus, lesbian relationships provide greater sexual fulfillment (see Skipper and McCaghy, 1970). In their work, Schwartz and Rutter (1998) examine sexual behavior and gender (see also Weitz, 1998; Lindsey, 1997). Given that dancing is a type of sex work, it is important to better understand, within a larger sociocultural context, gender, sex roles, and perceived appropriate behavior. Schwartz and Rutter (1998) argue that both men and book poster, women prefer sex and bisness cover letter, intimacy in a relationship; however, if that is not an option, men are more accepting of casual sex than are women.

Women’s sexual desires tend to be more relational compared to men’s (see Ellis and book report, Symons, 1990; Hatfield and Rapson, 1996). Thus, men’s sexual desire is more likely to allow for sex just for fun (Schwartz and a society essay, Rutter, 1998: 45). Thus, the intimacy and fantasy exotic dancers sell plays better to a male than female audience. Symons (1979) argues that, for men, sex is lust and physical gratification. Book Poster Board? The fantasy of bisness cover letter, casual sex with no plotlines fires the erotic imagination. Women, on book report board, the other hand, tend to a society essay fantasize about a partner and the relationship. It is report poster board, not surprising that most exotic dancers work at courses wellington clubs that cater to men and the male sexual fantasy.

Female and male dancers are playing to vastly different audiences. Female dancers offer fantasy sex; the few clubs that cater to women, with a largely virgin clientele, sell fun and entertainment – not the fantasy of sexual pleasure (see Montemurro, 2001). [End page 2] Ronai and Ellis (1989) suggest that exotic dancing pays well, but cost(s) dearly. The reason for this is because of the negative stigma associated with exotic dancing. 1 When revealing one’s occupation, a person may be seeking immediate social acceptance from poster board others. 2012 English Critical? However, when an occupation is considered illegal, immoral, or improper, social acceptance is not granted (Ritzer, 1977). Thompson and Harred’s (1992) work focuses on book report, how dancers manage this stigma. They posit that most dancers divide the social world by only revealing part of their identity. In other words, dancers reveal only a part of their identity in order to avoid being characterized by the stigmatizing attributes associated with exotic dancing. Also, dancers employ some of Matza and Sykes’s (1957) techniques of neutralization in order to rationalize and justify their profession.

These techniques include: denial of injury (the dancer assumes that his or her performance is not hurting another person); condemnation of the condemner (exotic dancing is not illegal; other people are doing it, so I can do it too); and appeal to higher loyalties (some dancers use their profession for attention and to gain acceptance from others). Most research indicates that at some point a dancer has felt exploited by customers, management, or other dancers. The most common complaint from dancers is being portrayed as an essay writing, object or instrument rather than a person (McCaghy and Skipper, 1969; Boles and Garbin, 1974). While dancers feel this exploitation, they also admit to exploiting their customers (Bell, Sloan, and Stickling, 1998). The dancers are using the report poster, customers for essay money. They sell the fantasy of poster board, sex but do not follow through with the literature research paper, act.

One dancer commented that the customers are suckers for giving the dancers money just for poster board their physical attraction (Bell, Sloan, and Stickling, 1998). Pasko (1999), though, maintains that dancers, in an attempt to acquire a tip or monetary reward, sell more than attractiveness and bisness letter, fantasy; they feign feelings of intimacy and emotional connectedness for their customers. Because of the poster, social stigma and the continual exploitation, some research has been done to january 2012 regents essay explore a dancer’s perceived self versus her ideal self. Peretti and O’Connor’s (1989) work aims to better understand how an exotic dancer’s perceived and book report board, ideal self effect her emotional stability. They posit that the greater the discrepancy between a dancer’s perceived and ideal self, the greater the effect on a dancer’s emotional stability. Reid, Epstein, and Benson (1994) suggest that many dancers are adjusted to their role, but they may not feel that their role as an january 2012 regents critical lens essay, exotic dancer (perceived self) is an accurate reflection of who they really are (ideal self).

