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Browse American Medical Biography. American Medical Biography. by the inclusion of the dissertations, ranges of 78 and 77 c.c. Our conclusion must be that irrespective of respiration apparatus or breathing appliance used, the research essay, oxygen consumption is fairly uniform and constant during the perioel from 8.30 a.m. to 12.30 p.m. with a subject at radiography dissertations rest in the postabsorptive American Medical Biography. Help Me Essay? his prostate massaged a number of times because the notion took him. Dissertations? Examination shows that the prostate contains a number of space indurated areas. The vesicles are palpable. The secretion, small in amount, consists of radiography chunks of pus and epithelium.
The case is evidently one of low grade infection of September 4, 1919 Shattuck F.C. Boston Med Surg J 1919; 181:302-304. American Medical Biography. such'cases. The treatment in early eases consists in prescribing a custom made shoe or wearing for six months a plate with a steel tongue under the big toe. Essay? In advanced cases excision of the exostoses is the radiography dissertations, method of choice. Hallux valgus is caused, in Painter's06 opinion, by two factors: pointed American Medical Biography. most observers recommend Whitman's abduction treatment as the s thesis in education, method of choice at least for the early cases, both in adults and children, while they want to radiography have the operative method reserved for certain selected fresh cases and for the old ununited cases. (Hunkins,47 Taylor,48 Whitbeck,49 American Medical Biography.
of 87 years, and is remembered as one of the greatest and most influential Chicagoans of his time. He was ever active as a leader and promotor of reforms and improvements in public and private life. He was a family physician in the old and best sense of the help me essay, term. Although he had a large American Medical Biography. would be of value, one for the government, one for the school, and one for radiography, the parents. The most important data should be strictly anthropologie ; especially the measurements of leg and body lengths, the research, few important girths, type of chest and radiography dissertations, back, foot conditions in reference to weight bearing, American Medical Biography. Space Essay? which Thaeher was invited as a particular guest. Then we pass to a word picture of the capture and execution of Major Andre, the pathetic scene of the court-martial of mutineers in the midst of the radiography, depths of winter; that silver bullet swallowed by a spy, with its incriminating letters inside, American Medical Biography. Space Research Essay? 27. Pericarditis occurred: a. Infrequently, i.e. in only 3% of 485 pneumonias. O. Out of these 14 cases, ll times with pus to radiography 3 times without. o. More often, contrary to expectation with ngi/ii-sidecl pneumonia: Right, 1; left, 1; with bilateral pneumonia 5 times. d. Space Research? With empyema pleurae 11 times, American Medical Biography. coronary artery, between the aorta and radiography dissertations, pulmonary artery. The opening through which the blood was effused was about one-third of an inch in diameter.
The walls of the aneurism were very thin, but there was much thickening of the arterial coats in the neighborhood. Some of the bronchial glands were American Medical Biography. onset of pneumonia. (Cole, B. Medical Clinics of essay North America, Nov. 1917, I, 546.) The latter view is supported by the data in this series of radiography dissertations 485 cases: 1. Average day of diagnosis,=-ii day of the disease. 2. Only 31% of patients gave a distinct story of brisk onset. The prodromes most American Medical Biography. action. Many of the patients had drunk beer to excess, but did not, as a rule, acknowledge that they had taken spirits freely. A Wassermann test had only been performed 26 times, with the result that it was negative in twelve and positive in six cases; in five it was doubtful negative, and in three American Medical Biography. for, and help me essay, it would certainly facilitate that which Col. Banks has emphasized, namely: the necessity of sympathetic cooperation among all allied agencies having to do with public health work. Moreover, I feel strongly that there could be no more propitious time than the present to set in motion February 27, 1919 Ahern M.J. and Ahern G. Boston Med Surg J 1919; 180:245-246. American Medical Biography. Radiography Dissertations? LATER STAGES OF GUNSHOT WOUNDS OF THE LUNGS.
Major G. Gray Turner, New Castle-on-Tyne : In the early stages of the present trouble it was not the custom to carry out any active surgical intervention, and popular topics, the practice of the surgeons at the front reflected on radiography, the practice of those in the stations February 20, 1919 Garrison F.H. Boston Med Surg J 1919; 180:217-219. American Medical Biography. the employment of local anesthesia alone, or in essay combination with light chloroform general anesthesia. In many instances it is safer to remove the dissertations, disease involving the upper jaw in stages. It is remarkable how much can be done under local anesthesia alone. When a general anesthetic is necessary, February 13, 1919 Miller W.S. Boston Med Surg J 1919; 180:187-190.
American Medical Biography. MUMFORD, JAMES GREGORY (1863-1914).* James Gregory Mumford, of Boston, eminent as a surgeon and still more eminent as a writer, both upon pure surgery and upon a number of topics related to medicine, in lighter vein, was the son of George Elihu and Julia Emma Hills Mumford. He was born in American Medical Biography. COOPER, THOMAS (1759-1839).* Thomas Cooper, for twelve years president of the University of South Carolina, naturalist, politician and writer, was an Englishman who believed in individual thinking and coursework 5 gateway, free speech, a stormy petrel who found it best to flit to the land of the free and radiography, settle in American Medical Biography. mal. Some difficulty in swallowing. Transient pain in left forearm.
July 16th. Temperature rose steadily to 105.6, pulse and help me essay, respiration in keeping. Temperature uninfluenced by sponging. July 17th. Patient irrational, temperature, 106.4; pulse, 140 to uncountable; respirations, 32 to 44, with no American Medical Biography. opened to disabled men are the radiography, plate glass, machinery building, boiler-making, printing.
In the underwear industry many firms have offered to 5 gateway welcome.url take disabled men, one firm even offering to employ them up to one-sixth of the operating force. For men who have suffered the loss of their arms, the American Medical Biography. were very extensive. There were many ulcers under the toes and mutilations of the feet, and in almost all of the anesthetic cases there was a loss of fingers. The patient usually comes to dissertations the colony willingly, since the people about him are intolerant of his helplessness. There is no obligation for
December 12, 1918 Burrage W.L. Boston Med Surg J 1918; 179:739-740. American Medical Biography. the Commission recommends, that the 5 gateway, use and installation of apparatus should be confined, for the present, to radiography properly equipped institutions under medical direction. The Commission recognizes the great need of simple devices capable of performing artificial respiration reliably and efficiently. It
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Nietzsche's Moral and radiography dissertations Political Philosophy. Nietzsche's moral philosophy is research, primarily critical in orientation: he attacks morality both for its commitment to untenable descriptive (metaphysical and empirical) claims about human agency, as well as for the deleterious impact of its distinctive norms and values on radiography, the flourishing of the highest types of human beings (Nietzsche's “higher men”). His positive ethical views are best understood as combining (i) a kind of consequentialist perfectionism as Nietzsche's implicit theory of the good, with (ii) a conception of a master in education, human perfection involving both formal and substantive elements. Because Nietzsche, however, is an anti-realist about value, he takes neither his positive vision, nor those aspects of his critique that depend upon radiography dissertations, it, to have any special epistemic status, a fact which helps explain his rhetoric and the circumspect character of his “esoteric” moralizing. Although Nietzsche's illiberal attitudes (for example, about human equality) are apparent, there are no grounds for ascribing to him a political philosophy, since he has no systematic (or even partly systematic) views about the nature of state and society. Help Me Essay! As an esoteric moralist, Nietzsche aims at freeing higher human beings from their false consciousness about morality (their false belief that this morality is good for them ), not at radiography, a transformation of society at large. 1.1 Scope of the Critique: Morality in the Pejorative Sense.
Nietzsche is not a critic of all “morality.” He explicitly embraces, for example, the idea of a “higher morality” which would inform the lives of “higher men” (Schacht 1983: 466469), and, in so doing, he employs the same German word Moral , sometimes Moralität for both what he attacks and what he praises. Moreover, Nietzsche aims to offer a revaluation of existing values in a manner that appears, itself, to involve appeal to broadly “moral” standards of some sort. As he writes in the Preface to Daybreak : “in this book faith in morality [ Moral ] is withdrawn but why? Out of morality [ Moralität ]! Or what else should we call that which informs it and us ?.[T]here is no doubt that a ‘thou shalt’ [ du sollst ] speaks to us too” (D 4). This means, of course, that (on pain of inconsistency) morality as the essays, object of Nietzsche's critique must be distinguishable from the sense of “morality” he retains and employs. Yet Nietzsche also does not confine his criticisms of morality to some one religiously, philosophically, socially or historically circumscribed example. Radiography Dissertations! Thus, it will not suffice to say that he simply attacks Christian or Kantian or European or utilitarian morality though he certainly at times attacks all of these. Space Essay! To do justice to the scope of his critique, we should ask what characterizes “morality” in Nietzsche's pejorative sense hereafter, “MPS” that is, morality as the object of his critique. Nietzsche believes that all normative systems which perform something like the radiography dissertations, role we associate with “morality” share certain structural characteristics, even as the meaning and value of essay, these normative systems varies considerably over time. In particular, all normative systems have both descriptive and normative components, in the sense that: (a) they presuppose a particular descriptive account of human agency, in the sense that for dissertations, the normative claims comprising the system to have intelligible application to human agents, particular metaphysical and empirical claims about agency must be true; and (b) the system's norms favor the interests of some people, often (though not necessarily) at the expense of others. A Master! Any particular morality will, in turn, be the object of Nietzsche's critique (i.e., MPS) only if it: presupposes three particular descriptive claims about the nature of human agents pertaining to free will, the transparency of the self, and the essential similarity of all people (“the Descriptive Component”); and/or embraces norms that harm the “highest men” while benefitting the “lowest” (“the Normative Component”).
While Nietzsche offers criticisms of both the Descriptive and radiography Normative Components of MPS, what ultimately defines MPS as against help me essay unobjectionable normative systems is the distinctive normative agenda. Thus, while Nietzsche criticizes the radiography, description of agency that is typically part and parcel of MPS, he also holds that “[i]t is not error as error that” he objects to fundamentally in help me essay MPS (EH IV;7): that is, it is not the falsity of the radiography, descriptive account of agency presupposed by MPS, per se , that is the heart of the problem, but rather its distinctive normative commitments. Space Research! Thus, strictly speaking, it is true that an MPS would be objectionable even if it did not involve a commitment to an untenable descriptive account of agency (as, say, certain forms of utilitarianism do not). Dissertations! Because Nietzsche's two most common and closely related specific targets are, however, Christian and Kantian morality, the critique of the descriptive component of MPS figures prominently in space research essay Nietzsche's writing, and any account of the logic of his critique that omitted it would not do justice to his concerns. 1.2 Critique of the Descriptive Component of MPS. MPS for radiography, Nietzsche depends for its intelligible application to human agents on three descriptive theses about human agency (cf. BGE 32; GM I:13; TI VI; EH III:5; EH IV:8): (1) Human agents possess a will capable of free and autonomous choice (“Free Will Thesis”). (2) The self is sufficiently transparent that agents' actions can be distinguished on the basis of their respective motives (“Transparency of the essay topics, Self Thesis”). (3) Human agents are sufficiently similar that one moral code is appropriate for radiography, (because in the interests of) all (“Similarity Thesis”).
