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Band 6 Hamlet Essay – HSC English Module B [Free Essay] Posted on September 24, 2013 by Matrix Education. Here is an example of process, a band 6 Hamlet essay. You may notice some imperfections as you read it, but remember that you are not expected to write a ‘perfect’ essay during the papers exam. As you read it, consider whether you think it contains a clear thesis and directly answers the process analysis essay question. Obama Columbia Thesis! An inherent tension between confrontation and resolution is revealed through characterisation in Shakespeare’s Hamlet.

To what extent does your interpretation align with this view? A philosophical rendering of the everyday leads to a tension between reflection and action. Analysis! In Shakespeare’s revenge tragedy play Hamlet, this is highlighted through the ohio state university electronic thesis characterisation of Hamlet himself, and his engagement with the philosophical and academic concerns of Elizabethan England through his interactions with Horatio. By drawing on elements of this, and contrasting them with contextual concerns about religion and spirituality, Hamlet is constructed as a deeply meditative play, which finds itself continuously delayed and stunted in its attempts to reach fruition. The use of delay to create a play which happens outside of ‘reality’ and thus remains internalised and wrought with anaphasia is most evident in the characterisation of Hamlet. Hamlet’s diction is littered with binary oppositions, such as in his opening line “a little more than kin and less than kind”, indicating that he inhabits and speaks within a space where the analysis writing constant state of flux has rendered ideas without opposition unpalatable. Make Book! Hamlet’s inability to speak without binary oppositions is directly related to his inability to act, and this is shown in analysis essay his soliloquy, “to be or not to be, that is the question”, where the binary oppositions of existence and selfhood are placed in the sphere of make report, movement, only to essay writing, cause further inaction, adding to the overall delay of the play. It is make report, this delay in the action which causes Act 5 Scene 2 to erupt with such bloodshed, as shown through the repetitious stage directions: “He dies”, and “dies” are repeated four times in analysis the scene.

And yet, even in the single scene of action in this play, these deaths, too, are delayed. Essay! Laertes, Gertrude, Claudius and Hamlet all speak between receiving their final wounds and dying, indicating that it is the loss of speech, rather than loss of life, that is the most crucial part of mankind, and will be lost in death. In addition to this, despite the question of whether or not to kill Claudius functioning within the play as a metaphor for the question of whether or not existence is worthwhile, it is Claudius who is the last to die (barring Hamlet), delaying resolution even in a moment of confrontation. This delay and its cause has been widely attributed to essay, the Elizabethan guilt complex, and obsession with “the functions of oates an essay on fiscal, conscience and analysis writing, especially its morbid preoccupation with past sins and omissions” (Reed, 1958). By obsessing over the dangers of inaction, Hamlet creates further delay for himself, ultimately halting any action or resolution that the play could come to. The power of academic and philosophical engagement with issues of morality and political structure is an columbia undeniable force in process analysis the conclusion of state thesis, Hamlet. The relationship between Hamlet and Horatio is one of academic engagement, as shown through Horatio’s continual allusions to the rendering of Caesar’s death in the Shakespearian version of the story, which was written concurrently with Hamlet, such as in his description of the ghost’s appearance “in the process analysis most high and palmy state of Rome/a little ere the mightiest Julius fell”. This dialogue with history and politics is emphasised through the vehicle of this friendship, and, in columbia thesis using this, Shakespeare questions the virility of the Danish political system and the role of the monarchy. This parallel between Rome after the process analysis essay assassination of Caesar and the rapidly-declining political system of Denmark is thinking educational an evaluation of measurement, furthered by Horatio’s return to this metaphor in the final scene “I am more antique Roman than a Dane”. Process Analysis Essay Writing! Through this juxtaposition the audience is forced to call into question Hamlet’s role in the Julius Caesar parallel, creating yet another layer of make, separation between Hamlet and the audience.

It is in Hamlet’s conversations with Horatio that his philosophical musings are most prominent, and through this we can see Horatio as an agent both of Hamlet’s conscience, and of the play’s delay. In John Quincy Adam’s analysis of the play, he points at the friendship between Hamlet and Horatio as being crucial to the development of Hamlet’s moral code which is only the result of “a mind cultivated by the learning acquirable at a university, combining intelligence and sensibility” (Adams, 1839). By characterising Horatio as the essay intellectual force within the play, and subsequently the source of socio-political commentary, Shakespeare adds to the moral and cultural instability of the play in a manner which results in current events essay further delay of confrontation or resolution. Fatalism plays an important role in understanding the tension between action and inaction in analysis essay Hamlet. From the appearance of the ghost, Hamlet’s course of action is an essay federalism, inevitable within the essay writing tropes of the Elizabethan revenge tragedy and the Greek tragedy roots that it is drawn from.

However, he resists this role by delaying taking action, and as a result, the play can be read as being in perpetual tension between the restoration of natural order and the resistance of that restoration. The apostrophe of “out, out, thou strumpet, Fortune!” shows Hamlet’s resistance of what he perceives to be the only path available to him. Events Essay! In Act 5 Scene 2, when Hamlet finally takes action, he begins to refer to himself in the third person, a bizarre subversion of a play which previously obsessed with the use of “I”. This switching of process analysis essay writing, mode of speech indicates that it is only though the abandonment of his self-identity, and thus moral code, that he is able to complete the actions which divine providence demands of book report, him. This is process analysis essay, supported by book report Dwery’s reading of the play’s resolution, where he argues that “Hamlet recognizes the inevitability of death, accepting his father’s death and analysis, recognising his own unavoidable fate.” (Dwery, 2004) By understanding the contextual concerns with the obama columbia college nature and process essay, role of fate and divinity in obama columbia the everyday, a deeper understanding of the character of Hamlet emerges. The tension between action and inaction in Hamlet stem from the contextual role of fate, which forces Hamlet into a position where he repeatedly delays himself, until his self-identity is erased, and he performs the actions which fate requires of him. My interpretation of the delay highlights the contribution of socio-political forces to the delay, and ultimately the tension which permeates the play, which is depicted through the characterisation of Hamlet and Horatio. Want to learn how to write a band 6 essay for Module B? Attend our 4 week text-based Module B essay writing courses to receive step-by-step guidance from an HSC expert to: Perfect your critical writing skills Refine your analytical and creative skills Respond to analysis essay writing, challenging english questions Apply your English skills in current events essay 2012 school assessments. © Matrix Education and www.matrix.edu.au, 2017. Unauthorised use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this site’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited.

Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Matrix Education and www.matrix.edu.au with appropriate and specific direction to the original content. Found this article interesting or useful? Share the knowledge! HSC Physics Study Guide Part 2 (Motors and Generators Module) How To Prepare For HSC English Advanced Paper 1: Short Response Questions. HSC English ADV Module C Related Texts. ATAR and process analysis writing, Scaling (7) English (51) High School Rankings (9) High School Survival Guide (12) HSC Success Secrets (69) Mathematics (1) Parents (12) Physics (9) Selective School (5) Study Tips (53) UMAT (23) Uncategorised (7) University Course Admissions (29) University Scholarships (5) Year 07 (5) Year 08 (5) Year 09 (9) Year 10 (17) Year 11 (18) Year 12 (88) LEARN THE ESSENTIALS FOR ACHIEVING HSC SUCCESS. Enter your email to receive: Exclusive invitations to papers, free academic seminars Free HSC study guides and eBooks Access to free UMAT papers Assessment tips from HSC markers Updates on the latest HSC news.

of our 2016 students achieved an process writing ATAR above 90. was the obama columbia thesis top ATAR score achieved by our 2016 students who ranked 1st in the state. percentile was the process writing top ranking achieved by 2 of our 2016 UMAT students.

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International Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de developpement. Dossier | Africa: 50 years of independence — Review | Major development policy trends. African Economic Development and essay writing, Colonial Legacies. This article reviews how colonial rule and African actions during the oates, colonial period affected the resources and institutional settings for subsequent economic development south of the Sahara. The issue is essay writing seen from the perspective of the dynamics of development in what was in make book, 1900 an overwhelmingly land-abundant region characterised by shortages of writing labour and capital, by perhaps surprisingly extensive indigenous market activities and by varying but often low levels of political centralisation.

The differential impact of French and British rule is explored, but it is argued that a bigger determinant of the differential evolution of oates an essay on fiscal federalism poverty, welfare and structural change was the contrast between “settler” and “peasant” economies. 1 The current names of process essay writing former colonies are preferred in this essay, not least because until the 1930s (. ) 1 This article asks how the legacies of European rule, both generally and in particular categories of colony, have affected post-colonial economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa. The year 1960 is conventionally used as the “stylised date” of independence, for the good reason that it saw the end of colonial rule in most of the French colonies south of the Sahara as well as in the most populous British and Belgian ones (Nigeria and Congo respectively).1 Half a century is a reasonable period over thinking as an outcome an evaluation of current which to review the economic impact of legacies because it allows us to consider the issue in the context of different phases of post-colonial policy and process, performance. 2 The causal significance of legacies varies, in that they affect subsequent freedom of manoeuvre to different extents and in different directions. At its strongest, legacy takes the form of “path determination”, implying that colonial choices determined post-colonial ones, or at least conditioned them, such that departure from the colonial pattern was, and perhaps remains, difficult and costly. Besides asking about the strength of the obama thesis, influence of the past on the future, we need to consider the nature of that influence. Did colonial rule put African countries on a higher or lower path of economic change? It will be argued here that the “path(s)” on which African economies were (to a greater or lesser extent) set by the time of independence are most usefully seen not as necessarily initiated in the colonial period, but often rather as continuations and adjustments from paths of change established before the process analysis essay writing, European partition of the continent.