In other words, dancers do not consider this occupation to be a defining measure of their ideal self. Dancing does not display one’s core values and book poster board, ideologies. Rather, dancing is a means to earn money and is not perceived by most dancers as defining their identity. A more recent area of study centers on male exotic dancers. Paper Thesis? Research shows that the roles of male exotic dancers differ from those of female dancers (Tewksbury, 1993; Ronai and Cross, 1998; Montemurro, 2001).

The male exotic dancer is not as apt as the female dancer to be seen as deviant. Dressel and Petersen (1982) found that men voluntarily pursue the profession of dancing in order to show off their bodies. Further, Ronai and book poster board, Ellis (1989) argue that male dancers rarely engage in prostitution, while this deviant act is a component of female exotic dancing. Male strippers often feel the same level of exploitation by the customers as female dancers; however, men are more in control of the essay on india and pakistan relation, audience than are women (Tewksbury, 1993). [End page 3] In other words, male dancers are able to maintain a sense of power even when being portrayed as sex objects, while females seem to report lose this sense of power as soon as they come on the stage (Tewksbury, 1993). Thus, male dancers may not experience the same amount of a society essay, humiliation and report poster board, degradation as female dancers (Calhoun, Cannon, and Fischer, 1996). HIRSCHI'S SOCIAL BOND THEORY AND GENDER IN THE WORLD OF THE EXOTIC DANCER. We utilize Hirschi’s social bond theory to january lens better understand gender differences and similarities in the world of the exotic dancer. Report Poster Board? Social bond theory contends that people have rational choice and are free to essay engage in any kind of behavior; however, one’s behavior is a reflection of their degree of morality (Hirschi, 1969). Hirschi assumes that conventional society governs the perspective from book poster board which behavior is viewed. The social bond has four dimensions: attachment, involvement, commitment , and a society essay, belief . We believe female exotic dancers will have greater subcultural ties than male exotic dancers because of gender differences in how societal reactions to the profession are experienced.

We assume that society’s negative reactions toward female exotic dancers, in particular, will result in stronger subcultural ties for female than male dancers. Finally, we explore conventional support systems available to the dancers. Book Report Board? We expect female exotic dancers to have less conventional support than male exotic dancers. Again, we expect it will be more difficult for women than men to cover integrate their professional and personal lives because of differences in perceived societal reaction to dancing. Our survey consisted of demographic variables and questions to capture perceived societal reactions to exotic dancing, subcultural ties to the dancing profession, and conventional support systems available to dancers. Societal reaction includes questions asking how respondents believe their family, friends, and significant others view their choice of occupation. We also asked respondents if they would recommend their line of book, work to a friend or sibling. Bisness Letter? Subcultural ties assess one’s formal and informal ties to the subculture of exotic dancing. We asked questions pertaining to both physical barriers and perceived restraints related to poster the exotic dancing profession. Issues addressed include whether dancing serves as one’s primary source of income, feelings of entrapment, the 2012 english critical essay, time spent preparing for a performance, and relationships that exist within the subculture of exotic dancing. To measure conventional support , we look at one’s formal and informal ties to the conventional society.

Issues addressed in these survey questions include: marital status, education level, religion, and report, childhood environment. Again, we are especially interested in how societal reactions, subcultural ties, and conventional support differ between male and writing, female dancers. Sampling and Data Collection 2. Our sampling frame, consisting of 33 clubs, was compiled from all the exotic dancing organizations in a large suburban area of book report, Virginia (Appendix A). We included all clubs advertised via the newspaper and the phone book, including male and female exotic dancing clubs, Go-Go clubs, Strip-o-Grams, male reviews, and private affairs. A Society Essay? The managers of each of these organizations was then contacted by phone and asked if we had their permission to enter [End page 4] their premises for the purpose of speaking with workers about their experiences.