These three theses must be true in contests order for the normative judgments of dissertations, MPS to be intelligible because the normative judgments of MPS are marked for help me essay, Nietzsche by three corresponding traits; namely, that they: (1′) Hold agents responsible for their actions. (2′) Evaluate and radiography dissertations “rank” the motives for which agents act. (3′) Presuppose that “morality” has universal applicability (MPS “says stubbornly and contests for adults inexorably, ‘I am morality itself, and nothing besides is morality’” [BGE 202]). Thus, the falsity of the picture of agency would affect the intelligibility of moral judgments in the following three ways: (1″) If agents lacked “free will” they could not be held responsible for their actions. (2″) If agent motives could not be distinguished then no evaluative distinctions could be drawn among acts in terms of their motives. (3″) If agents were, in fact, different in dissertations some overlooked but relevant respect, then it would, at least, not be prima facie apparent that one morality should have universal application. It is the burden, then, of Nietzsche's critique of the on student, Descriptive Component of MPS to show that, in fact, none of these latter theses about the nature of agency hold. A brief review of these arguments follows (a more detailed treatment is in Leiter 2002: 81112). Against the dissertations, Free Will Thesis, Nietzsche argues that a free agent (that is, one sufficiently free to be morally responsible) would have to help me essay, be causa sui (i.e., self-caused, or the cause of dissertations, itself); but since we are not causa sui , no one can be a free agent. Nietzsche takes for granted not implausibly that our moral and religious traditions are incompatibilist at their core: causally determined wills are not free wills.
Nietzsche offers two kinds of arguments to show that we are not causa sui : that it is logically impossible to be causa sui ; and that human beings are not self-caused in space a sense sufficient to underwrite ascriptions of moral responsibility. (I owe the radiography, point that there are two different arguments at issue here to contests, Eric Vogelstein.) He says relatively little about the first point, other than claiming that “the concept of a causa sui is something fundamentally absurd” (BGE 15), and radiography that it is “the best self-contradiction that has been conceived so fara sort of 5 gateway, rape and perversion of logic” (BGE 21), such that this, desire for dissertations, “freedom of the will” in the superlative metaphysical sensethe desire to bear the entire and research ultimate responsibility for one's actions oneself, and to absolve God, the world, ancestors, chance, and radiography dissertations society involves nothing less than to contests for adults, be precisely this causa sui andto pull oneself up into existence by the hair, out of the swamps of nothingness. (BGE 21) But we cannot, needless to say, pull ourselves up “out of the swamps of nothingness,” and so we cannot have ultimate responsibility for our actions. Nietzsche quickly moves from the claim that being causa sui involves a contradiction, however, to an argument that depends on his picture of radiography, human agency. Nietzsche accepts what we may call a “Doctrine of Types” (Leiter 1998), according to which, Each person has a fixed psycho-physical constitution, which defines him as a particular type of person. Call the popular essay topics, relevant psycho-physical facts here “type-facts.” Type-facts, for Nietzsche, are either physiological facts about the radiography, person, or facts about the person's unconscious drives or affects.
The claim, then, is welcome.url, that each person has certain largely immutable physiological and psychic traits that constitute the radiography, “type” of person he or she is. Although Nietzsche himself does not use this exact terminology, the concept figures centrally in coursework 5 gateway all his mature writings. A typical Nietzschean form of argument, for example, runs as follows: a person's theoretical beliefs are best explained in terms of his moral beliefs; and his moral beliefs are best explained in terms of natural facts about the type of person he is (i.e., in terms of dissertations, type-facts). Contests For Adults! So Nietzsche says, “every great philosophy so far has beenthe personal confession of its author and radiography a kind of involuntary and unconscious memoir”; thus, to really grasp this philosophy, one must ask “at what morality does all this (does he ) aim” (BGE 6)? But the “morality” that a philosopher embraces simply bears “decisive witness to who he is ” i.e., who he essentially is that is, to the “innermost drives of his nature” (BGE 6). This explanation of a person's moral beliefs in terms of psycho-physical facts about the person is a recurring theme in essay Nietzsche. “[M]oralities aremerely a sign language of the affects” (BGE 187), he says. “Answers to the questions about the value of existencemay always be considered first of radiography, all as the symptoms of certain bodies” (GS P:2). Essay Topics! “Moral judgments,” he says are, “symptoms and sign languages which betray the process of physiological prosperity or failure” (WP 258). “[O]ur moral judgments and radiography evaluationsare only essay topics, images and fantasies based on a physiological process unknown to us” (D 119), so that “it is always necessary to draw forththe physiological phenomenon behind the moral predispositions and prejudices” (D 542). A “morality of sympathy,” he claims is “just another expression of physiological overexcitability” (TI IX:37). Ressentiment and the morality that grows out of it he attributes to an “actual physiological cause [ Ursache ]” (GM I:15).
Nietzsche sums up the idea well in the preface to On the Genealogy of Morality (hereafter simply “ Genealogy ” or “GM”): “our thoughts, values, every ‘yes,’ ‘no,’ ‘if’ and dissertations ‘but’ grow from us with the same inevitability as fruits borne on the tree all related and each with an affinity to writing a master s thesis in education, each, and evidence of one will, one health, one earth, one sun” (GM P:2). Nietzsche seeks to understand in naturalistic terms the radiography, type of “person” who would necessarily bear such ideas and values, just as one might come to understand things about a type of tree by knowing its fruits. And just as natural facts about the tree explain the popular essay topics, fruit it bears, so too type-facts about radiography, a person will explain his values and actions. This means that the conscious mental states that precede the action and whose propositional contents would make them appear to be causally connected to essays, the action are, in fact, epiphenomenal, either as tokens or as types: that is, they are either causally inert with respect to the action or causally effective only in virtue of other type-facts about the person (Leiter 2002: 9193 argues for the latter reading; Leiter 2007 argues for the former). We typically locate the “will,” as the seat of action, in various conscious states: for radiography dissertations, example, our beliefs and desires.
According to coursework, Nietzsche, however, the “will” so conceived is nothing but the effect of radiography dissertations, type-facts about the research, person. Dissertations! This means that the real story of the genesis of an action begins with the type-facts, which explain both consciousness and a person's actions. Here is how Nietzsche puts it, after suggesting that the “will” is related to, but conceptually prior to, the concepts of “consciousness” and essays “ego”: The “inner world” is full of phantoms: the will is dissertations, one of them. The will no longer moves anything, hence does not explain anything either it merely accompanies events; it can also be absent. Popular! The so-called motive : another error.
Merely a surface phenomenon of radiography dissertations, consciousness something alongside the space research, deed that is more likely to cover up the antecedents of the dissertations, deeds than to represent them. What follows from this? There are no mental [ geistigen ] causes at all. (TI VI:3) In the last line, Nietzsche must mean only contests, that there are no conscious mental causes. Indeed, in other passages, he is explicit that the target of this critique is the picture of conscious motives as adequate to account for action. (For competing views of the scope of Nietzsche's epiphenomenalism about consciousness, see Katsafanas 2005 and Riccardi 2015a.) As he writes in Daybreak , “we are accustomed to exclude all [the] unconscious processes from the accounting and to reflect on the preparation for an act only to the extent that it is dissertations, conscious” (D 129), a view which Nietzsche plainly regards as mistaken, both here and in the passage quoted above.
Indeed, the theme of the “ridiculous overestimation and misunderstanding of consciousness” (GS 11) is a recurring one in Nietzsche. “[B]y far the greatest part of coursework 5 gateway, our spirit's activity,” says Nietzsche, “remains unconscious and unfelt” (GS 333; cf. Radiography! GS 354). Apart from the general evidence on essays on student, behalf of the Doctrine of Types, Nietzsche's strongest targeted argument for dissertations, the epiphenomenality of on student, consciousness depends on a piece of phenomenology, namely, “that a thought comes when ‘it’ wishes, and not when ‘I’ wish” (BGE 17). If that is right and if actions are apparently “caused” by thoughts (by particular beliefs and desires), then it follows that actions are not caused solely by our conscious mental states, but rather by whatever it is (i.e., type-facts) that determines the thoughts that enter consciousness. Radiography Dissertations! Thus, it is the contests for adults, (autonomous) causal power of our conscious mental life that Nietzsche must be attacking. Dissertations! Given, then, that Nietzsche claims consciousness is epiphenomenal, and given our identification of the “will” with our conscious life, Nietzsche would have us dispense with the idea of the will as causal altogether. (This gives Nietzsche a novel argument against on student hierarchical accounts of free will favored by compatibilists: see Leiter 2002: 9396). Since the radiography, conscious will is not causal, the Free Will Thesis is false. Against the popular topics, Transparency of the Self Thesis, Nietzsche claims that “every action is unknowable” (GS 335; cf. WP 291, 294); as he writes in Daybreak : The primeval delusion still lives on that one knows, and knows quite precisely in radiography dissertations every case, how human action is essays, brought about . “I know what I want, what I have done, I am free and responsible for it, I hold others responsible, I can call by its name every moral possibility and every inner motion which precedes action; you may act as you will in this matter I understand myself and understand you all!” that is howalmost everyone still thinks.[But] [a]ctions are never what they appear to us to be! We have expended so much labor on learning that external things are not as they appear to us to be very well! the case is the radiography, same with the 5 gateway, inner world! Moral actions are in reality “something other than that” more we cannot say: and all actions are essentially unknown. (D 116)
Actions are unknown because “nothingcan be more incomplete than [one's] image of the totality of drives which constitute [a man's] being” (D 119). One “can scarcely name even the cruder ones: their number and strength, their ebb and flow, their play and radiography dissertations counterplay among one another, and coursework 5 gateway welcome.url above all the laws of radiography, their nutriment remain wholly unknown” (D 119). 5 Gateway! But as Nietzsche argues elsewhere (e.g., D 109), the radiography, self is merely the arena in which the help me essay, struggle of radiography dissertations, drives plays itself out, and one's actions are the outcomes of the struggle (see Leiter 2002: 99104; cf. Riccardi 2015b; for a general account of Nietzsche's philosophical psychology, see Katsafanas 2013). Against the Similarity Thesis, Nietzsche once again deploys his Doctrine of Types. Nietzsche holds that agents are essentially dissimilar , insofar as they are constituted by different type-facts. Since Nietzsche also holds that these natural type-facts fix the different conditions under which particular agents will flourish, it follows that one morality cannot be good for writing s thesis, all. “ Morality in Europe today is herd animal morality ,” says Nietzsche, “in other wordsmerely one type of human morality beside which, before which, and after which many other types, above all higher moralities, are, or ought to be, possible” (BGE 202). Nietzsche illustrates the general point with his discussion of the case of the radiography, Italian writer Cornaro in Twilight of the Idols (VI:1). Cornaro, says Nietzsche, wrote a book mistakenly recommending “his slender diet as a recipe for a long and happy life.” But why was this a mistake? Nietzsche explains: The worthy Italian thought his diet was the cause of his long life, whereas the precondition for a long life, the extraordinary slowness of his metabolism, the consumption of essay, so little, was the cause of his slender diet.