3 The following discussion has three preliminary sections. Thus, chapter 2 first attempts a summary of the economic record since independence in order to define the pattern for which colonial legacies may have been partly responsible. An Essay On Fiscal Federalism. Chapter 3 outlines contending views of those legacies. Analysis Essay. Chapter 4 tries to define the events essay 2012, economic and political structures and process, trends within Africa on the eve of the European partition of the continent. It identifies an an essay federalism, emerging African comparative advantage in writing, land-extensive forms of production, which West Africans in particular were already exploiting and, by federalism their investments and initiatives, deepening. 4 In this framework, chapter 5 then introduces the colonial regimes, highlighting their fiscal constraints and comparing different national styles of colonial rule, focusing on the largest empires, those of analysis writing Britain and France. It is oates an essay a theme of this essay, however, that another kind of variation between colonies was more important, i.e. that defined by the extent and form of European appropriation and use of land: “settler”, “plantation” and “peasant” colonies.

Chapter 6 considers how far colonial rule (and the actions of European companies that it facilitated) reinforced the process, emergence of research a comparative advantage in land-extensive primary exports and looks at the consequences of this for the welfare of the population. Chapter 7 explores colonial contributions, and their limits, for the very long-term shift of African factor endowments from labour scarcity towards labour abundance and a relatively high level of human capital formation, such as helped Tokugawa Japan, and more recently other parts of Asia, to process achieve “labour-intensive industrialisation” (Sugihara 2007). Chapter 8 assesses the events topics, impact of analysis essay writing different kinds of European regime on African entrepreneurship and on institutions facilitating, hindering or channelling African participation in markets. Chapter 9 completes the an essay on fiscal, substantive discussion by commenting on the long-term effects of the colonial intrusion on the capacity of the State in Africa for facilitating and promoting economic development. 2. Post-colonial change and analysis essay, variation. 5 Notoriously, output per head in Sub-Saharan Africa is the lowest of make book any major world region and analysis writing, has, on average, expanded slowly and haltingly since 1960. Obama Columbia College. But there have been important changes, and variations over space, in policy and performance. In policy, structural adjustment in the 1980s marked a watershed: a fundamental shift from administrative to process analysis writing market means of resource allocation. The change, however, was less dramatic in most of the former French colonies, where (except in Guinea) the maintenance of a convertible currency had enabled governments to avoid some of the supplementary price and quantity controls which had increasingly been imposed in research papers, the mostly former British colonies outside the franc zone. In performance, aggregate economic growth rates in the region were pretty respectable until 1973-75 (Jerven 2009). Ironically, in process essay writing, the decade or so following the adoption of structural adjustment they were stagnant or negative, before the Chinese-led boom in world commodity prices eased the region into 12 years of gross domestic product (GDP) growth at an average of 5% a year before the crises of 2007 (rising fuel and food prices, then the beginning of the international financial crisis) and 2008 brought about a “great recession” in 2009 (IMF 2009).

1 For a general account see Rimmer (1992, esp. 5, 228). 6 There were notable exceptions to the general growth trends, both before and after the turning-point in the early to mid-1970s. Cote d’Ivoire and Ghana made a particularly interesting contrast: similarly-sized neighbours with relatively similar factor endowments and geographical features, but with different colonial heritages. As An Educational Outcome Tools Of Measurement. Cote d’Ivoire underwent what might loosely be described as a magnified version of the standard growth trajectory. It averaged an annual GDP growth of 9.5% from 1960 to 1978 (Berthelemy and Soderling 2001, 324-5) but then had several years of stagnation followed by civil war. Meanwhile, Ghana did almost the opposite. Analysis Essay Writing. Ghanaian GDP per an essay on fiscal federalism capita was barely higher in 1983, when it began structural adjustment, than at independence in 1957.1 However, as one of the two most successful cases of structural adjustment in Africa (the other being Uganda), Ghana averaged nearly 5% annual growth during the quarter-century after 1983. Thus, roughly, while Cote d’Ivoire was rising Ghana was falling, and vice versa.

Only one Sub-Saharan economy, Botswana, sustained growth over three, indeed four, decades since its independence, which was in 1966. Botswana averaged 9.3% annual growth (Berthelemy and Soderling 2001, 324-5). 3. Process Essay. Contrasting perspectives on the colonial legacy. 2 For Africanist commentaries see Austin (2008b) and Hopkins (2009). 7 A feature of the theoretical and ideological debate about the history of economic development in ohio state electronic and dissertation, Africa is that it is process essay writing possible to reach rather similar conclusions from very different scholarly and political starting-points. Regarding the book, colonial impact, the case for essay writing the prosecution, which a generation ago was urged most strongly by dependency theorists and radical nationalists (Amin 1972; Rodney 1972), is state university electronic now championed by “rational choice” growth economists. Daron Acemoglu, Simon Johnson and James A. Robinson (2001; 2002) have argued that Africa’s relative poverty at the end of the essay writing, 20th century was primarily the result of the form taken by oates an essay European colonialism on the continent: Europeans settling for extraction rather than settling themselves in overwhelming numbers and thereby introducing the analysis essay, kinds of obama columbia institution (private property rights and systems of government that would support them) that, according to writing Acemoglu, Johnson and Robinson, was responsible for economic development in Europe and the colonies of European settlement in North America and Australasia.2. 8 Colonial extraction in Africa could be seen most decisively in the appropriation of land for European settlers or plantations, a strategy used not only to make provide European investors and settlers with cheap and secure control of land, but also to writing oblige Africans to sell their labour to European farmers, planters or mine-owners (Palmer and Parsons 1977).

Even in the “peasant” colonies, i.e. Oates On Fiscal. where the land remained overwhelmingly in African ownership, we will see that major parts of the services sector were effectively monopolised by Europeans. Then there was coercive recruitment of process analysis essay labour by research colonial administrations, whether to work for the State or for European private enterprise (Fall 1993; Northrup 1988). Analysis. Of potentially great long-term importance was the unwillingness of colonial governments to make report accept, still less promote, the emergence of markets in land rights on land occupied by analysis Africans, whether in state electronic thesis, “settler” or “peasant” colonies (Phillips 1989). From the perspectives of both dependency theory and “rational choice” institutionalism, the original sin of colonialism in analysis essay writing, Africa was that it did not introduce a full-blooded capitalist system, based upon private property and thereby generating the pressures towards competition and accumulation necessary to drive self-sustained economic growth. 9 A narrower but important argument was made by the then small group of liberal development economists between the events topics, 1950s and 1970s. At a time when development economists (especially but not exclusively those writing in French) tended to favour a leading role for the State in the search for essay writing development in mixed economies (Hugon 1993; Killick 1978) P. T. Bauer (1953; 1972) attacked the late colonial State for introducing statutory marketing boards and thereby laying the foundation of what he considered to be deadening State interventionism. 10 Explicitly positive overviews of colonial rule in Africa are rare (but see Duignan and Gann 1975).

Many studies, though, mention the suppression of intra-African warfare, the abolition of internal slave trading and slavery, the introduction of mechanised transport and investment in infrastructure, and the development of modern manufacturing in the “settler” economies and in the Belgian Congo. Excited by the late 20th century wave of papers on sports economic “globalisation”, some economic liberals have argued that the process, British empire pioneered the process through its general opposition to tariff protection (1846-1931) and by college thesis other pro-market measures (Ferguson 2003; Lal 2004). With respect to tariffs, this case would apply less strongly to French colonies because of the protectionism of the French empire. Process Essay. It is current also much less true of the final 30 years of British rule in Africa, which saw not only tariffs but also the creation of marketing boards. From the perspective of process essay institutional change, a fundamental observation applicable to the region generally was highlighted by John Sender and Sheila Smith (1986). Writing in the “tragic optimist” tradition of Marx’s writings on British rule in India, they emphasised that wage labour was rare at the beginning of colonial rule and increasingly common by federalism the end of essay writing it. For them, as for Bill Warren (1980), imperialism was the “pioneer of capitalism”. 11 Besides optimism and pessimism, a third view of colonial rule, and by implication of its legacy, is that its importance has been over-rated.

There are different routes to this conclusion. Many historians are struck by make the brevity of colonial rule south of the Sahara, i.e. about 60 years in most of tropical Africa (Ajayi 1969), and by the weakness of the colonial State (Herbst 2000). In this setting it can plausibly be argued that whatever went well in the “peasant” economies (and cash crop economies expanded greatly) was mainly the responsibility of process analysis writing Africans, through their economic rationality and make book report, entrepreneurship, a position epitomised by Polly Hill (1997). More ambivalent are the arguments of Jean-Francois Bayart (1989; 2000). Building on the familiar observation that rulers in Africa have usually found it hard to raise large revenues from domestic sources, Bayart argues that, during colonial rule and since, African elites became clients of colonial or overseas States. Process Essay. Thereby they forged relations which, though unequal, benefited themselves as well as the foreigners. Whereas dependency theory emphasised the primacy of foreign agency in determining historical outcomes, Bayart insists that African elites played a calculating and key role in establishing the “extraverted” pattern of African political economy. 4. A pre-colonial perspective on colonial legacies. 12 To evaluate the colonial legacy, we need to distinguish it from the situation and trends at the beginning of colonial rule, which in most of obama columbia Sub-Saharan Africa occurred during the process essay writing, European “Scramble”, from 1879 to circa 1905.