Twelve of the clubs refused to voluntarily participate in this research, while 18 willingly agreed. The remaining three organizations granted our request to enter their premises; however, we were unable to get any of the dancers to voluntarily complete a survey. Data for this project were obtained through a survey consisting of 91 questions. Report? Roughly one-fourth of the writing, questions were open-ended, and completion of the survey took an average of poster board, 25 minutes. 3. Two researchers visited each of the participating clubs. 4 Upon entering, we again informed the club manager about the purpose of our research and asked how they wished us to proceed with the bisness cover letter, distribution of surveys to the dancers. We were instructed to book board sit either in the dressing room or in the lobby. At this point, we had only received permission from the club management to essay and pakistan relation enter the club; however, it was not guaranteed that the poster board, dancers would participate in the study. The management left it to the discretion of each individual dancer whether or not he or she completed a questionnaire.

5 The researchers approached each and every dancer that they observed on the premises. Therefore, the sample for this research is comprised of essay courses wellington, a convenience selection of willing dancers from those clubs that willfully admitted the researchers. On the average, five dancers were on hand at each club. After completing the survey, some dancers identified others they felt would voluntarily participate in this study. All participation was anonymous and voluntary. Given that our variables are measured at the nominal level, we examine chi-square statistics to see if significant gender differences exist among exotic dancers. A total of 56 respondents completed the survey, 16 males and 40 females. Report Poster? This gender distribution is in line with the exotic dancing population nationally (see Forsyth, 1992). Most (69 percent) of the respondents are white (63 percent of the males and 72 percent of the females); 22 percent are black (25 percent of the males and 20 percent of the a society essay, females).

The dancers range in poster board, age from 19 to 40, with a median age of a society essay, 24. Dancers are most likely to be single (30 of 56) or divorced (12 of 56). Among the other dancers, nine of the respondents are married, three cohabitate, and two are separated. A majority (58.9%) of the respondents have children. Report Board? The range of highest level of education is from 11 years to 20 years, with the mean at 13 years.

Most (89 percent) of the respondents self reported as heterosexuals. Only four percent self reported as homosexual or bisexual (seven percent). Environment? The vast majority (89 percent) were raised in a religious home. Few (five percent) were raised in book report poster, a home where a family member was an exotic dancer. Almost half (48.2 percent) of the dancers are self-managed, 34 percent are club managed, and 14 percent are private service managed (in other words a service outside the paper thesis, club books their appointments). The majority of women (57 percent) are self-managed or club managed (40 percent). Among men, half are private service managed ( X 2 = 24.47; p = .001). Investigating societal reactions to exotic dancers, we found that the vast majority of respondents felt that their friends (75 percent) and significant others (65.4 percent) accepted their work. 6 Respondents’ families were less enthusiastic about their job choice.

Only 46 percent of them, the dancers perceived, accepted this as a way to earn money; nine percent of family members were intolerant or repulsed by poster, this line of work. Most respondents (86.3 percent) [End page 5] considered exotic dancing a legitimate line of work; eight percent think dancing is prostitution as well. Most dancers (89 percent) would recommend dancing to a friend. Notably, all the writing wellington, male respondents would recommend dancing to book report a friend; whereas, 15 percent of essay on india and pakistan relation, female dancers would not ( X 2 = 2.69; p = .10). In fact, one male dancer volunteered that he would do it [dance] for free! We asked respondents how community knowledge about their profession affected them. The majority (73 percent) felt the community responded positively to exotic dancing as a way to earn money.

Again, though, a gender difference appeared. Book Poster? All male respondents said they felt community knowledge about their profession positively affected them; whereas, only 62 percent of environment essay writing, female dancers felt this positive community support ( X 2 = 8.19; p = .001). While the vast majority (88 percent) of dancers have friends who also dance, few (10 percent) have other family members who are exotic dancers. Many dancers (49 percent) were comfortable or very comfortable in revealing their occupation to others. Interestingly, most (52 percent) respondents viewed exotic dancing as a promiscuous activity. Most (63 percent) dancers have never dated a customer. Of those who dated customers, male dancers are more likely to date (75 percent) a customer versus comparable females (21 percent) ( X 2 = 14.05; p = .001). For dancers generally, this is not their sole source of income. However, more women than men rely on dancing for primary support. Report Poster Board? The majority (56 percent) of female respondents versus 12 percent of males dance for a living ( X 2 = 8.89; p = .003).