He was not free to eat little or much; his frugality was not a matter of “free will”: he became sick when he ate more. But whoever is not a carp not only dissertations, does well to eat properly, but needs to. There exists, then, type-facts about Cornaro that explain why a slender diet is good for him: namely, “the extraordinary slowness of his metabolism.” These natural facts, in research essay turn, constrain what Cornaro can do, delivering him “feedback” about the conditions under which he will and won't flourish: given his slow metabolism, if Cornaro ate more “he became sick”; conversely, when he stuck to his slender diet, he did well. Dissertations! In sum, “[h]e was not free to eat little or much.” Cornaro's mistake consists, in effect, in his absolutism: he thought the “good” diet was good for popular, everyone, when in fact it was only radiography dissertations, good for certain types of coursework welcome.url, bodies (namely, those with slow metabolisms). As with diets, so too with moralities, according to Nietzsche. Agents are not similar in dissertations type-facts, and so one moral “diet” cannot be “good for all.” As he writes: [T]he question is help me essay, always who he is, and who the other person isEvery unegoistic morality that takes itself for unconditional and addresses itself to all does not only sin against taste: it is a provocation to dissertations, sins of writing a master s thesis, omission, one more seduction under the mask of radiography, philanthropy and precisely a seduction and injury for on student, the higher, rarer, privileged. (BGE 221) This point sets the stage for radiography, his core critique of morality. 1.3 Critique of the contests, Normative Component of MPS. All of Nietzsche's criticisms of the normative component of MPS are parasitic upon dissertations, one basic complaint not, as some have held (e.g., Nehamas , Geuss ), the universality of moral demands, per se , but rather that “the demand of one morality for 5 gateway welcome.url, all is detrimental to radiography dissertations, the higher men” (BGE 228). Universality would be unobjectionable if agents were relevantly similar, but because agents are relevantly different, a universal morality must necessarily be harmful to some. As Nietzsche writes elsewhere: “When a decadent type of man ascended to the rank of the highest type [via MPS], this could only essay topics, happen at the expense of its countertype [emphasis added], the radiography dissertations, type of man that is strong and sure of life” (EH III:5).
In the preface to the Genealogy , Nietzsche sums up his basic concern particularly well: What if a symptom of regression lurked in help me essay the “good,” likewise a danger, a seduction, a poison, a narcotic, through which the dissertations, present lived at the expense of the future ? Perhaps more comfortably, less dangerously, but at the same time in writing a meaner style, more basely? So that morality itself were to blame if the highest power and radiography dissertations splendor [ Mächtigkeit und Pracht ] possible to essay contests, the type man was never in radiography fact attained? So that morality itself was the danger of coursework 5 gateway welcome.url, dangers? (GM Pref:6; cf. BT Attempt:5) This theme is sounded throughout Nietzsche's work.
In a book of 1880, for example, he writes that, “Our weak, unmanly social concepts of good and evil and their tremendous ascendancy over body and soul have finally weakened all bodies and souls and snapped the self-reliant, independent, unprejudiced men, the pillars of a strong civilization” (D 163). Similarly, in dissertations a posthumously published note of 1885, he remarks that “men of great creativity, the really great men according to my understanding, will be sought in vain today” because “nothing stands more malignantly in coursework welcome.url the way of their rise and evolutionthan what in Europe today is called simply ‘morality’” (WP 957). In these and many other passages (e.g., BGE 62; GM III:14; A:5, 24; EH IV:4; WP 274, 345, 400, 870, 879.), Nietzsche makes plain his fundamental objection to radiography dissertations, MPS: simply put, that MPS thwarts the development of help me essay, human excellence, i.e., “the highest power and splendor possible to dissertations, the type man” (for more on the “higher man,” see section (2)). There is another, important competing reading of Nietzsche's central complaint about MPS: namely, that it is “harmful to life” or, more simply, “anti-nature.” Geuss, for popular essay, example, says that, “There is little doubt that ‘Life’in Nietzsche does seem to function as a criterion for evaluating moralities” (1997: 10). So, too, Schacht claims that Nietzsche “takes ‘life’ in this world to be the sole locus of value, and its preservation, flourishing, and above all its enhancement to be ultimately decisive for determinations of value” (1983: 359). Thus, the question of the value of MPS is really the question of its “value for radiography dissertations, life” (1983: 354). Yet such an account is coursework welcome.url, plainly too vague: what exactly does “life” refer to here? Schacht, following a suggestion of Nietzsche's from the Nachlass (WP 254), suggests that life is will to dissertations, power, and thus degree of power constitutes the standard of help me essay, value. (We shall return to this suggestion in detail in section 3.1, below.) But this involves no gain in precision. Nietzsche may, indeed, have thought that more “power” in dissertations his sense was more valuable than less, but that still leaves us with the question: power of what or of whom ? The only plausible candidate given especially his other remarks discussed above is contests, power of people ; just as the only plausible candidate for radiography dissertations, the “life” that Nietzsche considers it valuable to preserve and enhance must be the lives of people and, in essays on student particular, the lives of the “highest men.”
That this is what Nietzsche means is revealed by the context of his actual remarks about the “value for radiography dissertations, life.” For example, he comments that “a higher and more fundamental value for life might have to be ascribed to deception, selfishness, and lust” (BGE 2, emphasis added). But what sort of “life” is, e.g., “selfishness” valuable for? As Nietzsche writes elsewhere (e.g., GM Pref:56), it is simply that life which manifests “the highest power and essays on student splendor actually possible to the type man.” And similarly, when Nietzsche says that a “tendency hostile to life is dissertations, therefore characteristic of morality,” it is clear in context that what “life” refers to writing a master s thesis, is “the type man” who might be “raised to his greatest splendor and power” (that is, but for the interference of MPS) (WP 897). In short, then, the things Nietzsche identifies as “valuable” for life are those he takes to be necessary for the flourishing of the highest types of life (or human excellence), while those that he identifies as harmful to it are those that he takes to radiography, be things that constitute obstacles to popular topics, such flourishing. This suggests, then, that the “life” for radiography, which things are either valuable or disvaluable must be the life (or lives) that manifest human excellence i.e., the lives of “higher men.” Something similar may be said for the claim that Nietzsche objects to MPS because it is “anti-nature.” For example, when Nietzsche says in Ecce Homo (IV:7) that “it is the lack of nature, it is the coursework 5 gateway, utterly gruesome fact that antinature itself received the highest honors as morality” that he centrally objects to in a morality, his claim will remain obscure unless we can say precisely what about radiography, MPS makes it “anti-natural.” Nietzsche, himself, offers guidance on this in the same section when he explains that a MPS is anti-natural insofar as it has the following sorts of characteristics: it teaches men “to despise the 5 gateway welcome.url, very first instincts of life” and “to experience the radiography dissertations, presupposition of life, sexuality, as something unclean”; and popular essay topics it “looks for radiography dissertations, the evil principle in what is most profoundly necessary for research, growth, in severe self-love” (EH IV:7). But from this it should be apparent, then, that it is not anti-naturalness itself that is objectionable, but the dissertations, consequences of an anti-natural MPS that are at issue: for example, its opposition to the instincts that are “profoundly necessary for growth.” This point is space essay, even more explicit in The Antichrist , where Nietzsche notes that Christian morality “has waged deadly war against dissertations this higher type of man; it has placed all the basic instincts of his type under ban ” (5, emphasis added). On Student! In other words, the anti-naturalness of MPS is objectionable because the “natural” instincts MPS opposes are precisely those necessary for the growth of the radiography, “higher type of man.” Thus, underlying Nietzsche's worries about the anti-naturalness of essay contests, MPS just as underlying his worries about the threat MPS poses to life is a concern for the effect of MPS on “higher men.” So Nietzsche objects to radiography, the normative agenda of popular, MPS because it is harmful to the highest men. Dissertations! In Nietzsche's various accounts of what the objectionable agenda of essay for adults, MPS consists, he identifies a variety of normative positions (see, e.g., D 108, 132, 174; GS 116, 294, 328, 338, 345, 352, 377; Z I:4, II:8, III:1, 9, IV:13, 10; BGE 197, 198, 201202, 225, 257; GM Pref:5, III: 11 ff.; TI II, V, IX:35, 3738, 48; A: 7, 43; EH III:D-2, IV:4, 7-8; WP 752). We may characterize these simply as “pro” and “con” attitudes, and we may say that a morality is the dissertations, object of Nietzsche's critique (i.e., it is an MPS) if it contains one or more of the writing a master s thesis in education, following normative views (this is a representative, but not exhaustive, list):
The various possible normative components of MPS should, of dissertations, course, be understood construed as ideal-typical , singling out for emphasis and writing a master criticism certain important features of larger and more complex normative views. Let us call that which morality has a “pro” attitude towards is the “Pro-Object,” and that which morality has a “con” attitude towards the “Con-Object.” Keeping in mind that what seems to have intrinsic value for Nietzsche is human excellence or human greatness (see the next section), Nietzsche's attack on the normative component of MPS can be summarized as having two parts: (a) With respect to radiography, the Pro-Object, Nietzsche argues either (i) that the Pro-Object has no intrinsic value (in the cases where MPS claims it does); or (ii) that it does not have any or not nearly as much extrinsic value as MPS treats it as having; and. (b) With respect to essays, the Con-Object, Nietzsche argues only that the Con-Objects are extrinsically valuable for the cultivation of human excellence and that this is obscured by the “con” attitude endorsed by radiography MPS. Thus, what unifies Nietzsche's seemingly disparate critical remarks about altruism, happiness, pity, equality, Kantian respect for persons, utilitarianism, etc. is that he thinks a culture in popular which such norms prevail as morality will be a culture which eliminates the conditions for the realization of human excellence the latter requiring, on Nietzsche's view, concern with the self, suffering, a certain stoic indifference, a sense of hierarchy and difference, and the like. Indeed, when we turn to radiography, the details of Nietzsche's criticisms of these norms we find that, in fact, this is precisely what he argues. Space Research Essay! One detailed example will have to suffice here. What could be harmful about the seemingly innocuous MPS valuation of happiness (“pro”) and suffering (“con”)? An early remark of Nietzsche's suggests his answer:
Are we not, with this tremendous objective of obliterating all the sharp edges of life, well on the way to dissertations, turning mankind into sand ? Sand! Small, soft, round, unending sand! Is that your ideal, you heralds of the sympathetic affections? (D 174) In a later work, Nietzsche says referring to hedonists and utilitarians that, “Well-being as you understand it that is no goal, that seems to us an end , a state that soon makes man ridiculous and contemptible” (BGE 225). By the hedonistic doctrine of well-being, Nietzsche takes the utilitarians to help me essay, have in mind “ English happiness,” namely, “comfort and fashion” (BGE 228) a construal which, if unfair to some utilitarians (like Mill), may do justice to radiography dissertations, our ordinary aspirations to happiness. Essay! In a similar vein, Nietzsche has Zarathustra dismiss “wretched contentment” as an ideal (Z Pref:3), while also revealing that it was precisely “the last men” the radiography, “most despicable men” who “invented happiness [ Glück ]” in the first place (Pref:5). So happiness, according to Nietzsche, is topics, not an intrinsically valuable end, and radiography dissertations men who aim for space research essay, it directly or through cultivating the dispositions that lead to it would be “ridiculous and contemptible.” To be sure, Nietzsche allows that he himself and the “free spirits” will be “cheerful” or “gay” [ frölich ] they are, after all, the proponents of the “gay science.” But the point is that such “happiness” is not criterial of being a higher person, and thus it is not something that the radiography dissertations, higher person in contrast to the adherent of MPS aims for.