At that time the region was, as before, characterised generally (not everywhere all the time) by an abundance of research cultivable land in process essay, relation to the labour available to till it (Hopkins 1973; Austin 2008a). This did not mean “resource abundance” as much of Africa’s mineral endowment was either unknown or inaccessible with pre-industrial technology or was not yet valuable even overseas. Book Report. For example, many of the major discoveries (notably of oil in Nigeria and diamonds in Botswana) were to occur only during the period of decolonisation. Moreover, the fertility of much of the land was relatively low or at writing, least fragile, making it costly or difficult to pursue intensive cultivation, especially in the absence of animal manure. Sleeping sickness prevented the obama thesis, use of large animals, whether for ploughing or transport, in the forest zones and much of the savannas. The extreme seasonality of the annual distribution of rainfall rendered much of the dry season effectively unavailable for farm work. Analysis Writing. The consequent low opportunity cost of dry-season labour reduced the incentive to raise labour productivity in thinking an evaluation tools, craft production. Conversely, the characteristic choices of farming techniques were land-extensive and labour-saving; but the process essay, thinness of the soils constrained the returns on labour (Austin 2008a).

All this helps to explain why the productivity of African labour was apparently higher outside Africa over several centuries, cf. the underlying economic logic of the external slave trades which in turn, ironically, aggravated the events essay topics 2012, scarcity of process analysis writing labour within Africa itself (Austin 2008b; Manning 1990). 13 Within Africa, the structure of state electronic incentives encouraged a high degree of self-sufficiency, and by the middle of the process analysis, 20th century it was widely assumed that pre-colonial economies had necessarily been overwhelmingly subsistence-oriented. Research. The last half-century of research has progressively changed this assessment, especially for West Africa where a strong tendency towards extra-subsistence production was evident in the 16th and process analysis writing, 17th centuries. While damaged by obama college thesis the aggravated “Dutch disease” effects of the essay, Atlantic slave trade (Inikori 2007; Austin, forthcoming), this tendency was strongly resumed from the first decade of the 19th century when that trade began to be abolished, with West Africans producing on a wider and larger scale for internal as well as overseas markets. Given the papers on sports, relative scarcity of labour, and in the absence (generally) of significant economies of scale in production, it was rare for the reservation wage (the minimum wage rate sufficient to persuade people to sell their labour rather than work for themselves) to be low enough for a would-be employer to process afford to pay it. Critical Thinking Educational Outcome Of Current Of Measurement. Hence the labour markets of pre-colonial Africa mainly took the form of slave trading (Austin 2005, chapters 6, 8; Austin 2008a).

14 The same abundance of land made political centralisation difficult to achieve and sustain (Herbst 2000). Political fragmentation had facilitated the Atlantic slave trade, in that larger States would have had stronger incentives and capacities for rejecting participation in it (Inikori 2003). This fragmentation later facilitated the European conquest. Ethiopia was the exception that proved the process analysis essay writing, rule, with its fertile central provinces and large agricultural surplus supporting a long-established and modernising State that, alone in Africa, had the economic base to resist the “Scramble” successfully. 2 The historiography is too complex to be summarised here. But it can be said that, although the current events, moti (. ) 15 By no coincidence,2 most of Sub-Saharan Africa was colonised at a time when the industrialisation of Europe was creating or expanding markets for various commodities that could profitably be produced in Africa. The land-labour ratio, the environmental constraints on intensive agriculture and also the specific qualities of particular kinds of land in various parts of the continent gave Africa at least a potential comparative advantage in land-extensive primary production.

By the time of colonisation, especially in West Africa, the indigenous populations were increasingly taking advantage of the combination of these supply-side features and of access to expanding overseas markets. From Senegal to Cameroon thousands of tonnes of groundnuts and palm oil, and from the 1880s rubber, were being produced for process sale to European merchants (Law 1995). 5. Obama Columbia College. Colonial regimes: similarities and variations. 16 Colonial rule in Africa was intended to process writing be cheap, viz. for federalism taxpayers in writing, Europe. The British doctrine was that each colony should be fiscally self-supporting. Thus, any growth in government expenditure was supposed to be financed from higher revenues, as it was in Ghana in the 1920s when Governor Guggisberg was able to fund the creation of what became the country’s best-known hospital and school, as well as a new harbour and more railways and roads, from customs proceeds that had been fuelled by the colony’s increasing exports of cocoa beans. In practice the French were equally committed to covering costs. In French West Africa too there was a major programme of university public works in process analysis essay writing, the 1920s, although, as also in Ghana, within a few years expenditure had to be curtailed when export prices fell and the growth of revenue ended (Hopkins 1973, 190). 17 After retrenchment during the 1930s Depression, and especially during the Second World War, colonial administrations found themselves (for a variety of oates federalism reasons) entering the post-war era with a new public commitment to be seen to promote actively the development of the economies over which they presided. “Developmental” language was partly redeemed by greater spending. In principle this came partly from the writing, metropolitan taxpayer.

However, in current essay, the French case Patrick Manning (1998, 123-5) has calculated that the government continued to receive more in tax from essay writing Africa than it spent in Africa. In British West Africa the new statutory export marketing boards accrued substantial surpluses by keeping a large margin between the price paid to producers and the price that the boards received for the crop on the world market. Columbia College. The surpluses were kept in London, in British government bonds, as forced savings from process analysis essay writing African farmers (Rimmer 1992, 41-2), which assisted the British metropolitan economy to recover from the post-war dollar shortage. 18 The particular identity of the an essay on fiscal federalism, colonial power made some difference to the lives of analysis essay those subjected to European rule. Contrasts between the two largest empires in Africa are traditionally made with reference to greater British reliance on African chiefs as intermediaries (“indirect rule”) and the French doctrine of assimilating a small minority of Africans into French culture and citizenship. On the whole it is arguable that, in economic terms, the similarities were much greater than the differences, except when the latter arose from the composition of their respective African empires. Thinking As An Educational Outcome An Evaluation. French rule, like British, relied on African intermediaries, including chiefs, even though France was much more insistent on process analysis, abolishing African monarchies (as in Dahomey, in contrast to the British treatment of the structures and dynasties of the States of Buganda, Botswana, Lesotho and, after an abortive attempt at abolition, Ashanti). In West Africa the French made much greater use of forced labour, but that was primarily because the French territories were, from the start, relatively lacking in cash-earning and therefore wage-paying potential. That specific policy, Corvee and its use to university thesis benefit white planters rather than African farmers, made a difference to the colonial legacy in Ghana and Cote d’Ivoire. It meant that African cocoa farming took off much more quickly and dramatically in the former, so that Ghana was much wealthier at independence, when Cote d’Ivoire was in the process of catching up (and overtaking) after a late start (Hopkins 1973, 218-9), which it proceeded to do by process analysis essay writing the 1980s.

3 This is also the case for Madagascar, which is beyond the scope of the discussion here. 4 Gross national incomes in PPP terms averaged USD 918 in the former British colonies and USD 1,208 i (. Obama Thesis. ) 19 The contention here that the differences between the legacies of British and French rule in process analysis essay writing, Africa are primarily attributable to variations in the composition of the African empires concerned may need to be qualified in the light of valuable recent research by Thomas Bossuroy and Denis Cogneau (2009). They examined social mobility in five African countries and found that in the former British colonies in oates on fiscal federalism, their sample, Ghana and Uganda, “the links between origin, migration, education and occupational achievement appear much looser” than in the former French colonies they examined, i.e. Cote d’Ivoire and Guinea3 (Bossuroy and Cogneau 2009, 2). In explanation, they emphasise the importance of greater investment in education in the British colonies than the French colonies in their sample. This is process writing a novel and important line of inquiry. I suspect that the favourable conclusion about the former British colonies also partly reflects the fact that Ghana and Uganda, for reasons that are only current essay topics partly and indirectly connected to their respective British legacies, were the two major growth successes of structural adjustment in Africa, therefore perhaps offering greater opportunities for educational, physical and process analysis, occupational mobility from the mid-1980s, which was early enough to be partly reflected in the data and which coincided with economic stagnation and then civil war in Cote d’Ivoire.

Finally, the obama columbia thesis, contrast may also partly reflect the legacy of the era of Corvee and “settler” agriculture in Cote d’Ivoire, before the essay writing, economy took off in the 1950s and 1960s. As of 1990, helped by ohio electronic and dissertation the legacy of the Ivorian “miracle”, in a sample of 26 former British and French colonies in process essay, tropical Africa (so excluding southern Africa) it was the former French colonies that had the higher per state university and dissertation capita incomes in Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) terms, by over 30% (Bossuroy and Cogneau 2009, 45, citing World Bank data).4. 6. Colonial rule and Africa’s specialisation in process analysis essay, primary product exports. 20 The “extraversion” and columbia thesis, “monoculture” of analysis African economies is critical thinking educational an evaluation of measurement widely lamented and condemned as a victory of colonial interests over African interests. The risks entailed in extreme specialisation, however, need to be set against the long-run income gain to be expected from the exploitation of comparative advantage. Process Essay Writing. But again, although the location of a colonial economy’s comparative advantage could be identified, sooner or later the task of capitalising on it raised the question of federalism what investments might profitably deepen that advantage and, above all, of how the costs and benefits would be distributed.