Besides the bisness cover, money, dancers noted the thrill, attention, and atmosphere of the dancing environment. Both male and female dancers, though, believe they could change to another type of work. Some dancers, however, have experienced problems. Board? One dancer commented, I have lost jobs in the past because employers found out [that she danced]. The majority of dancers (66 percent) were raised by both their mother and father.

If a mother and father were not present, gender differences in care emerged. Almost one-fifth (19 percent) of male dancers were raised by their father only. Literature Research Thesis? None of the book board, female dancers were raised in a lone father household ( X 2 = 9.63; p = .02) (only two percent of the sample as a whole was raised by a guardian). Literature? The vast majority (91 percent) of respondents feel close to book poster board their parent(s). We asked respondents if they were exposed to essay writing pornography or sexual nudity during their childhood. Most (78 percent) were not exposed. If they were exposed, males were more likely to experience this material (44 percent) than comparable female dancers (12 percent) ( X 2 = 6.36; p = .01). [End page 6] As expected, female exotic dancers experience less community support for dancing as a way to poster earn money than do comparable males. We argue that this relates to what male and cover letter, female exotic dancers are selling. Book Report Poster? Female dancers offer a sexual fantasy to their clientele, whereas male dancers sell fun and entertainment.

Perhaps this explains why female dancers are much less likely than male dancers to recommend dancing to a friend. While strong bonds are established within the subculture of exotic dancing, dancers do maintain bonds with mainstream society. In other words, a majority of dancers had strong, conventional ties (Hirschi’s attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief) such as education, religion, and supportive family, friends, and significant others. We expected that the more one is research thesis, involved in the subculture, the greater the book poster, chance that a dancer will be labeled negatively. We assumed that females would be more involved in on india relation, the exotic dancing subculture because they experience more negative societal reactions to their work compared to male dancers. We found that female dancers are more likely to rely on dancing as a way to earn a living versus comparable males. Perhaps this is why female dancers do not feel the poster board, same positive community support as do males. Whether or not dancing displays the female dancer's real self, this is how she spends much of her time. Given this time investment, she is identified, more so than male dancers, by english regents, this occupation.

This means the negative connotations associated with exotic dancing are more likely to be applied to her, and she recognizes this. This may well shape the gender difference we find in book poster board, recommending dancing to january 2012 english critical lens others. Female dancers have more reservations about recommending dancing than do male dancers. This supports the work of Egan (2000) who argues that it is difficult for female exotic dancers to keep work and personal selves or roles separate and distinct. Male dancers, on report, the other hand, enter the occupation for economic as well as other reasons (to show off the body). They feel more positive about dancing and, in fact, perceive community support for this work. This, too, helps shape the gender difference observed in regard to dating customers. Among those who dated customers, we found that male dancers were more apt to engage in essay on india and pakistan relation, this behavior than were female dancers. For males, dancing may well enhance their social opportunities. Female dancers, on board, the other hand, may be more apt to see dancing as prostitution, which leads them to divide work from pleasure. * Direct correspondence to Dr.

Elizabeth Monk-Turner, Old Dominion University, Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice, Norfolk, VA, 23529 (E-mail: eturner@odu.edu). 1. A stigma is any attribute that sets people apart and disqualifies or discredits them for social acceptance (Goffman, 1963). 2. This project was reviewed and approved by Old Dominion University’s human subjects institutional review panel. Respondents who provided information for research paper thesis this study did so voluntarily. [End page 7] 3. Initially, five informal surveys and interviews were voluntarily completed by male and female exotic dancers in order for the researchers to pretest the report poster, dancers’ willingness to participate in the project and the quality of the questions being asked. Essay Writing Wellington? As a result, some of the wording of the questions was changed for the purpose of clarity. 4. All the researchers were female. Poster? The researchers went into clubs as a pair but conducted the interviews one-on-one. 5. The overwhelming majority of dancers approached were eager to participate in environment, this study.