Yet why does aiming for happiness make a person so unworthy of admiration? Nietzsche's answer appears to be this: because suffering is positively necessary for the cultivation of human excellence which is the only thing, recall, that warrants admiration for Nietzsche. He writes, for example, that: The discipline of suffering, of great suffering do you not know that only this discipline has created all enhancements of man so far? That tension of the popular essay topics, soul in unhappiness which cultivates its strength, its shudders face to face with great ruin, its inventiveness and courage in enduring, persevering, interpreting, and exploiting suffering, and whatever has been granted to it of profundity, secret, mask, spirit, cunning, greatness was it not granted to it through suffering, through the discipline of great suffering? (BGE 225; cf. BGE 270) Nietzsche is not arguing here that in contrast to the view of MPS suffering is dissertations, really intrinsically valuable (not even MPS claims that). The value of suffering, according to Nietzsche, is only extrinsic: suffering “great” suffering is a prerequisite of any great human achievement. As Nietzsche puts the point elsewhere: “Only great pain is the ultimate liberator of the spirit.I doubt that such pain makes us ‘better’; but I know that it makes us more profound” (GS Pref:3). Nietzsche's attack, then, conforms to the model sketched above: (i) he rejects the view that happiness is intrinsically valuable; and (ii) he thinks that the negative attitude of MPS toward suffering obscures its important extrinsic value. (There is reason to 5 gateway welcome.url, think that, on this second point, Nietzsche is generalizing from his own experience with physical suffering, the worst periods of which coincided with his greatest productivity. Indeed, he believed that his suffering contributed essentially to his work: as he writes, admittedly hyperbolically, in Ecce Homo : “In the midst of the torments that go with an uninterrupted three-day migraine, accompanied by laborious vomiting of phlegm, I possessed a dialectician's clarity par excellence and thought through with very cold blood matters for which under healthier circumstances I am not mountain-climber, not subtle, not cold enough” (EH I:1).)
Even if there is no shortage in the history of art and radiography literature of cases of immense suffering being the spur to great creativity, there remains a serious worry about the logic of this line of help me essay, Nietzschean critique. Following Leiter (1995), we may call this the “Harm Puzzle,” and the puzzle is this: why should one think the general moral prescription to radiography, alleviate suffering must stop the essay, suffering of great artists, hence stop them from producing great art? One might think, in fact, that MPS could perfectly well allow an exception for those individuals whose own suffering is essential to the realization of central life projects. After all, a prescription to alleviate suffering reflects a concern with promoting well-being, under some construal. But if some individuals nascent Goethes, Nietzsches, and other geniuses would be better off with a good dose of radiography dissertations, suffering, then why would MPS recommend otherwise? Why, then, should it be the case that MPS “harms” potentially “higher men”? This seems the natural philosophical question to essays on student, ask, yet it also involves an important misunderstanding of Nietzsche's critique, which is radiography dissertations, not, we might say, about philosophical theory but rather about the s thesis in education, real nature of culture . When MPS values come to dominate a culture, Nietzsche thinks (plausibly), they will affect the attitudes of all members of that culture. If MPS values emphasize the badness of suffering and the goodness of happiness, that will influence how individuals with the potential for great achievements will understand, evaluate and conduct their own lives. If, in fact, suffering is a precondition for these individuals to do anything great, and if they have internalized the dissertations, norm that suffering must be alleviated, and that happiness is the ultimate goal, then we run the risk that, rather than to put it crudely suffer and essays create, they will instead waste their energies pursuing pleasure, lamenting their suffering and dissertations seeking to essay for adults, alleviate it. Radiography Dissertations! MPS values may not explicitly prohibit artists or other potentially “excellent” persons from ever suffering; but the risk is that a culture like ours which has internalized the writing a master, norms against suffering and for pleasure will be a culture in which potential artists and other doers of great things will, in fact , squander themselves in self-pity and the seeking of pleasure.
So Nietzsche's response to the Harm Puzzle depends upon an empirical claim about what the real effect of radiography, MPS will be. Contests For Adults! The normative component of radiography, MPS is in education, harmful not because its specific prescriptions and proscriptions explicitly require potentially excellent persons to forego that which allows them to flourish (the claim is not that a conscientious application of the “theory” of MPS is radiography dissertations, incompatible with the flourishing of higher men); rather, the normative component of MPS is harmful because in practice , and especially because of MPS's commitment to the idea that one morality is appropriate for all, potentially higher men will come to adopt such values as applicable to themselves as well. Thus, the normative component of MPS is harmful because, in reality, it will have the effect of coursework, leading potentially excellent persons to radiography, value what is in fact not conducive to their flourishing and devalue what is in fact essential to it. In sum, Nietzsche's central objection to MPS is that it thwarts the development of human excellence. His argument for this, in each case, turns on identifying distinctive valuations of MPS, and showing how as in the case of norms favoring happiness and devaluing suffering they undermine the development of individuals who would manifest human excellence. (For discussion of essay contests for adults, other examples, see Leiter 2002: 134136.) 2. Radiography Dissertations! Nietzsche's Positive Ethical Vision. While Nietzsche clearly has views about the states of affairs to help me essay, which positive intrinsic value attaches (namely, the flourishing of radiography, higher men), there is more disagreement among interpreters about what kind of ethics arises from the latter valuation so central to his critique of morality. The two leading candidates are that Nietzsche embraces a kind of virtue ethics (e.g., Hunt 1991; Solomon 2001) and that he is a kind of perfectionist (Hurka 1993, Hurka 2007). These accounts turn out to overlap the 5 gateway welcome.url, perfections of the radiography, latter account are often the virtues of the essay, former though the perfectionist account will prove to have certain other advantages, discussed below. Any account of Nietzsche's “positive ethics” confronts a threshold worry, namely, that Nietzsche's naturalistic conception of dissertations, persons and agency and, in particular, his conception of persons as constituted by non-conscious type-facts that determine their actions makes it unclear how Nietzsche could have a philosophical ethics in any conventional sense. If, as Nietzsche, says, we face “a brazen wall of fate; we are in prison, we can only dream ourselves free, not make ourselves free” (HAH II:33); if “the single human being is popular essay topics, a piece of fatum from the front and from the radiography, rear, one law more, one necessity more for all that is contests for adults, yet to come and to be” (TI V:6); if (as he says more hyperbolically in Nachlass material) “the voluntary is absolutely lackingeverything has been directed along certain lines from the beginning” (WP 458); if (again hyperbolically) “one will become only that which one is (in spite of all: that means education, instruction, milieu, chance, and accident)” (WP 334); then it is hardly surprising that Nietzsche should also say, “A man as he ought to be: that sounds to us as insipid as ‘a tree as he ought to be’” (WP 332).
Yet a philosopher reluctant to talk about “man as he ought to be” is plainly ill-suited to the task of developing a normative ethics, understood as systematic and theoretical guidance for how to radiography dissertations, live, whether that guidance comes in the form of rules for behavior or dispositions of character to essay, be cultivated. (There is an additional, and special difficulty, for those who think Nietzsche is a virtue ethicist, namely, that he also thinks genuine virtues are specific to individuals, meaning that there will be nothing general for the theorist to say about them [see, e.g., Z I:5].) This means we must approach the radiography, question of Nietzsche's “positive” ethics in terms of explicating (1) what it is s thesis, Nietzsche values, (2) what his criteria of dissertations, evaluation are, and (3) what evaluative structure , if any, is exhibited by the answers to (1) and (2). We go wrong at the start, however, if we expect Nietzsche to produce a normative theory of any familiar kind, whether a virtue ethics or otherwise. Importantly, the preceding points should not be read as denying that Nietzsche thinks values and evaluative judgments can have a causal impact on actions and how lives are lived. After all, there would be no point in undertaking a “revaluation of values” if such a revaluation would not have consequences for, e.g., the flourishing of higher men, or if MPS values did not have deleterious causal consequences for those same people. Values make a causal difference, but, given Nietzsche's epiphenomenalism about consciousness (discussed, above, in 1.1), they do not make this difference because of free, conscious choices individuals make to adopt certain moral rules or cultivate certain dispositions of character. We can better appreciate Nietzsche's unusual views on this score by looking more closely at contests, the popular, but mistaken, idea that Nietzsche calls on people to “create themselves” (on the general topic, see Leiter 1998). Alexander Nehamas, for dissertations, example, reads Nietzsche as endorsing an ethics of self-creation.
For Nietzsche, Nehamas says, “The people who ‘want to become those they are’ are precisely ‘human beings who are new, unique, incomparable, who give themselves laws, who create themselves’ (GS, 335)” (1985, p. 174). Unfortunately, Nehamas truncates the coursework 5 gateway, quote from The Gay Science at a misleading point. For Nietzsche, in radiography dissertations the full passage, continues as follows: To that end [of creating ourselves] we must become the best learners and discoverers of everything that is lawful and necessary in the world: we must become physicists in order to be creators in this sense [ wir müssen Physiker sein, um, in jenem Sinne , Schöpfer sein zu können ] while hitherto all valuations and ideals have been based on ignorance of physics . Therefore: long live physics! (GS 335) Creation “in this sense” is, then, a very special sense indeed: for it presupposes the discovery of what is “lawful and 5 gateway welcome.url necessary” as revealed by physical science! The passage begins to make more sense in context. For in this same section, Nietzsche claims that “every action is unknowable,” though he adds: our opinions, valuations, and tables of radiography dissertations, what is good certainly belong among the on student, most powerful levers in radiography dissertations the involved mechanism of our actions, butin any particular case the law of their mechanism is topics, indemonstrable [ unnachweisbar ]. This observation leads Nietzsche immediately to the suggestion that we should create “our own new tables of what is good,” presumably with an eye to effecting the causal determination of our actions in new ways. However, we need help from science to identify the lawful patterns into which values and radiography dissertations actions fall; even if the mechanisms are indemonstrable, science may at least reveal the patterns of value-inputs and action-outputs. So to create one's self, “in this sense,” is to accept Nietzsche's basically deterministic picture of action as determined by sub-conscious causes (type-facts) that are hard to identify but to on student, use science to radiography dissertations, help identify those “values” which figure in the causal determination of action in new, but predictable, ways.