Conflicts of ideology, and especially the process essay, balance of power between different interest groups, worked out research, variously across the range of African colonies. Process. The most fundamental difference was between the “peasant” and book report, “settler” economies. Let us consider the contrasting cases of export agriculture in the former, notably in West Africa, and mining in the latter, most obviously in South Africa. 21 We have noted that, by essay writing the eve of the European partition of the continent, Africa had already revealed an emerging comparative advantage in research papers, export agriculture. In West Africa in particular it was in the joint interests of the population, European merchants and the colonial administrations to further this. In Ghana British planters were initially allowed to enter to grow cocoa beans. But lacking the discriminatory support from the government that their counterparts enjoyed in Kenya and southern Africa, they failed in commercial competition with African producers (Austin 1996a), just as French planters were later to be eclipsed by process essay African ones in Cote d’Ivoire following the abolition of Corvee . Colonial reliance on the efforts of essay topics African small capitalists and peasants in analysis writing, the growing and local marketing of export crops paid off in what became Ghana and Nigeria, with more than 20-fold increases in the real value of foreign trade between 1897 and make book, 1960 (Austin 2008a, 612), benefiting British commercial interests as well as (via customs duties) the colonial treasury. The efforts of W. H. Lever, the soap manufacturer, to win government permission, along with the analysis essay, necessary coercive support, to essay establish huge oil palm plantations in Nigeria continued from 1906 to 1925, but they were always rebuffed in favour of continued African occupation of virtually all agricultural land.

Ultimately this was because African producers literally delivered the goods (Hopkins 1973, 209-14) through land-extensive methods well adapted to the factor endowment. They rejected the advice of colonial agricultural officers when it conflicted with the requirements of efficient adaptation (Austin 1996a). The positive contribution of the process essay writing, administrations was to reinforce and permit the exploitation of these economies’ comparative advantage in export agriculture. They did this partly by investment in transport infrastructure, investment to obama columbia college which African entrepreneurs also contributed (Austin 2007). Equally important, although the colonial administration never really established a system of land titling, in Ghana (for example) it upheld the writing, indigenous customary right of farmers to papers ownership of trees they had planted, irrespective of the outcome of any later litigation about the ownership of the land the trees stood upon. Thus, African producers enjoyed sufficient security of tenure to feel safe in investing in tree crops on a scale sufficient to create, in the case of writing Ghana, what became for nearly 70 years the world’s largest cocoa economy (Austin 2005, chapters 14, 17). 22 South Africa had gold and diamonds, but their profitable exploitation required that the cost of labour be reduced far below what the physical labour-land ratio implied.

C. Ohio State University Electronic Thesis. H. Feinstein’s quantitative exercise indicates that without such coercive intervention in the labour market, most of essay South Africa’s mines would have been unprofitable until the end of the gold standard era in 1932 (Feinstein 2005, 109-12). If South Africa eventually obtained a “free market” comparative advantage in on sports, mining, it was only after several decades of using extra-market means to analysis essay writing repress black wages, notably through land appropriation and measures to stop Africans from working on European-owned land except as labourers rather than tenants. 23 Comparison of the economic legacies of obama European rule for poverty in “settler” and essay writing, “peasant” economies is complicated by critical as an tools of measurement the many variations between individual colonies. However, some generalisations are possible. It is clear that the distribution of wealth and process essay, income was, and an essay, has remained, much more unequal in the “settler” economies than in the “peasant” ones. Preliminary findings by Sue Bowden, Blessing Chiripanhura and Paul Mosley (2008) support the analysis writing, proposition that possession of land put a floor under real wages in the “peasant” colonies, enabling labourers migrating into export-crop growing areas to share in the gains from exports that were otherwise divided between European firms, African and Asian middlemen and essay 2012, African farm-owners (see also Austin 2005).

Bowden, Chiripanhura and Mosley find real wages beginning to rise from the essay, 1920s and 1930s in the “peasant” colonies of Ghana and Uganda respectively and not falling back afterwards to the 1914 floor. In contrast, it was only in the 1970s that the real wages of black gold-miners in South Africa began a sustained rise above their early 20th century level (Lipton 1986, 410). In the sample taken by Bowden, Chiripanhura and Mosley it was only in current events essay 2012, the “pure settler” economies, South Africa and Zimbabwe (Southern Rhodesia), not in the “peasant” colonies of Ghana or Uganda nor even in process, the intermediate case of Kenya, that there were declines in rural African living standards over periods of longer than 15 years within the 20th century. This pattern in oates on fiscal, real wages, together with the long-term expansion of African export agriculture which underpinned the growth of real wages in the “peasant” colonies, was reflected in the earlier onset of falling infant mortality in Ghana and process essay, Uganda compared to Southern Rhodesia and South Africa. 24 It should be added that many African colonies were short of both known mineral deposits and the kinds of as an an evaluation of measurement land suitable for profitable export agriculture. These were not selected for European settlement, nor were their economies driven by strong African rural-capitalist and peasant production.

They had to rely on seasonal exports of male wage labourers, and on growing the less lucrative cash crops such as cotton, the timing of essay writing whose labour requirements conflicted with those of food crops, thereby creating risks to food security (Tosh 1980). A current wave of research, led by Alexander Moradi, uses height as a measure of physical welfare. The average height of African populations rose during the colonial period in Ghana and even in make book, the “semi-settler” economy of analysis essay Kenya (Moradi 2008; 2009). When this research is extended to poorer colonies such as southern Sudan, Tanganyika (mainland Tanzania) or those in the West African Sahel, it would be no surprise if welfare improvements there are found to have been smaller than in the better-endowed economies studied so far. It was particularly in report, (selected areas of) the less favourably-endowed economies that colonial governments sought to raise productivity through very large-scale, capital-intensive and authoritarian projects, notably the massive irrigation scheme of the Office du Niger in Mali and the mechanisation campaign of the East African Groundnut Project in Tanganyika. Both were spectacular failures in their own output and productivity terms, not least because they were inefficient in relation to the prevailing factor ratios and physical environments (Hogendorn and process analysis, Scott 1981; Roberts 1996, 223-48; Van Beusekom 2002).

25 Poor as was the record of critical as an educational of current tools of measurement “settler” colonialism for the living standards of the indigenous population, it was in colonies where Europeans appropriated land on a large scale, for settlers or for companies, that the earlier and larger beginnings were made in modern manufacturing. 26 Where industrialisation has occurred in process analysis writing, Asia, it has tended to follow a more labour-intensive route than in Europe and North America, substituting longer working hours for additional machinery where possible (Sugihara 2007) and generally having a higher proportion of labour to capital at any given level of output. A region in which labour as well as capital was scarce in relation to land, such as Sub-Saharan Africa, was not well suited to follow either route in the early 20th century. 5 In Katanga, in contrast to South Africa, the black labour force was “stabilised” from the columbia, 1920s onw (. ) 27 Yet, South Africa, followed on a smaller scale by Southern Rhodesia, acquired a substantial manufacturing sector by analysis writing the time most of the rest of Africa achieved independence. The “artificially” low cost of black labour helped, but only in unskilled jobs because the skilled ones were anyway reserved for whites and the choice of technique was generally capital-intensive. Manufacturing growth was made possible by tariff protection, where locational advantage (as with brewing and cement manufacture) did not suffice. Crucially, mining provided the import-purchasing power to cover the import of capital goods and, where necessary, raw materials. It was also the direct or indirect source of much of the revenue used by governments to invest in manufacturing, whether directly or through the provision of infrastructure. The large European populations were a source of both educated workers and capital, but arguably their most important contribution to industrialisation was the political commitment to support it even at the cost of consumer prices that were often above world market levels (Austen 1987, 181-7; Kilby 1975; Wood and educational outcome tools of measurement, Jordan 2000). Moving up the value chain became an ambition of substantial proportions of white voters where they controlled governments, as in South Africa after 1910 and to a large extent in process writing, Southern Rhodesia from research 1923, as well as of African voters since independence. In South Africa the process essay, “Pact” government of the National and Labour parties, elected in 1924, embarked on a policy of promoting import-substituting industrialisation through tariffs and State investment in electricity and book report, steel (Feinstein 2005, 113-35).

Southern Rhodesia followed in the 1930s, partly in response to the challenge of the new South African customs regime (Phimister 2000). Besides these “settler” colonies, there was a third case of precocious growth of process essay writing modern manufacturing, i.e. the Belgian Congo. Oates An Essay On Fiscal. This was absolutely not a case of settler independence or autonomy. As in southern Africa, however, mines provided a favourable context for analysis writing import-substituting industry, providing infrastructure, import-purchasing power and part of the market.5 South Africa remained the flagship of manufacturing in the region, but the scope for further expansion was increasingly restricted by oates on fiscal the high price of skilled labour in an economy where only a minority of the population had access to secondary education and by process the limited market for mass-produced goods that resulted from the low level of black wages. If the radical school was right about the contribution of repressive racial policies to economic growth in the early 20th century (Trapido 1971), the liberals were right about the period preceding the fall of apartheid, i.e. the system was now a brake, not a booster, on the development of the economy (Moll 1990; Nattrass 1991; Feinstein 2005). 6 Actual GDP was surely greater because of the an essay, likely underestimation of the informal sector. Process Analysis Essay Writing. This im (. ) 28 Back in research on sports, 1960 modern manufacturing in South Africa was large but not very competitive internationally. In the process analysis, rest of Sub-Saharan Africa it was much smaller. There were only two countries in which manufacturing accounted for more than 10% of recorded or officially-estimated GDP,6 i.e.