In the few cases when a dancer declined to participate, there was a problem with regard to time commitments. We interviewed dancers at 18 of the 33 clubs in our sampling frame. We believe the 56 dancers interviewed are representative of dancers as a whole. There was no bias in book report board, club selection (all clubs in on india and pakistan relation, the area were in our sampling frame). We believe that those clubs that did not let us enter do not pose a problem of systematic sampling bias (we make the assumption that clubs who declined to participate are missing at random). 6. Respondents were asked about the perceived reaction of their friends in general. A LIST OF ALL EXOTIC DANCING ORGANIZATIONS IN THE TIDEWATER AREA OF VIRGINIA.

Club Name Response to Request. 1. About Face Enterprises * 4. American Male Dancers Company * 5. Apollo Productions * 8. Book Report Poster? Dancers Unlimited *** 9. Discreet Enterprises ** 10. Eloquent Beauties ** 14. Fantasy Lounge *** 18.

Guy’s Fantasy *** 19. Heart Break Caf *** 20. Intimate Dreams *** 21. And Pakistan? JB’s Gallery of Girls *** 22. Book Poster? Knickerbocker’s *** [End page 8] 23. Lovely Ladies * 24. Paradise Enterprises *** 26. 2012 Regents Lens Essay? Pretty Lady’s *** 28. Sorority Sisters *** 29. Sugar and Spice *** 30. Super Sexy Strippers *** 31. Sweet Dreams ***

KEY: * Club said NO to our request in conducting the survey on their premises. ** Club admitted the researchers, however, the dancers did not agree to book report poster participate. *** Club admitted the researchers and the dancers complied (i.e., filled out surveys) Bell, H., Lacey Sloan, and Chris Stickling. 1998. Exploiter or Exploited: Topless Dancers Reflect on their Experiences. Affilia: Journal of Women and Social World 13: 352-65. Boles, J. and A. P. Garbin. 1974.

The Strip Club and the Customer-Stripper Patterns of Interaction. Sociology and Social Research 58: 136-144. _____________. On India Relation? 1977. The Strip Club and the Stripper-Customer Patterns of Interaction. In Clifton D. Bryant's (Ed.) Sexual Deviancy in Social Context . New York: New Viewpoints.

Calhoun, T., R. Fisher, and J. Cannon. 1998. The Case of book poster board, Amateur Stripping: Sex Codes and Egalitarianism in a Heterosocial Setting. In Mary Jo Deegan’s The American Ritual Tapestry. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Calhoun, T., J. Cannon, and R. Fisher. 1998. Explorations in Youth Culture: Amateur Stripping: What We Know and What We Don’t. In Jonathon S. Epstein’s Youth Culture Identity in a society essay, a Postmodern World . Malden, MA: Blackwell. Calhoun, T., Julie A. H. Cannon, and Rhonda Fisher. 1996.

Amateur Stripping: Sexualized Entertainment and book poster board, Gendered Fun. 2012 English Regents Critical? Sociological Focus 29: 155-166. Cannon, J., T. Calhoun, and R. Fisher. 1998. Amateur Stripping and Gaming Encounters: Fun in Games or Gaming as Fun? Deviant Behavior 19: 3-15. Carey, S. H., R. A. Peterson, and L. K. Book Board? Sharpe. 1974. A Society Essay? A Study of Recruitment and book poster board, Socialization in Two Deviant Female Occupations.

Sociological Symposium 11: 11-24. Dressel, P. and David Petersen. 1982. Becoming a Male Stripper. Lens Essay? Work and Occupations 9: 387-406. [End page 9] ____________. 1982. Gender Roles, Sexuality and book, the Male Strip Show: The Structuring of Sexual Opportunity. Sociological Focus 15: 151-162. Egan, R. Danielle. 2000.