Values, then, have a causal impact upon how people act and thus also on help me essay, their life trajectories; but we cannot expect these impacts to radiography, flow from research essay, free, conscious choices that persons make. This would explain, of radiography, course, why we find so little in essay Nietzsche by way of argumentative or discursive support for dissertations, his evaluative judgments: such intellectual devices are precisely the ones that would appeal to our conscious faculties, and thus would be idle with respect to help me essay, the desired outcomes. Nietzsche's often violent rhetorical style, by radiography contrast, might be expected (or so Nietzsche presumably thinks) to have the requisite non-rational effect on his desired readers those “whose ears are related to ours” (GS 381). (More on this issue in Section 4, below.) If Nietzsche does not have a typical normative ethics, he certainly has no shortage of views about evaluative questions. Help Me Essay! For example, it is clear from the earlier discussion of Nietzsche's critique of morality that he assigns great intrinsic value to the flourishing of higher men.
But who are these “higher men” and why does Nietzsche assign value to them? (Note that while Nietzsche speaks in Thus Spoke Zarathustra of the dissertations, “superman” as a kind of ideal higher type, this concept simply drops out of contests for adults, his mature work (except for radiography dissertations, a brief mention in EH in the context of help me essay, discussing Zarathustra ). Radiography! “Higher men” is an important concept in Nietzsche; the “superman” is nothing more than a rhetorical trope in the highly stylized Zarathustra. ) Nietzsche has three favorite examples of essay, “higher” human beings: Goethe, Beethoven, and Nietzsche himself! What makes these figures paradigms of the radiography dissertations, “higher” type for Nietzsche, beyond their great creativity (as he says, “the men of popular essay, great creativity” are “the really great men according to my understanding” (WP 957))? Following Leiter (2002: 116122), we can identify five characteristics that Nietzsche identifies as distinctive of “higher men”: the higher type is solitary, pursues a “unifying project,” is healthy, is life-affirming, and practices self-reverence. Taken together, they are plainly sufficient to make someone a higher type in Nietzsche's view, though it is radiography, not obvious that any one of these is necessary, and space essay various combinations often seem sufficient for radiography dissertations, explaining how Nietzsche speaks of higher human beings. First, higher types are solitary and deal with others only instrumentally. “Every choice human being,” says Nietzsche, “strives instinctively for a citadel and essays on student a secrecy where he is dissertations, saved from the crowd, the many, the space essay, great majority” (BGE 26). “[T]he concept of greatness,” he says in the same work, “entails being noble, wanting to be by oneself, being able to be different, standing alone and having to live independently [ auf-eigne-Faust-leben-müssen ]” (BGE 212). Indeed, the radiography, higher type pursues solitude with something of a vengeance, for help me essay, he “knows how to radiography, make enemies everywhere,[He] constantly contradicts the great majority not through words but through deeds” (WP 944). Unsurprisingly, then, the great or higher man lacks the “congeniality” and “good-naturedness” so often celebrated in contemporary popular culture. “A great manis incommunicable: he finds it tasteless to be familiar” (WP 962).
More than that, though, the higher type deals with others, when he has to, in a rather distinctive way: “A human being who strives for something great considers everyone he meets on his way either as a means or as a delay and obstacle or as a temporary resting place” (BGE 273). Thus, “a great manwants no ‘sympathetic’ heart, but servants, tools; in his intercourse with men, he is always intent on writing a master s thesis, making something out of them” (WP 962). The great man approaches others instrumentally not only because of his fundamental proclivity for dissertations, solitude, but because of another distinguishing characteristic: he is consumed by his work, his responsibilities, his projects. Second, higher types seek burdens and responsibilities, in the pursuit of some unifying project . “What is noble?” Nietzsche again asks in a Nachlass note of 1888. His answer: “That one instinctively seeks heavy responsibilities” (WP 944). So it was with Goethe: “he was not fainthearted but took as much as possible upon himself, over himself, into himself” (TI IX:49).
But the higher type does not seek out responsibilities and tasks arbitrarily. “A great man,” says Nietzsche displays “a long logic in all of his activityhe has the ability to extend his will across great stretches of his life and to despise, and a master s thesis in education reject everything petty about him” (WP 962). This is the trait Nietzsche sometimes refers to radiography, as having “style” in “character” (GS 290). (Note that this famous passage (GS 290) merely describes those “the strong and domineering natures” who are able “‘to give’ style” to essay contests for adults, their character; it does not presuppose that just anyone can do so and it is dissertations, not a recommendation that everyone try to do so.) Indeed, Nietzsche understood his own life in help me essay these terms: [T]he organizing “idea” that is dissertations, destined to rule [in one's life and work] keeps growing deep down it begins to command; slowly it leads us back from side roads and wrong roads; it prepares single qualities and fitnesses that will one day prove to be indispensable as means toward a whole one by one, it trains all subservient capacities before giving any hint of the dominant task, “goal,” “aim,” or “meaning.” Considered in writing a master in education this way, my life is simply wonderful. For the task of a revaluation of dissertations, all values more capacities may have been needed than have ever dwelt together in a single individual.I never even suspected what was growing in me and one day all my capacities, suddenly ripe, leaped forth in their ultimate perfection. (EH II:9). Earlier in Ecce Homo , Nietzsche describes himself as a higher type, “a well-turned-out-person” (EH I:2), and thus we may conclude that it is a characteristic only of the higher type that he is driven in s thesis pursuit of radiography, a project in the way described here. Indeed, it turns out to space research essay, be precisely this kind of instinctive drivenness that Nietzsche has partly in mind when he praises “health.” Third, higher types are essentially healthy and resilient. One essential attribute of the “well-turned-out-person ”is that he “has a taste only for what is good for him; his pleasure, his delight cease where the measure of radiography, what is good for him is transgressed.
He guesses what remedies avail against what is harmful; he exploits bad accidents to his advantage” (EH I:2). But this is just to say that a higher type is healthy , for popular essay, health, Nietzsche tells us, means simply “instinctively cho[osing] the right means against wretched states” (EH I:2). This permits us to understand Nietzsche's own declaration in Ecce Homo that he was “ healthy at dissertations, bottom ” (EH I:2), a seemingly paradoxical claim for a philosopher whose physical ailments were legion. Yet “health,” for Nietzsche, is a term of art, meaning not the absence of on student, sickness, but something closer to resilience , to how one deals with ordinary (physical) sickness and setbacks. “For a typical healthy person,” Nietzsche says, “being sick can even become an energetic stimulus for life, for living more. This, in fact, is how [my own] long period of sickness appears to me now it was during the years of my lowest vitality that I ceased to be a pessimist; the instinct of self-restoration forbade me a philosophy of poverty and radiography discouragement” (EH I:2).
To cease to be a pessimist is to on student, reject MPS, for only under the color of MPS does life appear to lack value. Thus, being healthy, in turn, entails a distinctive non-pessimistic attitude towards life which is yet a fourth mark of the higher type. Fourth, higher types affirm life, meaning that they are prepared to will the eternal return of radiography, their lives . In Beyond Good and Evil , Nietzsche describes “the opposite ideal” to that of moralists and writing a master in education pessimists like Schopenhauer as “the ideal of the most high-spirited, alive, and world-affirming human being who has not only radiography dissertations, come to terms and learned to get along with whatever was and is, but who wants to have what was and is repeated into all eternity” (BGE 56). Put more simply: the higher type embraces the doctrine of the eternal recurrence and thus evinces what Nietzsche often calls a “Dionysian” or “life-affirming” attitude. A person, for Nietzsche, has a Dionysian attitude toward life insofar as he affirms his life unconditionally; in particular, insofar as he affirms it including the “suffering” or other hardships it has involved. So someone who says, “I would gladly live my life again, except for my first marriage,” would not affirm life in the requisite sense. Thus, we may say that a person affirms his life in 5 gateway Nietzsche's sense only radiography dissertations, insofar as he would gladly will its eternal return: i.e., will the repetition of help me essay, his entire life through eternity. In fact, Nietzsche calls “the idea of the eternal recurrence” the “highest formulation of affirmation that is at radiography dissertations, all attainable” (EH III:Z-1; cf.
BGE 56). Higher men, then, are marked by a distinctive Dionysian attitude toward their life: they would gladly will the essay for adults, repetition of their life eternally. Strikingly, Nietzsche claims that precisely this attitude characterized both himself and Goethe. Speaking, for example, of the neglect by his contemporaries of his work, Nietzsche writes: “I myself have never suffered from dissertations, all this; what is necessary does not hurt me; amor fati [love of fate] is my inmost nature” (EH III:CW-4). Regarding Goethe, Nietzsche says that, “Such a spiritstands amid the cosmos with a joyous and trusting fatalism, in the faith that all is writing s thesis in education, redeemed and affirmed in the whole.Such a faith, however, is the highest of radiography, all possible faiths: I have baptized it with the name of Dionysus ” (TI IX:49). Finally, the in education, higher type of human being has a distinctive bearing towards others and especially towards himself: he has self-reverence. “The ‘higher nature’ of the great man,” says Nietzsche in a striking Nachlass note of 1888 “lies in being different, in incommunicability, in distance of rank, not in an effect of any kind even if he made the dissertations, whole globe tremble” (WP 876; cf. GS 55). This is perhaps the most unusual feature of Nietzsche's discussion of the higher type, for space research essay, it suggests that, at bottom, being a higher type is a matter of radiography, “attitude” or “bearing.” In a section of essay topics, Beyond Good and Evil , Nietzsche once again answers the question, “What is noble?”, this time as follows: “It is not the works, it is the faith that is decisive here, that determines the order of rank: some fundamental certainty that a noble soul has about itself, something that cannot be sought, nor found, nor perhaps lost. The noble soul has reverence [Ehrfurcht] for itself” (BGE 287). Self-reverence to radiography dissertations, revere and respect oneself as one might a god is no small achievement, as the essay topics, proliferation of radiography dissertations, “self-help” programs and pop psychology slogans like “I'm OK, you're OK” would suggest.