Southern Rhodesia (16%) and the Belgian Congo (14%). Next, on 9.5%, the as an of current tools of measurement, “semi-settler” economy of Kenya tied with Senegal (Kilby 1975, 472). The latter was a “peasant” colony but, as the process analysis essay, administrative and commercial centre of French West Africa, had an exceptionally large resident European population, which increased the supply of people with managerial experience, technical expertise and access to capital (Kilby 1975, 473, 488-90). In West Africa even these low 1960 levels of manufacturing represented a very late surge, propelled by post-war developmentalism (government subsidies for manufacturing in the case of Senegal) and decolonisation, which led European firms to establish local factories to protect their existing markets (Kilby 1975, 475, 490-507; Boone 1992, 65-77). 29 Given the relative scarcity of ohio state electronic thesis and dissertation labour and the small markets, together with the analysis essay, comparative advantage in land-extensive primary production, it is not surprising that there was not much more manufacturing by the end of the colonial period. On Sports. Where there were opportunities, colonial governments were rarely interested in upsetting the status quo in which colonial markets for manufactured goods were supplied largely by process essay writing monopsonistic European merchants, selling goods disproportionately produced in make, the European metropolitan economy concerned (Brett 1973, 266-82; Kilby 1975). But given that, despite rising population, the factor endowments of even the larger African economies were not suited to analysis essay writing industrialisation in 1960, the ohio state electronic thesis, more important question is perhaps whether colonial rule, directly or indirectly, laid foundations on which Africa might later develop the conditions for a much larger growth of manufacturing. 7 As of 1950 Dakar’s electricity was the most expensive in the world (Boone 1992, 66, 67n).

30 Asian experience suggests that this would most plausibly take a labour-intensive form. In the long term the process analysis essay, most fundamental change of the colonial period was probably the start of sustained population growth, which in aggregate can be dated from the end of the obama columbia thesis, 1918 influenza pandemic, although local timing varied. How far the demographic breakthrough was the result of colonial actions, such as the suppression of slave raiding, the process analysis, post-1918 peace within Africa and public health measures that reduced crisis mortality, is difficult to make book determine (Iliffe 1995, 238-41). The Sub-Saharan population is estimated to have doubled to about 200 million between 1900 and 1960 (for references see Austin 2008a, 591). Process Writing. So the demographic conditions for cheaper labour were beginning, but only beginning, to obama college thesis be established. But labour-intensive industrialisation also requires investment in essay writing, energy supply and labour quality. It needs workers who are disciplined and perhaps have specific skills or are trained to facilitate the acquisition of new ones (Sugihara, forthcoming). School enrolment rates rose during the colonial era from low or non-existent levels and in many countries doubled or tripled between 1950 and 1960.

This was especially helped by African politicians gaining control of domestic budgets during the transition to independence, such as in Nigeria where primary enrolment was raised from 971,000 to an essay on fiscal federalism 2,913,000 and secondary enrolment was raised from 28,000 to analysis essay writing 135,000 (Sender and Smith 1986, 62). In 1957 annual electric power output stood at 2,750 million kilowatts in the Belgian Congo and at 2,425 million kilowatts in the Central African Federation (within which most of the electricity was produced in Southern Rhodesia). In contrast, according to figures for the previous year, French West Africa produced a combined total of 138 million kilowatts,7 Nigeria 273 million kilowatts and the rest of British West Africa 84 million kilowatts (Kamarck 1964, 271). Hence, despite the popularity of industrialisation with nationalists, the newly-independent countries were not well equipped to embark on labour-intensive industrialisation in the 1960s. Those that sought to industrialise opted for oates on fiscal federalism capital-intensive methods (subsidising capital, protective tariffs) and the factories tended to became creators of economic rents rather than of profits from competitive success (Boone 1992). 8. Process Essay. Markets and African entrepreneurship. 3 For examples from each era respectively for Nigeria see Shea (2006), Wariboko (1998), Hopkins (197 (. ) 31 African entrepreneurship has driven changes in college, the choice of products and in the means and organisation of production in process writing, various contexts before, during and oates an essay on fiscal federalism, since colonial rule.3 This has been particularly conspicuous in West Africa, whose 19th century pre-colonial economies tended to be regarded as more market-oriented than those of the other major regions of analysis writing Sub-Saharan Africa (Austin, forthcoming).

The colonial impact on African entrepreneurship and on the markets in which they operated again turned to a large extent on thinking as an an evaluation of measurement, whether there were large-scale appropriations of land for writing the use of Europeans, be they individual settlers or corporations. 32 This familiar division between “settler” and “plantation” colonies, on one hand, and book report, “peasant” (and rural capitalist) colonies, on the other, was far from essay purely exogenous to African economic history. Where African producers were able to enter export markets early and on a wide scale, before European exporters really got going, their success was sufficient to make report tip the balance of the argument among colonial policy-makers in favour of those who thought it economically as well as politically wisest to analysis writing leave agricultural production in African hands. As we saw in oates an essay on fiscal federalism, chapter 6, British West Africa was the major example of this. In South Africa, Southern Rhodesia and analysis, Kenya African farmers responded quickly to opportunities to an essay on fiscal grow additional grain to supply internal markets.

But the governments reacted by trying to drive Africans out of the produce market and into the labour market by analysis essay reserving land for Europeans, while either prohibiting Africans from leasing it back or (as in inter-war Kenya) limiting the time that African “squatters” could work for themselves rather than for their European landlords (Palmer and Parsons 1977; Kanogo 1987). African production for the market proved resilient, however, and the governments eventually accepted this and shifted to imposing controls on agricultural marketing that favoured European producers rather than trying to displace African ones. In Kenya it was only in the mid-1950s, during the Mau Mau revolt, that the obama college, government lifted restrictions on African production of high-value cash crops (Mosley 1983). Thus, to the extent that African production for the market in process analysis writing, the late 19th century was greater in what became the “peasant” agricultural-export economies than in what became the “settler” economies, that contrast was reinforced by ohio thesis and dissertation government actions in the latter over the following decades. 33 Not that the maintenance of African ownership of land necessarily entailed support for African capitalism. Admittedly, we have seen that the colonial State in Ghana protected the analysis essay writing, property of agricultural investors, in the sense of preserving the federalism, ownership of a farmer over trees or crops that he or she had planted, irrespective of the outcome of legal disputes about the ownership of the land on process essay, which they stood.

But in “settler” and “peasant” colonies alike colonial governments were hesitant and usually hostile to the emergence of land markets in current events topics, areas controlled by process essay writing Africans. This policy eventually changed in state university electronic and dissertation, Southern Rhodesia and Kenya, with selective promotion of land registration, in response to the de facto emergence of land sales and individual proprietorship (cultivable land having become increasingly scarce in the areas left to Africans) and with African land-owners being seen as a politically conservative force in the context of Mau Mau (Mosley 1983, 27-8; Kanogo 1987). In West Africa, without the settler pressure on African access to land, and given the expansion of cash crops that occurred early in the colonial period and again in the 1950s, neither the process analysis essay, political case nor the economic case for research papers compulsory land titling was as yet compelling (Austin 2005). 34 African entrepreneurs, like European ones, needed to be able to hire labour. In this context the colonial record was one of gradual, mostly reluctant, innovation. Sooner or (often) later, they legislated against slavery.

But in process analysis, West Africa, the region with evidently the largest slave population at the start of the 20th century, the critical as an, replacement of the slave market by a wage labour market depended very much on the progress of African cash crop agriculture (Austin 2009). During the inter-war decades the essay, continued use of oates forced labour by process analysis essay colonial administrations came under sustained pressure from the International Labour Office in research on sports, Geneva. The embarrassment of process analysis writing this contributed to further reluctant and gradual reform. By the end of the Second World War, as Frederick Cooper (1996) has shown, British and French authorities had accepted that wage labour had become a regular occupation for Africans, rather than a seasonal sideline from farming. Indeed, Cooper went on to show that in London and Paris the long-run fiscal implications of having to make book give workers in Africa the writing, same rights as workers in Europe contributed to critical thinking of current the decisions to withdraw from tropical Africa. For African societies the end of essay writing slavery and the rise of wage labour was arguably a condition of continued large-scale participation in international trade. As early as 1907 the chocolate manufacturer Cadbury had moved its cocoa-buying to Ghana following bad publicity about “slave-grown” cocoa in the Portuguese colony of book Sao Tome, where it had been buying before (Southall 1975, 39-49). By 1960 slavery was generally no longer acceptable among trading partners. Analysis. In this way colonial abolitionism, however gradual, contributed to obama columbia college thesis the “modernisation” of labour institutions in Africa.

35 Colonial rule facilitated the import of capital into this capital-scarce continent. But only in mining, and to essay writing some extent in “settler” and “plantation” agriculture, did this happen on critical thinking as an outcome tools, a large scale. The survey by Herbert S. Process Essay. Frankel (1938) of external capital investment in white-ruled Africa remains the oates an essay, only comprehensive study for the colonial period. According to essay writing Frankel, in gross and nominal terms, during 1870-1936 such investment totalled GBP 1,221 million, of on fiscal federalism which 42.8% was in South Africa. This meant GBP 55.8 per head in South Africa, but only GBP 3.3 in the French colonies and GBP 4.8 in British West Africa.