The Phallus Palace: Stripping Spaces, Desiring Subjects and the Fantasy of 2012 lens essay, Objects. Unpublished dissertation. Ellis, B. J. and D. Poster Board? Symons. 1990. Sex Differences in Sexual Fantasy. Journal of essay courses wellington, Sex Research 27: 527-55. Enck, G. E. and J. D. Preston. 1988. Counterfeit Intimacy: A Dramaturgical Analysis of an Erotic Performance. Deviant Behavior: An Interdisciplinary Journal 9: 369-381. Forsyth, C. 1992.

Parade Strippers: A Note on Being Naked in Public. Deviant Behavior: An Interdisciplinary Journal 13: 391-403. Forsyth, C. and Tina Deshotels. 1997. The Occupational Milieu of the Nude Dancer. Book Poster Board? Deviant Behavior: An Interdisciplinary Journal 18: 125-142. Goffman, E. 1963. Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity . Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Hatfield, E. and R. L. Rapson. 1996.

Love and Sex . Needham Heights, MA: Allyn Bacon. Hirschi, Travis. 1969. Causes of Delinquency . Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Lewis, J. 1998. Learning to Strip. Research Paper? The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality 7: 51-66. Lindsey, Linda. 1997. Report? Gender Roles . Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Maticka-Tyndale, E, J. Lewis, J. Clark, J. Zubick, and S. Young. Critical Lens? 2000. Exotic Dancing and Health. Women Health 31: 87-108. McCaghy, C. and poster board, James K. Skipper. 1969. Lesbian Behavior as an research paper, Adaptation to the Occupation of book, Stripping. Social Problems 17: 262-270.

Montemurro. B. 2001. Strippers and a society essay, Screamers. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 30: 275-304. Pasko, Lisa. Report Poster Board? 1999. Exotic Dance and literature research thesis, the Social Act. ASA Paper: 99S38410. Petersen, David and report, P. Cover Letter? Dressell. 1982. Equal Time for book Women: Notes on a Male Strip Shows.

Urban Life and Culture 11: 185-205. Peretti, P. O. and Patrick O’Connor. Paper Thesis? 1989. Effects of Incongruence between the Perceived Self and the Ideal Self on book, Emotional Stability of Stripteasers. Social Behavior and Personality 17: 81-92. [End page 10] Reid, S., Jonathon Epstein, and D. E. Benson. Cover Letter? 1994. Role Identity in a Devalued Occupation: The Case of Female Exotic Dancers. Sociological Focus 1: 1-15. Ritzer, G. 1977.

Working: Conflict and book report, Change (2 nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Ronai, C. R. and R. Cross. 1998. Essay Writing? Dancing with Identity. Report Poster? Deviant Behavior 19: 99-119. Ronai, C. R. and C. Ellis. 1989.

Turn-ons for Money: Interactional Strategies of the Table Dancer. Cover? Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 18: 271-298. Schwartz, Pepper and V. Rutter. 1998. The Gender of Sexuality . Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press. Skipper, James K. and C. McCaghy. Book Report Poster? 1970.

Stripteasers: The Anatomy and Career Contingencies of a Deviant Occupation. Social Problems 17: 391-404. Sykes, Gresham and essay on india and pakistan, David Matza. Report Poster Board? 1957. Techniques of environment writing, Neutralization: A Theory of Delinquency. American Sociological Review 23: 664-670. Symons, D. 1979. The Evolution of book report, Human Sexuality . Courses? New York: Oxford University Press. Tewksburg, R. 1993. Male Strippers: Men Objectifying Men.

In Christine L. Williams's (Ed) Doing Women’s Work: Men in Nontraditional Occupations . Report Board? Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. Thompson, W. E. and J. Literature Research Paper Thesis? L. Harred. 1992. Topless Dancers: Managing Stigma in a Deviant Occupation. Deviant Behavior: An Interdisciplinary Journal 13: 291-311. Weitz, Rose (Ed.).

1998. The Politics of book, Women’s Bodies . A Society Essay? New York: Oxford University Press. Wood, Elizabeth Ann. Report Poster Board? 2000. Working in the Fantasy Factory. Journal of and pakistan, Contemporary Ethnography 29: 5-31. Book Report? [End page 11]