Self-loathing, self-doubt, and self-laceration are the norm among human beings; to help me essay, possess a “fundamental certainty” about oneself is, Nietzsche thinks quite plausibly, a unique state of affairs. Allied with this posture of radiography, self-reverence are other distinctive attitudes that distinguish the bearing of the higher man. “The noble human being,” says Nietzsche, “honors himself as one who is powerful, also as one who has power over himself, who knows how to speak and be silent, who delights in being severe and hard with himself and writing s thesis respects all severity and hardness” (BGE 260). (The higher man, unsurprisingly, is no hedonist: “What is noble?” asks Nietzsche: “That one leaves happiness to the great majority: happiness as peace of soul, virtue, comfort, Anglo-angelic shopkeeperdom a la Spencer” (WP 944).) In an earlier work, Nietzsche explains that: [T]he passion that attacks those who are noble is peculiar.It involves the use of a rare and singular standard cold to everybody else; the discovery of dissertations, values for which no scales have been invented yet; offering sacrifices on altars that are dedicated to an unknown god; a courage without any desire for honors; self-sufficiency that overflows and gives to space research essay, men and things. (GS 55) Indeed, the ability to radiography, set his own standard of valuation is one of the space research essay, most distinctive achievements of the higher type, as we saw already in the discussion of solitude. Radiography! And “the highest man” says Nietzsche is “he who determines values and help me essay directs the dissertations, will of millennia by giving direction to the highest natures” (WP 999). Considered all together, it becomes clear why creatives geniuses like Goethe, Beethoven, and Nietzsche himself should be the preferred examples of the higher human being: for the characteristics of the higher type so-described are precisely those that lend themselves to artistic and creative work. A penchant for solitude, an help me essay, absolute devotion to one's tasks, an indifference to external opinion, a fundamental certainty about oneself and one's values (that often strikes others as hubris) all these are the traits we find, again and again, in artistic geniuses. (It turns out, for example, that Beethoven, according to radiography dissertations, his leading biographer, had almost all these characteristics to a striking degree; for discussion, see Leiter 2002: 122123.) If “the men of great creativity, the writing in education, really great men according to my understanding” (WP 957), men like Goethe and Beethoven, are Nietzsche's paradigmatic higher types, whose lives are models of radiography dissertations, flourishing excellence, is there anything systematic to be said about the theory of value that undergirds these judgments and informs, in turn, Nietzsche's critique of morality (MPS) on the grounds that it thwarts the development of such men? One popular idea (e.g., Schacht 1983, Richardson 1996) is that higher men exemplify “power,” which is a master in education, claimed to be Nietzsche's fundamental criterion of value. Such readings, alas, have to employ the concept of “power” rather elastically, since the conglomeration of traits of radiography, higher human beings noted above don't seem to coursework 5 gateway welcome.url, be, in any ordinary sense, instances of radiography, “power” or its manifestation. Research Essay! (Treating Nietzsche's fundamental criterion of value as “power” confronts even more serious textual and philosophical obstacles: see Section 3.1, below.)
More illuminating is Hurka's view (1993 and radiography Hurka 2007) that Nietzsche's evaluative posture conjoins perfectionism with maximizing consequentialism: what has value are certain human excellences (or perfections), and states of affairs are assessed in terms of their maximization of these excellences. As Hurka helpfully observes (1993: 75), Nietzsche seems to operate with the opposite of Rawls's maximin principle, what Hurka calls approriately “maximax.” Hurka states this as a rule for conduct (“each agent's overriding goal should be not a sum or average of lifetime value, but the greatest lifetime value of the single most perfect individual, or, if perfections are not fully comparable, of the few most perfect individuals” [1993: 75]), but given the earlier caveats about reading Nietzsche as a conventional normative theorist, it is popular essay topics, better to treat maximax as reflecting the implicit structure of Nietzsche's revaluation of values: he rejects MPS because it fails to maximize the perfection of the highest human beings, and he does so without, it appears, any regard for the costs to the herd of such a rejection (see Section 4). This leaves the question whether there are (formal or substantive) criteria of “perfection” for radiography dissertations, Nietzsche? Many writers (e.g., Hurka 2007; Nehamas 1985; Richardson 1996) are attracted to the idea that “style” or “unity” is a criterion of excellence or perfection for Nietzsche, and, indeed, as noted above, the pursuit of a unified or coherent life project is a characteristic feature of coursework 5 gateway, those Nietzsche deems to radiography dissertations, be higher men. Research! Whether such style or coherence suffices is a vexed interpretive question, since it is not entirely clear that the formal criterion of style or unity is available only to Goethes and Beethovens: did not Kant, that “catastrophic spider” as Nietzsche unflatteringly calls him (A 11), exhibit an extraordinarily coherent style of creative productivity over many years? Others (e.g., Magnus 1978) take Nietzsche's idea of eternal recurrence (the hallmark of dissertations, life-affirmation, as noted above) as the criterion of a well-lived life: perfection is essay topics, a matter of living in such a way that one is radiography, ready to essay, gladly will the repetition of one's life, in all its particulars, in to dissertations, eternity. This, too, seems both too thin and too severe as a criterion of coursework 5 gateway welcome.url, perfection standing alone: too thin, because anyone suitably superficial and complacent might will the eternal return; too severe, because it seems to radiography dissertations, require that a post-Holocaust Goethe gladly will the repetition of the Holocaust. Nehamas (1985), who shares some of Magnus's view, adds an idioscynratic element to this account: he claims that Nietzsche does not describe his ideal person his “higher man” but rather “exemplifies” such a person in the form of the “character” that is constituted by help me essay and exemplified in his corpus. Nietzsche, however, describes at great length and in many places (e.g. D 201; GS 55; BGE 287; NCW Epilogue:2; WP 943) the types of persons he admires; and he also describes himself as such a person (e.g., EH I:2) In any case, Nehamas's view would have the radiography dissertations, odd consequence that for space, Nietzsche to have had a positive ethical vision at any point earlier in his career he would have had to anticipate writing the dissertations, series of help me essay, books he actually wrote, such that his ethical ideal would be properly exemplified in them! Needless to say, there is no reason to think this was Nietzsche's view.
Nietzsche holds that moral (i.e., MPS) values are not conducive to the flourishing of radiography dissertations, human excellence, and it is by reference to this fact that he proposed to assess their value. The enterprise of a master s thesis in education, assessing the radiography dissertations, value of certain other values (call them the ‘revalued values’) naturally invites the metaethical question: what status metaphysical, epistemological do the values used to undertake this revaluation (the ‘assessing values’) enjoy? (It is doubtful Nietzsche has a definite semantic view about judgments of value: cf. Hussain 2013, esp. 412.) Following Leiter (2000), we may distinguish “Privilege Readings” of Nietzsche's metaethics which claim that Nietzsche holds that his own evaluative standpoint is either veridical or better justified than its target from those readings which deny the claim of privilege. (Note that defenders of this latter, “skeptical” view need not read Nietzsche as a global anti-realist i.e., as claiming that there are no truths or facts about anything, let alone truths about value a reading which has now been widely discredited. There is, on the skeptical view at issue here, a special problem about the 5 gateway welcome.url, objectivity of radiography, value.) Privilege Readings of Nietzsche can come in three varieties: Intuitionist Realist (I-Realist); Naturalist Realist (N-Realist); and essay for adults Privilege Non-Realist (P-Non-Realist). The proponents of these views would hold the following: (i) According to the I-Realist, there are non-natural normative facts, which are sui generis, and which are apprehended by some appropriate act of dissertations, normative ‘perception.’ (ii) According to the N-Realist, there are normative facts because normative facts are just constituted by certain natural facts (in some sense to be specified).
(iii) According to the P-Non-Realist, there are no normative facts, but some normative judgments still enjoy a privilege by on student virtue of their interpersonal appeal or acceptance. To say that there are ‘normative facts’ will mean, for purposes here, that norms are (in some sense) objective features of the world. No one, to date, has construed Nietzsche as an dissertations, I-Realist, but Schacht (1983) and Wilcox (1974), among many others, have defended an N-Realist reading, while Foot (1973) has defended a P-Non-Realist reading. We consider the difficulties afflicting these Privilege Readings in turn. According to the N-Realist reading, Nietzsche holds, first, that only power really has value and, second, that power is an objective, natural property. Nietzsche's evaluative perspective is privileged, in turn, because it involves asssessing (i) prudential value (value for an agent) in terms of degree of power, and (ii) non-prudential value in terms of maximization of prudential value (i.e., maximization of power). (A cautionary note about terminology here: by ordinary conventions, the N-Realist proper holds that value itself is a natural property, not simply that what has value is a natural property. Coursework 5 Gateway! There is no clear textual evidence of Nietzsche's view on this subtle question, yet it still makes sense to use the “N-Realist” label for radiography dissertations, two reasons: first, defenders of this reading treat Nietzsche's view as “naturalistic”; and, second, it is in fact ‘naturalistic’ in a familiar nineteenth-century sense, i.e., it denies that there are any supernatural properties.
In the theory of popular topics, value, then, one might plausibly think of Nietzsche as being a kind of naturalist in radiography the sense of essay, resisting religious and quasi-religious theories that view goodness as supervening on radiography dissertations, non-natural (e.g., the “Forms”) or supernatural properties; as against welcome.url this, Nietzsche claims that goodness supervenes on a (putatively) natural property, namely power.) According to Schacht, Nietzsche's account of radiography, “the fundamental character of life and the world” as will to power is supposed to “ground” his own evaluative standpoint (1983: 348349). Help Me Essay! As Nietzsche writes (in a passage Schacht quotes): “assuming that life itself is the will to power,” then “there is nothing to life that has value, except the degree of radiography dissertations, power” (WP 55). Nietzsche's revaluation of popular, values, then, assesses moral values on the basis of their “degree of power,” something which constitutes an “objective measure of value” (WP 674). Hence the privilege of his view: it embraces as an evaluative standard the only thing in life that (in fact) has value (namely power), and employs this “objective measure of value” in the revaluation (e.g., by criticizing Christian morality because it does not maximize “power”). What exactly is Nietzsche's argument on radiography dissertations, the N-Realist reading? When pressed, commentators are never very clear. Schacht, for example, writes:
Human life, for Nietzsche, is ultimately a part of a kind of vast game[which] is, so to help me essay, speak, the only game in town.The nature of the game, he holds, establishes a standard for the evaluation of everything falling within its compass. The availability of this standard places evaluation on footing that is as firm as that on which the comprehension of life and the world stands. (1983, p. 398) Talk of “the only game in town” is far too metaphorical, however, to bear the philosophical weight demanded. From the fact that “life itself is the will to power,” how does it follow that power is the only standard of value? From the fact, for example, that all life obeys the laws of fundamental physics, nothing follows about the appropriate standard of value. What Schacht and others seem to have in radiography dissertations mind is a master in education, something like John Stuart Mill's argument for utilitarianism, which proceeds from the premise that since happiness is the only thing people desire or aim for, it follows that happiness is the only thing that possesses intrinsic value. This argument, though, is famously unsuccessful: from the fact that only happiness is desired, nothing at all follows about what ought to be desired. Dissertations! Attempts to construe Nietzsche's argument in an analogous way encounter similar problems (Leiter 2000 explores the analogy in detail).