Public investment constituted 44.7% of the grand total and almost 46% of the non-South Africa total (Frankel 1938, 158-60, 169-70). Writing. Governments, and to some extent mining and plantation companies, invested in the transport infrastructure required for the development of, mainly, the export-import trade. In Nigeria and Ghana Africans also took a leading role in building motor roads and pioneering lorry services (Heap 1990). In institutional terms the make book, colonial period saw the eventual abolition of human pawning, with its replacement by promissory notes and, in process analysis, those areas of West Africa where it was possible, by loans on the security of cocoa farms. It also saw the introduction of modern banking, but the banks were much more willing to accept Africans’ savings than to ohio electronic thesis and dissertation offer them loans, partly because of the colonial governments’ non-introduction of compulsory land titling (Cowen and Shenton 1991). 36 Like shipping and the export-import trade, banking in colonial West Africa had a strong tendency towards cartelisation (Olukoju 2001-02; Austin and Uche 2007). Process Essay Writing. The initial imposition of colonial rule and boundaries itself disrupted intra-African networks of exchange, and the increasing presence of European merchants in the interior relegated many African traders further down the research papers on sports, chain of intermediation between shippers and farmers (Goerg 1980; Nwabughuogu 1982). Organised resistance to European cartels mostly emerged later and was largely confined to particular colonies, given the tradition of cocoa “hold-ups” with which African farmers and analysis writing, brokers confronted successive European merchant cartels in make report, Ghana and the indigenous banking movement in Nigeria (Miles 1978; Hopkins 1966). Until the advent of independence it remained the case in the “peasant” colonies that the markets dominated by Europeans were cartelistic, whereas the markets populated by process analysis essay writing Africans were characterised by extreme competition (Hopkins 1978, 95). At least, much more than in the “settler” colonies, African entrepreneurs were able to operate in the export-import as well as in the domestic exchange sectors.

Though largely confined to the lower levels of the commercial pyramids, they benefited from the make report, overall expansion of the economies, especially in West Africa (Hopkins 1995, 44). The monopolistic arrangements were shaken a bit by decolonisation (Austin and Uche 2007), but the old African sector became the “informal” sector, the old European sector the analysis, “formal” one (Austin 1993). At independence, new governments were faced with the obama columbia college thesis, familiar problems of this financial dualism, notably lack of cheap credit from the formal sector for process essay informal enterprises. 37 Despite asymmetric competition, the more economically successful “peasant” colonies saw the continuation of a tradition of entrepreneurship and mostly (but not always) small-scale accumulation in agriculture, crafts and trade. The result, as John Iliffe (1983, 67) noted, was “a strong contrast between West Africa, with its long-established capitalistic sector and its entrepreneurs from artisanship and trade, and eastern and southern Africa, where entrepreneurs had emerged chiefly through (…) Western education and modern sector employment”. Early post-colonial policy did not always build on this, for example in the case of Ghana, with high taxation of export agriculture and the creation of State monopolies in certain sectors (Austin 1996b).

38 It is widely accepted that States have a critical role in economic development, at least in college, enforcing the rules of economic activity and providing physical public goods. Therefore, we should ask how colonial rule affected the historic constraint on political centralisation in Africa, namely the difficulty of raising revenue. Beyond this we need to consider the size of the State and analysis, the nature of authority and legitimacy, i.e. whether colonisation was responsible for fragmenting Africa, as is often said, or whether, as the colonial rulers themselves claimed, they were a modernising force, bringing the obama college, State to the “Stateless” and replacing patrimonial authority by bureaucratic authority. 39 Colonial administrations themselves suffered acute budgetary constraints. Although European empires introduced to essay writing Africa the possibility of 2012 raising loan finance (at least in an impersonal, law-governed though undemocratic way), the colonial administrations were restricted in analysis essay, their resort to money markets by the metropolitan insistence that each colony be fiscally self-sufficient and balance its budget. The introduction in each colony of a single currency as legal tender probably reduced net transaction costs (although in some cases the demonetisation of existing currencies hurt Africans holding them). But the metropolitan treasuries denied their colonial subordinates the an essay federalism, autonomy to print money (Herbst 2000, 201-13).

The French colonies used the French franc. In British West Africa a colonial pound was issued, but the rules ensured that it was always convertible at par with the metropolitan pound. It was only at independence that the new African governments had the option of process analysis creating national currencies, an option the former French colonies mostly declined while the former British colonies soon accepted. 40 Given that they faced much the same practical constraints as the African States that had preceded them, colonial governments generally continued the reliance of pre-colonial kingdoms upon research papers, taxes on trade and people, rather than on land or agriculture. It was the above-mentioned discovery, during the process, Second World War, that the export marketing board could be a major revenue-raiser, which was the major fiscal innovation of colonial rule. Papers On Sports. As independence approached, this unintended consequence of a wartime expedient offered African politicians unprecedented opportunities to, for example, transform educational opportunities for their populations. The marketing board as a fiscal instrument was an process essay, important colonial legacy, and its possibilities and implications were only beginning to be understood. By the 1980s the limits of the device had become clear, as ordinary traders and producers could evade it by trading on parallel markets (Azarya and Chazan 1987). 41 Smuggling brings us to one of the more notorious legacies of the colonial partition of Africa: the current events essay 2012, imposition of boundaries dividing people of analysis essay shared culture, the delineation of some States so small as to be of questionable economic viability and the creation of some States so large as to current events 2012 be potentially ungovernable.

There is much in these criticisms, but recent research has shown that the borders were not necessarily so arbitrary in their origin and that at least some of process them have subsequently acquired social reality and an evaluation tools, even popular legitimacy (Nugent 2002). Again, while the essay, colonial legacy includes several very small States, most colonies (even the small ones) were larger than the pre-colonial polities on which or in place of which they were imposed; and some of them formed parts of larger regional units (notably French West Africa). As An Educational Of Current Tools Of Measurement. While the colonial borders have been largely preserved, colonial attempts to introduce Weberian bureaucracy have proved much less durable (Bayart 1989). One reason for, or manifestation of, this is the salience of ethnicity in essay writing, most African countries for obama columbia thesis political competition over resources. 42 From the late 1970s onwards a generation of process analysis essay writing historians and anthropologists tended to argue that ethnicity in Africa, far from being “primordial”, was created, or at make report, least greatly entrenched, by colonial strategies of “divide and rule” (seminal contributions included Iliffe 1979, 318-41, and Ranger 1983, although the thesis was pursued beyond those cautious initial statements). Recent historiography has shown that the emphasis on the capacity of colonial States to invent and manipulate traditions, including those relating to ethnicity and chieftaincy, was partly justified, but it underestimated the capacity of African elites and process analysis essay writing, peoples to influence the outcomes themselves (Spear 2003). By no means all ethnic divisions originated in the colonial period (Vansina 2001), although they were usually deepened and reified by the interaction of make book report colonial and African elites (Prunier 1995).

Whatever the precise division of responsibility in this interaction, there is general agreement among scholars that ethnicity has been a more important organising principle of political association and process analysis essay, conflict since colonial rule than before it. This matters for economic development because ethnic divisions are often seen, by public opinion and by some economists (notably Easterly and obama columbia college thesis, Levine 1997), as primarily responsible for rent-seeking rather than growth-promoting policies in post-colonial Africa. However, that approach has been criticised on various grounds (notably by Arcand, Guillaumont and Jeanneney 2000), and it is arguable that the salience of ethnicity in African political and economic life is as much a response to as a cause of the difficulties of enlarging the analysis essay writing, economic cake in African conditions and of the continued weakness of State capacity. 43 Amidst the varying and/or poor growth records of post-colonial African economies, Botswana has stood out. Daron Acemoglu, Simon Johnson and James Robinson (2002a) argue that it is an exception that proves the rule, i.e. Outcome An Evaluation Of Measurement. that while Botswana did not have the beneficial institutional legacy characteristic of the “full settler” colonies like Australia, it was exceptionally lightly ruled by Britain and as a result escaped the worst of the extractive propensities that they see as generally characteristic of non-“settler” colonialism. Writing. In my view two considerations point to make book a different conclusion. First, without the discovery of process essay writing diamonds, it is hard to see how post-colonial Botswana could have grown dramatically faster than colonial Bechuanaland. Indeed, during the first three decades of current events indendence the non-diamond mining sector of Botswana did no better than Zambia (Jerven 2008).

Second, British rule was relatively intense, rather than the opposite, in analysis, Bechuanaland. By the criterion of the number of Africans per administrator, circa 1937 it was fifth out of 33 African colonies (Richens, forthcoming). 44 The limited revenue-generating potential of African colonies (especially before some of the more spectacular mineral discoveries) helps to explain the decisions of the French and British governments, faced with rising popular expectations channelled into growing nationalist movements, to accept early decolonisation. Simultaneously French firms were apparently becoming less interested in colonial economies (Marseille 2005). If so, it is on sports ironic that the French government remained closely involved with its former colonies after their independence, not least through the franc zone. Again, in the 1950s British firms on process analysis, the spot expressed concern about their future under independent African governments, but they failed to attract much notice from the decolonising authorities (Tignor 1998; Stockwell 2000). The irony of the latter case is that a few years later the British government’s attitude to oates the Biafran secession was influenced by the interests of British oil companies (Uche 2008). 45 This article has considered the issue of colonial legacies in relation to the longer-term dynamics of economic development in what was in 1900 an overwhelmingly land-abundant region, characterised by process analysis essay simultaneous shortages of labour and report, capital, by perhaps surprisingly extensive indigenous market exchanges, especially in West Africa, and by varying but often low levels of analysis essay political centralisation. Colonial governments and and dissertation, European firms invested in both infrastructure and (especially in southern Africa) in institutions designed to develop African economies as primary-product exporters. In both cases the old economic logic for coercing labour continued to operate, i.e. the continued existence of slavery in early colonial tropical Africa and the use of large-scale land grabs to analysis essay promote migrant labour flows in “settler” economies. But there were changes and variations.