On Mill's well-known and essays on student oft-criticized ‘proof’ of the principle of utility from his 1861 Utilitarianism , to show that something is visible, we must show that it is seen; and to show that something is audible, we must show that it is heard; analogously, (P) to show that something is desirable (i.e., valuable), show that it is desired. Millian hedonism holds that only happiness or pleasure is intrinsically desirable or valuable (‘Prescriptive Hedonism’). Let us call ‘Value Nihilism’ the view that there is nothing that has value or is valuable (or desirable). To get Prescriptive Hedonism from (P), then, plug in ‘Descriptive Hedonism’ the thesis that people do in radiography dissertations fact desire only pleasure as an end. If (P) is valid, Descriptive Hedonism true, and Value Nihilism false, then the truth of Prescriptive Hedonism follows. Help Me Essay! ((P), of course, is not valid, a point to which we will return.) Notice, now, that the same type of argument seems to capture what the N-Realist construal of Nietzsche has in mind. That is, to get the N-Realist Nietzschean conclusion that what is valuable is power, take (P) and plug in a strong form of radiography dissertations, Nietzsche's descriptive doctrine of the will to power the doctrine, roughly, that all persons intrinsically ‘desire’ only power. If (P) is valid, Value Nihilism false, and the descriptive doctrine of the space essay, will to power is true, then the radiography dissertations, normative conclusion about power, which Schacht is essays on student, after, seems to follow. (Note, of course, that the Millian Model argument as formulated so far would show only radiography, that power is essays on student, what is radiography dissertations, non-morally valuable or good for an agent. Help Me Essay! Of course, if the Millian Model argument for prudential value or non-moral goodness does not work, then that provides a very strong (if defeasible) reason for supposing that there is no further argument for the related account of non-prudential value as consisting in maximization of power.) What are the problems with this “Millian argument”?
The first problem, of course, is that (P) is not valid. While from the fact that x is heard, it follows that x is audible, it does not follow from that fact that x is desired that x is desirable in radiography the sense necessary for in education, the argument . For while ‘audible’ can be fairly rendered as ‘can be heard,’ ‘desirable,’ in the context of Prescriptive Hedonism, means ‘ ought to be desired’ (not ‘can’ or ‘is’ desired). Thus, while it follows that: it does not follow that, If x is desired, then x ought to be desired (‘is desirable’). Yet in radiography dissertations claiming that pleasure or power are valuable, Mill and the N-Realist Nietzsche are advancing a normative thesis. The truth of this normative thesis, however, simply does not follow from the corresponding descriptive thesis. Many, of course, have thought this too facile a response. Supplement the argument, then, by adding an ‘Internalist Constraint’ (IC), one that many philosophers have found plausible in the theory of value: (IC) Something cannot be valuable for a person unless the person is capable of caring about (desiring) it. The (IC) is motivated by the thought that it cannot be right to say that ‘X is writing in education, valuable’ for someone when x is alien to anything a person cares about or could care about: any plausible notion of value, the (IC) supposes, must have some strong connection to a person's existing (or potential) motivational set.
How does the (IC) help? Recall (P): (P) To show that something is desirable (i.e., valuable) show that it is desired. Now the (IC) puts a constraint on what things can, in fact, be desirable or valuable: namely, only those things that agents can, in radiography fact, care about or desire. This suggests that we might reformulate (P) as follows: (P′) To show that something is desirable (i.e., valuable), show that it is or can be desired. (P′) now is simply a different formulation of the (IC): if we accept the (IC) then we should accept (P′). But what happens, then, if we grant the truth of Descriptive Hedonism: namely, that only pleasure is, in fact, desired. Research! In that case, it would now follow that only pleasure is desirable (ought to be desired) (assuming, again, that Value Nihilism is false).
That is, since something ought to be desired only if it can be desired (internalism), then if only x can be desired, then only x ought to be desired (assuming that Value Nihilism is false). Will this argument rescue the N-Realist Nietzsche? Two obstacles remain. The first, and perhaps less serious one, is that we must have some reason for accepting the (IC) or, more modestly, some reason for thinking Nietzsche accepts it. It is not clear, however, that there are adequate textual grounds for saying where Nietzsche stands on radiography dissertations, this question. Since the in education, (IC) does, however, seem to be presupposed by the Nietzschean remarks from the Nachlass that support N-Realism in the sense that such remarks do not constitute a good argument without the (IC) let us grant that Nietzsche accepts the (IC), and let us simply put aside the contentious issue of whether we ought to accept the (IC) as a general philosophical matter. A second difficulty will still remain: namely, that the argument for dissertations, N-Realism still depends on the truth of the relevant descriptive thesis, in Nietzsche's case, the doctrine of the will to power. This presents two problems. Essay Contests For Adults! First, in the works Nietzsche chose to publish, it seems clear that he did not, in dissertations fact, accept the doctrine in the strong form required for the N-Realist argument (namely, that it is only power that persons ever aim for or desire).
Second, it is simply not a plausible doctrine in its strong form. For the Millian Model argument for writing in education, N-Realism to work in its new form (that is, supplemented with the radiography, (IC)) it must be the help me essay, case that that which ought to radiography, be desired (‘is valuable’) are the only things that are, in fact, desired. Since the N-Realist Nietzschean conclusion is that only space research, power is valuable, power must be the radiography dissertations, only thing that is, in fact, desired (assuming, again, that something is valuable, i.e., that Value Nihilism is research essay, false). Many, of course, have thought that Nietzsche held precisely this view, and he plainly says much to suggest that. Zarathustra states that, “Where I found the radiography, living, there I found will to power” (Z II:12); Nietzsche refers to “the will to power which is the will of life” (GS 349); he says “the really fundamental instinct of lifeaims at the expansion of power ” (GS 349); “life simply is will to power,” meaning a striving “to grow, spread, seize, become predominant” (BGE 259); he refers to his “theory that in all events a will to power is operating” (GM II:12); he claims that “[a] living thing seeks above all to discharge its strength life itself is will to space research essay, power ” (BGE 13); and so on. The difficulty is that Nietzsche says other things which might suggest that the stronger remarks are misleading; for example: Life itself is to my mind the instinct for growth, for durability, for an accumulation of forces, for radiography, power : where the will to space research, power is lacking there is decline. It is my contention that all the supreme values of dissertations, mankind lack this will. (A 6) But if all actions manifested this will , then this will could never be found lacking.
Yet Nietzsche thinks it can be lacking, which means he must countenance the possibility that not everyone aims for (‘desires’) power. This passage is not atypical. Later in the same work, he returns to the same theme concerning “[w]herever the will to contests for adults, power declines in any form” (A 17). In the immediately preceding work he claims that the “effects” of liberal institutions are “known well enough: they undermine the radiography dissertations, will to power” (TI IX:38). And in the immediately subsequent work (his last), Nietzsche refers to “the terrible aspects of reality (in affects, in desires, in the will to power)” (EH IV:4), which certainly sounds as if will to essays on student, power is simply one among various characteristics of reality alongside affects and radiography desires, rather than the help me essay, essential core of radiography dissertations, them all. Three other general textual considerations count against attributing the strong doctrine of the coursework, will to power to Nietzsche. First, if, as the defenders of the strong doctrine believe, “his fundamental principle is the radiography dissertations, ‘ will to power’ ”, then it is hard to understand why he says almost nothing about will to power and 5 gateway nothing at all to suggest it is his “fundamental principle” in the two major self-reflective moments in the Nietzschean corpus: his last major work, Ecce Homo , where he reviews and assesses his life and writings, including specifically all his prior books (EH III); and the series of new prefaces he wrote for The Birth of Tragedy , Human, All Too Human , Dawn , and radiography dissertations The Gay Science in 1886, in which he revisits his major themes. That this putative “fundamental principle” merits no mention on either occasion strongly suggests that its role in Nietzsche's thought has been greatly overstated. Second, the writing a master, view at dissertations, issue presupposes an unusually strong doctrine of the will to 5 gateway, power: a doctrine, to the effect, that all life (actions, events) reflects the will to power.
But recent scholarship has cast doubt on whether Nietzsche ultimately accepted such a doctrine. Dissertations! The single most famous passage on will to power in the Nietzschean corpus, for example, is the concluding section (1067) of The Will to Power , where he affirms that, “ This world is the will to power and essays nothing besides ! And you yourselves are also this will to power and radiography dissertations nothing besides!” Although a favorite of commentators for many years, the in education, passage has now been conclusively discredited by the leading scholar of the Nachlass , the late Mazzino Montinari. Montinari has shown that Nietzsche had, in fact, discarded the passage by the spring of 1887 (1982, pp. 103104)! It was, as Montinari notes, made part of the Köselitz-Forster compilation of The Will to Power (the basis for the English-language edition by Kaufmann and Hollingdale) notwithstanding “Nietzsche's literary intentions” (1982, p. 104).
Finally, Maudemarie Clark has argued that Nietzsche could not have accepted the very strongest form of the doctrine of the will to power namely, that all force , animate and inanimate, is radiography, will to help me essay, power given the putative argument he gives for it. Clark points out that the only argument for this doctrine of the will to power in Nietzsche's published works in Section 36 of Beyond Good and Evil is cast in the conditional form: if we accept certain initial hypotheses, then, Nietzsche thinks, the dissertations, strong doctrine of the will to contests for adults, power follows. Dissertations! But one of the essays, antecedents of this conditional is the “causality of the will,” and Clark argues that Nietzsche clearly rejects such causality elsewhere in his work (e.g., GS 127, TI II:5, TI VI:3). Therefore, this section cannot constitute an argument for the strongest doctrine of the dissertations, will to 5 gateway, power that Nietzsche, himself, would actually accept! Rather than embracing the strongest form of the doctrine, Clark argues that Nietzsche is, somewhat ironically, illustrating the very flaw of philosophers he warns against in the surrounding passages: namely, their tendency to propound theories of the essence of reality that are just projections of radiography dissertations, their own evaluative commitments (Clark 1990, pp.
212227). Thus, Nietzsche says of the Stoic talk of living “according to nature” that “while you pretend rapturously to read the canon of essays on student, your law in nature, you want something opposite.Your pride wants to impose your morality, your ideal, on nature” (BGE 9). How, Clark wonders, could Nietzsche's own doctrine of will to power be exempted from such a charge? (Note, too, that Montinari claims that the one surviving relic of dissertations, 1067 of The Will to Power in the published works is precisely the coursework 5 gateway, ironic Section 36 of Beyond Good and Evil (1982, p. 104).) What, then, does Nietzsche believe about will to radiography dissertations, power? As others have noted (e.g., Clark 1990: 209212), Nietzsche's doctrine of will to coursework welcome.url, power in radiography dissertations its original deployment and most of its later development is psychological in essay for adults character: the will to power is posited as the best psychological explanation for a wide variety of human behaviors. But as the radiography, preceding passages and considerations make clear, Nietzsche could not have believed that will to power was the exclusive explanation for all human behavior. Topics! To the extent he sometimes seems to embrace this stronger claim (see the example, above), we must simply take Nietzsche to radiography dissertations, have overstated his case something which his penchant for hyperbolic rhetoric and polemics often leads him to space, do or to be engaged in the kind of ironic move described by Clark, above.
That would, of course, be quite fortunate, since it is hardly plausible that will to power is the radiography dissertations, exclusive explanation for writing a master s thesis in education, all human behavior. There is an additional, textual worry for the argument that will to power provides an objective criterion of value lurking here as well. Nietzsche only makes the remarks that seem to suggest that power is an objective criterion in passages from the Nachlass , work that Nietzsche never published during his lifetime. Thus, even if one thought that Nietzsche really held the strong descriptive doctrine of the will to dissertations, power the doctrine that all animate force (perhaps all force) is will to power in his published works, it is still the case that he only uses this doctrine to essay for adults, argue for the normative conclusion in Nachlass material. Since scholars have now raised important doubts about the canonical status of this Nachlass material (Montinari 1982, pp. 92104; Hollingdale 1985, pp.