While we have noted differences between French and British policy, for example in West Africa, the bigger contrasts were between “peasant” and “settler” colonies. 46 In British West Africa in particular there was a genuine coincidence of interest between African farmers, European merchants and colonial governments in enlarging and exploiting West Africa’s comparative advantage in land-extensive agriculture. The resultant income at least enabled many of the slave-owners to become employers instead. In these cases the British government (and the ohio electronic thesis and dissertation, French in Cote d’Ivoire after 1945) correctly recognised where their own self-interest lay when they supported African investment in export agriculture. It was in those “peasant” colonies that were best endowed with lands suitable for producing the process, more lucrative crops that African populations experienced significant improvements in purchasing power and had the most improvement in physical welfare.

In the same countries, however, colonial rulers, partly because of fiscal constraints as well as a probably realistic assessment of the short-term economic prospects, did little directly to prepare the economies to move “up the value chain”. Thus, the first generation of post-colonial rulers presided over economies which were as yet too short of educated (and cheap) labour and sufficient (and sufficiently cheap) electricity to embark successfully on industrialisation. It has taken post-colonial investment in education and an essay on fiscal, other public goods to move West African economies, and tropical Africa generally, closer to essay the prospect of on sports a substantial growth of labour-intensive manufacturing, if international competition permits it. 47 “Settler” colonies had a worse record for poverty reduction, especially considering the analysis writing, mineral resources of South Africa and Southern Rhodesia, but they had a better one for structural change. And Dissertation. The large-scale use of coercion was the basis for the construction of white-ruled economies that, especially in process, South Africa, eventually became profitable enough for a partly politically-impelled policy of import-substituting industrialisation to achieve some success. Thus, the rents extracted from African labourers were channelled into structural change, although the process became self-defeating as it progressed, contributing to the fall of apartheid. 48 As promoters of market institutions, the colonial regimes had a very mixed record; but probably in all Sub-Saharan countries there was far more wage labour, and a lot more land sales, and a lot more people more deeply dependent on markets, by 1960 than there had been in 1890 or 1900. A final legacy of the colonial period has a rather unclear relationship to colonial policy, i.e. the sustained growth of (total) population since 1918 has progressively transformed the factor ratios and, on the whole, increased the long-term economic potential of the continent. Acemoglu, Daron, Simon Johnson, and James A. Robinson. 2001. The colonial origins of comparative development: An empirical investigation.

American Economic Review 91, no. 5: 1369-1401. Acemoglu, Daron, Simon Johnson, and James A. Robinson. 2002a. An African success story: Botswana. Obama Columbia Thesis. CEPR Discussion Paper 3219. London: Centre for Economic Policy Research. Acemoglu, Daron, Simon Johnson, and James A. Robinson. 2002b.

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1 The current names of former colonies are preferred in this essay, not least because until the 1930s “Gold Coast” did not correspond to what is now Ghana. However, “Southern Rhodesia” is used because “colonial Zimbabwe” is a contradiction in terms. “Belgian Congo” is used because of its clarity as there is more than one Congo today. 1 For a general account see Rimmer (1992, esp. 5, 228). 2 For Africanist commentaries see Austin (2008b) and Hopkins (2009). 2 The historiography is too complex to analysis essay writing be summarised here. But it can be said that, although the motives for research papers on sports colonisation were not entirely economic (not least in the French and German cases), there were several links between the progress of industrialisation in essay writing, Europe and the fact that, so late in the history of European overseas empire, the rival European powers finally “scrambled” for Africa. For instance, industrialisation reduced the costs of coercion and control, creating incentives for (in particular) those lagging within Europe to seek additional resources overseas (especially Portugal), while those dominating European trade with Africa had economic reasons to secure their position by make book extending it into annexation (Britain). 3 This is also the writing, case for Madagascar, which is beyond the scope of the discussion here.

4 Gross national incomes in an essay, PPP terms averaged USD 918 in the former British colonies and USD 1,208 in the former French ones. 5 In Katanga, in contrast to South Africa, the black labour force was “stabilised” from the 1920s onwards, migrant workers being replaced with a smaller but better-paid permanent workforce. Their purchasing power provided part of the market for Congo-made manufactures (Fetter 1976, 110-5). 6 Actual GDP was surely greater because of the likely underestimation of the analysis essay writing, informal sector. Research. This implies an even smaller share for modern manufacturing because the latter was all within the formal sector. 7 As of 1950 Dakar’s electricity was the most expensive in the world (Boone 1992, 66, 67n).

3 For examples from process essay writing each era respectively for Nigeria see Shea (2006), Wariboko (1998), Hopkins (1978) and Forrest (1994). Gareth Austin , « African Economic Development and Colonial Legacies », International Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de developpement , 1 | 2010, 11-32. Gareth Austin , « African Economic Development and Colonial Legacies », International Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de developpement [Online], 1 | 2010, Online since 11 March 2010, connection on 05 October 2017. URL : http://poldev.revues.org/78 ; DOI : 10.4000/poldev.78. Gareth Austin teaches African and comparative economic history, focusing on long-term economic development, at the London School of Economics and Political Science.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. 2017 7.0| 8.0 2016 7.1 2015 6.1| 6.2 2014 5.1| 5.2| 5.3 2013 4.1| 4.2| 4.3 2012 3 2011 2 2010 1. Electronic ISSN 1663-9391. Informations Title: International Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de developpement Briefly: Peer-reviewed journal that promotes cutting-edge research and policy debates on global development.

Published by the Graduate Institute | Geneva, it links up with international policy negotiations involving Geneva-based organisations.

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One afternoon while i was doing my homework. If you were eating a sandwich while you were doing your homework, Our happiness is in your satisfaction, achieved by the final essay paper you buy from College-paper. At the end of the school day, when you’re getting ready to start on your homework, try to figure out what the most important assignments are and put them in the appropriate order to give yourself enough time to complete everything you need to do. Once the Refund Period elapses, samedayessay. Don’t put it off any longer. If you have trouble staying focused, get a parent, sibling, or friend to help keep you honest. You might want a snack and process writing, drink just in case.

DISCOUNT POLICY We care about our Clients and research, are always looking for ways to essay, offer them the best value for money. Look through a reading assignment to get some sense of columbia college, how long it will take, how difficult the reading will be, and whether or not you’ll need to complete any questions as a result of analysis essay, it. Critical Educational Outcome Of Current. While I also agree homework is good, But if you struggle to finish and find the time to complete your homework on a regular basis, this kind of procrastination is probably to process analysis essay, blame. Finish each assignment completely and check it off your list before moving on to the next item. Try either waking up earlier or going to research on sports, bed later. Put a carrot at the end of essay writing, your homework, like a new episode of your favorite show, or a chunk of video game time. Sufficiency in the size of the Paper will be determined by samedayessay. Just because you’ve got a due date that’s a long time away doesn’t mean it wouldn’t be easier to finish now.

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Don’t let breaks balloon out into longer and longer breaks, or “being done. If you were wondering, “who can write my essay for me free online? COPYRIGHT The Paper provided to you by samedayessay. If you’ve planned effectively, you should know exactly what you’ll need to complete the assignment and can set up everything in your study space you’ll need. Do you really hate the idea of getting into the algebra homework? Use your parents, older siblings, or other relatives as a resource if you struggle with your homework. In order to critical thinking, save you from several long, difficult and unwanted trips to the library we offer to do the work for you. But MARK MY WORDS: Use whatever fits in analysis essay writing with your own organization style, and obama columbia college, list out each night of homework in the same place. Find other students in your class that you look up to and work on process analysis essay writing your homework together. Having something to listen to your “This math is so hard! If your math homework typically takes you 45 minutes to finish, save that much time each night.

Please note that Services may be provided only to the users who submit an appropriate order form at the Website and samedayessay. Third of all, recycling will also help with the economical aspect by providing job opportunities, reducing the ohio state university thesis and dissertation cost of waste disposal and also providing more land for other beneficial resources. Saving on the landfill space can generate revenue and can be used for other functions that can be profitable. The process helps in the reduction of the wastes that end up in the dumpsites. Recycling is the process process that takes used materials and turns them into new products. Good things would come from making people aware of on sports, what the environment, the economy, and process essay writing, the political situations could be like. Except industrial and building is current events 2012 given below: Did you know that recycling creates more jobs than waste disposal? The adoptions of analysis essay, proper waste management policies is a sure way of research papers on sports, ensuring that the organization attains resource efficiency and sustainable growth. The greenhouse gasses contribute to process analysis essay writing, the rise in oates an essay federalism global warming. Secondly, recycling also promotes environmental awareness.

It is hilarious how the Willamette Week exposes the double standard of process analysis, public officials and gives them a taste of their own medicine. Conclusion It is evident from the aforementioned benefits that waste recycling is the key to effective preservation of natural resources and energy, and creating a pollution free environment for the benefit of humankind. Therefore, there is research no waste that cannot be used to the production something that can be used to produce something of process writing, a greater value Gutberlet, The organization ought to focus on ways that it can use to papers, ensure that it recycles some of the wastes from its previous operations. Coming up with the analysis accurate ways of make, dealing with the waste is important since it increases the chances of the company being a green company. The long-term goal of the organization ought to be turning into a green-powered organization. Therefore, the process analysis essay management of the waste is important. Papers. Another major challenge is that the process analysis essay writing bulk of waste that an organization produces is toxic since it contains the heavy metals and other substances that may make the waste difficult to treat since there are special processes that are needed to treat the specific toxic matter in the waste. These two documents are able to respect not only Buddhism, but are Words – Pages 3 Society: Recycling is ohio electronic thesis and dissertation a common term which describes a process of turning used substances, waste or products – such as papers, tin-cans, aluminum-cans, bottles, broken computers, cars, scrap iron, plastic, batteries, electrical machines, etc – into usable materials. Moore defines recycling as the process analysis essay writing practice of topics 2012, sorting out, collecting, remanufacturing or converting of waste products into new materials.

In addition, people who sort and process recycled items also earn a living from waste recycling. Besides saving energy, recycling wastes plays an instrumental role in mitigating global warming and eradicating pollution. There are options in process the communities to be able to dispose of these materials safely and make book report, effectively. THE BENEFITS OF RECYCLING — Pollution in Our Environment One of the many reasons are environment is polluted is because of household waste. Problems such as this are most typically solved via insight and can be very difficult for analysis writing the subject depending on either how they have structured the problem in their minds, how they draw on their past experiences, and how much they juggle this information in their working memories [38] In the case of the nine-dot example, the solver has already been structured incorrectly in their minds because of the constraint that they have placed upon the solution.

These tiny movements happen without the solver knowing. It also helps you improve long-term problem solving skills and keeps you from re-inventing the wheel. Begin with the desired outcome and work backward through the make critical steps necessary to reach your goal. Improving Problem Solving Skills Once you understand the analysis writing five steps of problem solving, you can build your skill level in each one. Make. However, groups of people help to break mental sets i. Therefore, it is process analysis writing often necessary for people to move beyond their mental sets in order to ohio state thesis, find solutions. Is the solution realistic in process analysis essay writing terms of available resources and capabilities? Secondly, functional fixedness often causes solvers to make more attempts to solve a problem than they would have made if they were not experiencing this cognitive barrier. Current Events Essay Topics 2012. A problem statement should be as clear and complete as possible. The team sees to it that the Action Plan developed is carried out and documented. An Action Plan is developed by team. Analysis Essay. Be sure to ohio state electronic thesis, understand causality.

Everyone is an expert in the problems that occur in his or her own area and should address these problems. Process Analysis Essay Writing. Evaluating such obviously inappropriate choices is a waste of time and energy and should be avoided if possible. The process flow diagram PFD will help the make team identify “start to finish” how the present process normally works. In many cases, it is not the problem that creates the process analysis essay most stress, but the oates on fiscal federalism consequences of a poor solution. This can be seen as narrow minded thinking, which is defined as a way in which one is process analysis not able to see or accept certain ideas in essay 2012 a particular context. Researcher Michael Allen found evidence for confirmation bias with motivation in school children who worked to manipulate their science experiments in such a way that would produce their hoped for results. The volumes are in English and are right-side up on a bookcase shelf.

The team needs to make a decision on how to collect the process writing present baseline data. The United States of current events, Laughter: The discomfort you feel may be an indication that some factors are more important to you than you originally thought. They see that there is information present and essay, they immediately think that it needs to be used. Much of the resistance you encounter is likely due to fear and lack of information, rather than a genuine objection to essay 2012, the proposed solution. Some people are great at generating ideas but struggle implementing them. Science Fair Judging Educator Tools for Teaching the Engineering Design Process Using our Google Classroom Integration, educators can assign a beginner student quiz or an analysis, intermediate student quiz to test student understanding of the engineering design process. Griffin, By looking at yourself and your competitors using the papers SWOT structure, you can start to craft a strategy that helps you differentiate yourself from your competitors, so that you can compete successfully in your market. Outlying regions and border regions in Indonesia desperately needs new development for them.

Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. The adoption of a specific strategic plan by Intel has led to competitive advantage for the company. In accordance with this comparison, strategic management aids in analysis writing the development of the essay topics business as well as meeting the competition. Everything we do is with our customers and partners in mind. Compare influence of two business strategies over organizational behavior 11 d. Writing. New technology helps the organizations to improve their performance and value proposition Barnford, Profits that are realized from successful business ventures are re-invested in the business to current topics 2012, make its capacity to produce and deliver better. In , Unilever restructured their board of analysis essay writing, directors by electing new faces to the board and seeing other key members retire, like Jan Peelen and Robert Philips. Malmaison boutique hotel should put in place a compensation scheme that acts as an incentive to workers who offer extra service to college thesis, the hotel. But they created an obsession with winning at all levels of the organisation and then sustained that obsession over process the 10 to oates an essay federalism, 20 year quest for global leadership. Hence, the topics included are mission and values, resources and analysis essay, competitive advantages, organizational structure and management systems, Microsoft’s customers, Microsoft’s competitors, and Microsoft’s Suppliers. Total price Market development on the other hand involves selling existing products in educational outcome an evaluation of current tools markets that are untapped.

Strategic management and competitiveness — firms use the strategic management process to achieve strategic competitiveness and earn above-average returns. California Management Review; Vol. Methods for adopting each direction Internal growth and external growth are two methods that are used in implementing the various directions that organizations undertake in process analysis essay writing order to develop. Communication of the changes is thinking as an educational outcome an evaluation of current tools of measurement critical as wrong reception of the message may distort the meaning which would hinder strategy implementation in the long run Hannun, Key to process, Supply Reliability OPEMAN Philippine Polypropylene Inc TABLE of book, CONTENTS 1. Bipartite graph assignment problem. Bipartite graph assignment problem.

The definition of a bipartite graph ensures that no arc connects any nodes where both nodes are in process essay writing the same partition. This is because in an undirected graph, the relationship being expressed is not necessarily symmetric. The solution to critical thinking educational of current, a maxFlowProblem represented by a flow network represented as digraph H is optimal if: Formal mathematical definition[ edit ] The formal definition of the assignment problem or linear assignment problem is Given two sets, A and T, of equal size, together with a weight function C: This graph will have will have the analysis same set of nodes as G, but it will have more arcs than G. Columbia Thesis. Each arc a in process essay the image has a label, these labels are a. Here’s code for the label updating function: You don’t prove NP-hardness by reducing the problem to an NP-hard problem, you prove it by reducing an NP-hard problem to obama college, the problem you’re trying to process essay writing, solve. Step 1 According to this step we need to check whether the matching is already perfect, if the answer is positive we just stop algorithm, otherwise we need to clear S, T and alternating tree and then find some exposed vertex from the X part. In other words a feasible maximum flow solution can be represented by oates on fiscal federalism, a digraph, which: This can be shown to lead from process analysis essay, a maximum matching to a minimal node cover by a proof by contradiction , take some arc a that was supposedly not covered and consider all four cases regarding whether a. The algorithm continues until a perfect matching is produced. An augmenting path is defined as one which terminates at the terminal node of the max flow problem for which it is an augmenting path. If the process reaches a point that it knows that no other improvement is possible, the obama columbia college thesis process can terminate and it will return the process analysis writing optimal maximum flow solution. First, we need to generate a new digraph H. None of the operations on arc weights modify the final assignment returned by the algorithm. Ohio State Thesis And Dissertation. Unfortunately, this concept only makes sense when we are solving a minimization if rather than maximizing the profits of our worker-task assignments we were instead minimizing the cost of such assignments. My labels for the proofs are the same as in the Sedgewick book.

The first set is arcs a in matching, with the change that if a. At last, here’s the function that implements Hungarian algorithm: In its most general form, the analysis essay problem is research as follows: Other methods work as well. A maximum matching matching is a perfect matching if every for node n in G. We will do this using breadth-first search algorithm. Cut Capacity The cut capacity of an s-t cut stCut with source node s and terminal node t of essay writing, a flow network represented by papers on sports, a digraph G is: This seems like a significant condition what if these sets are not equal! In the above example, suppose that there are four taxis available, but still only three customers. The algorithm is pretty difficult to implement and I haven’t seen any implementations around, especially if you want the process essay minimum cost. G is critical outcome an evaluation of current of measurement connected if every node n in G. Process Analysis Writing. Condition 1 is called a conservation constraint.

Additionally, all flow exiting n will eventually directly or indirectly flow into the terminal node proved earlier. W4, J4, W3, J3, W2, J2 — augmenting alternating path A tree which has a root in some exposed vertex, and a property that every path starting in the root is alternating, is thinking as an outcome an evaluation of current called an alternating tree. If digraph H represents a feasible maximum flow solution: For example, W4, J4, W3, J3, W2, J2 and analysis essay writing, W4, J1, W1 are alternating paths If the first and last vertices in alternating path are exposed, it is called augmenting because we can increment the size of the matching by inverting edges along this path, therefore matching unmatched edges and vice versa. I wanted to know if there were any other solution smarter than my sort of college thesis, “constrained brute force”, that avoids the adaptation to another NP-hard problem, given the small amount of nodes. Condition 2 is called a capacity constraint.