166172, 182186), this might suggest that a view ought not to be attributed to radiography, Nietzsche solely on the basis of its articulation in these notebooks, which is exactly what the N-Realist reading requires. Although not attributing to Nietzsche any kind of value realism, Philippa Foot, like Schacht, wants to show that Nietzsche is doing something more than simply expressing his idiosyncratic view, a view that admits of no interpersonal justification. While agreeing that Nietzsche's intention is, in on student part, “to present us with a clash of interests the good of the dissertations, strong against that of the essays on student, weak,” Foot adds that “this is not all he wants to radiography, suggest” (1973: 162). Help Me Essay! Noting that Nietzsche “seems to want to radiography, say that anyone who is strong, independent, and so on anyone who fits his description of the help me essay, higher type of man is one who has value in himself” (163), Foot goes on to explicate this notion of dissertations, “value” as follows: [I]t does make sense to writing s thesis in education, say that we value strong and exceptional individuals. We do find patterns of reaction to exceptional men that would allow us to see here a valuing rather similar to valuing on aesthetic grounds. Radiography Dissertations! I am thinking of the interest and help me essay admiration which is the common attitude to radiography, remarkable men of exceptional independence of mind and strength of will. [Nietzsche] is coursework welcome.url, appealing to our tendency to dissertations, admire certain individuals whom we see as powerful and splendid. Essay! [There is] a similarity between the way we attribute value (aesthetic value) to art objects and the value that Nietzsche attributes to dissertations, a certain kind of man, both resting on on student, a set of common reactions. (1973: 163) So Nietzsche, on this account, does not claim that his evaluative perspective is veridical; he simply claims that it enjoys a certain sort of interpersonal appeal, owing to our “common attitude to remarkable men,” “our tendency to admire certain individuals,” to find them aesthetically appealing. There may be no fact-of-the-matter as to whether higher men are or are not really valuable, but Nietzsche's evaluative standpoint is privileged by virtue of its appeal to all of us. We're all interested, it seems, in the flourishing of radiography, higher men. Yet Nietzsche could not embrace the view that the flourishing of writing s thesis in education, “higher men” will appeal to “ our tendency” to admire such men or to any sort of “common” attitude, given the logic of his critique of morality. Dissertations! This follows from what we may call Nietzsche's ‘Callicleanism,’ after Plato's Callicles in the Gorgias . Popular Essay! It has now become something of dissertations, a commonplace for commentators to note that Nietzsche did not accept one sort of Calliclean view, namely, the view that “anyone who is to live aright should suffer his appetites to grow to the greatest extent and not check them” ( Gorgias , 419e) (cf.
Nehamas 1985: 202203; BGE 188). Yet there remains a more important respect in which Nietzsche's view is Calliclean: namely, in its embrace of the Calliclean doctrine that the inferior employ morality to make “slaves of those who are naturally better” ( Gorgias , 491e-492a), that the weaker folk, the popular essay topics, majorityframe the laws [and, we might add, the morals] for their own advantage’ in order to ‘frighten [the strong] by saying that to radiography dissertations, overreach others is shameful and evil’ ( Gorgias , 483b-d). In short, Callicles' view is that morality is simply the prudence of the help me essay, weak, who unable to do what the strong can do, opt instead to put the dissertations, actions of the contests, strong under the radiography, ban of morality. This, of course, is essentially Nietzsche's view as well. So, for example, Nietzsche describes slave morality as simply ‘the prudence [ Klugheit ] of the lowest order’ (GM I:13), and help me essay he observes that “everything that elevates an radiography dissertations, individual above the essays, herd and intimidates the neighbor iscalled evil ” (BGE 201), that “[m]oral judgments and radiography condemnations constitute the favorite revenge of the spiritually limited against those less limited” (BGE 219), and on student he claims that the “chief means” by which the “weak and radiography mediocreweaken and pull down the stronger” is essay, “the moral judgment” (WP 345). Recall, now, that Foot wanted to resist the dissertations, view that in his revaluation Nietzsche simply “present[s] us with a clash of essay, interests the good of the strong against that of the weak” (1973: 162); instead, Foot suggests that Nietzsche is appealing to a ‘common’ tendency to dissertations, admire higher men, men who would otherwise be thwarted by the reign of moral values. Essay Topics! But for a Calliclean like Nietzsche, it is part of the very appeal of morality that it does thwart the flourishing of higher men. If that is dissertations, right, then he could not think that the flourishing of “higher men” would appeal to everyone. It is precisely because it doesn't that morality arises in the first place, as a means for the low and space research essay base to thwart the flourishing of the high.
This is not to deny that higher men may still be admirable in the eyes of the base and low (hence their envy); it is to deny, however, that Nietzsche's evaluative perspective that it is an objection to morality that it thwarts the high could enjoy a privilege in virtue of this shared admiration. On the radiography, Calliclean picture, there is a fundamental hostility between the high and low, the strong and the weak, one which will not be bridged by inviting the low to admire the high, or the weak, the strong. “The well-being of the majority and the well-being of the on student, few are opposite viewpoints of value,” Nietzsche says in the ‘Note’ at the end of the first essay of the Genealogy . And in Nietzsche's revaluation, it appears, there is no evaluative standpoint from which one could successfully mediate and reconcile the normative claims of the dissertations, opposing moralities. If Nietzsche is not a realist about value, then he must be an anti-realist: he must deny that there is essays on student, any objective fact of the matter that would privilege his evaluative perspective over its target. (This, in fact, is the most familiar reading outside the secondary literature on Nietzsche; one finds this view of Nietzsche's metaethics, for example, in the sociologist Max Weber and the moral philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre, among many others.) We must be careful about the kinds of judgments to which this anti-realism applies. Recall that in his critique of morality, Nietzsche appears to hold that, e.g., “herd” morality is good for the herd, but that it is bad for higher men. Dissertations! He says, for example, that, “The ideas of the herd should rule in popular essay the herd but not reach out beyond it” (WP 287; emphasis added); and elsewhere he describes slave morality as simply “the prudence of the lowest order” (GM I:13). It may appear that regarding value judgments pertaining to welfare or prudential goodness what is good or bad for particular sorts of dissertations, persons Nietzsche believes there is an objective fact of the matter, though one relative to type-facts about persons. But this is not right: while Nietzsche believes it is popular, objectively correct that different moralities have certain effects on different kinds of people, that these effects are good or bad itself admits of anti-realist interpretation (cf. Leiter 2015: 119 for a revision of the view defended in Leiter 2002). Even more importantly, though, Nietzsche's anti-realism applies to the “revaluative” judgment that follows upon these judgments about the effects of different moralities: that is, the dissertations, judgment that because herd morality is good for the herd but bad for higher men, herd morality (or the coursework 5 gateway, universal reign of herd morality) is bad or disvaluable. Nietzsche certainly says much that sounds like he is dissertations, denying the essays, objectivity of values. Zarathustra tells us that, “Verily, men gave themselves all their good and dissertations evil [ Gut und Böse ]” (Z I:15) and that “good and research evil that are not transitory do not exist” (Z II:12).
In The Gay Science , Nietzsche explains that, “Whatever has value in our world now does not have value in itself, according to its nature nature is always value-less, but has been given value at some time” (301; cf. Dissertations! D 3). Indeed, like certain radical anti-realists, he tends to equate evaluative questions with matters of taste. “What is s thesis in education, now decisive against Christianity is our taste [ Geschmack ], no longer our reasons” (GS 132), he writes, noting later in the same work that what counts as “justiceis by all means a matter of taste, nothing more” (GS 184). Nietzsche's central argument for anti-realism about value is explanatory : moral facts don't figure in the “best explanation” of experience, and so are not real constituents of the objective world. Moral values, in short, can be “explained away.” Such a conclusion follows from Nietzsche's naturalism (on the dissertations, latter, see the competing accounts in Janaway 2007 and Leiter 2013). As we saw in the context of in education, Nietzsche's critique of dissertations, morality, Nietzsche thinks a person's moral beliefs can be explained in naturalistic terms, i.e., in terms of type-facts about that person. Thus, to explain a person's moral judgments, one needn't appeal to the existence of objective moral facts: psycho-physical facts about the person suffice. Thus, since non-evaluative type-facts are the primary explanatory facts, and since explanatory power is the mark of objective facts, it appears that there cannot be any value facts.
Moral judgments and evaluations are “images” and research “fantasies,” says Nietzsche, the mere effects of type-facts about agents (D 119). To describe Nietzsche as a moral anti-realist is so far only to ascribe to him a metaphysical view: namely, that there are no objective facts about dissertations, what is morally right and wrong. Coursework 5 Gateway Welcome.url! It is radiography, a somewhat vexed interpretive question whether we should also ascribe to Nietzsche a particular view about the semantics of moral judgment, a topic about which no philosopher prior to the 20 th century had a workedout view (see again Hussain 2013). For example, while it seems clear (from the passages quoted above) that Nietzsche has distinct views on essay contests for adults, the central metaphysical question about value, it seems equally apparent that there are inadequate textual resources for radiography dissertations, ascribing to him a satisfying answer to the semantic question. Elements of his view, for example, might suggest assimilation to what we would call non-cognitivism and, in particular, expressivism. For example, in contests for adults describing master and Christian morality as “opposite forms in the optics of value [ Werthe ],” Nietzsche goes on to assert that, as opposite “optical” forms, they “areimmune to reasons and radiography refutations. One cannot refute Christianity; one cannot refute a disease of the eye. The concepts ‘true’ and a master ‘untrue’ have, as it seems to me, no meaning in optics” (CW Epilogue). This passage typical of putatively expressivist passages in Nietzsche is, however, ambiguous.
For the dissertations, passage could mean that “true” and “false” are meaningless not because evaluative judgments are essentially non-cognitive, but rather because competing evaluative views are immune to essays on student, the effects of reasoning. There may be rational grounds for thinking one view better than another, perhaps for thinking one true and the other false, but since reasoning has so little impact in radiography dissertations this context, it is “meaningless” (in the essay, sense of pointless) to radiography, raise issues of truth and falsity. More recently, Hussain (2007) has argued that we read Nietzsche as a fictionalist about essay contests, moral value: granted that Nietzsche is an anti-realist about radiography, value (there exists no objective fact about what has value in-itself), Hussain wonders what it is a master, those who “create values” can understand themselves to have done? Valuation, in this Nietzschean world, Hussain argues, involves a kind of “make-believe,” pretending that things are valuable-in-themselves, while knowing that nothing, in fact, has such value. There is radiography dissertations, a pressing philosophical question here whether “make-believe” about help me essay, value really could suffice for radiography, valuing but also an interpretive problem: does Nietzsche really think that moral judgments express beliefs , that is, truth-apt propositional attitudes which then requires fictionalist treatment? It would be astonishing if any 19 th -century philosopher were to have a clear answer to such a question (Hussain 2013 seems to have come around to this view). While Nietzsche was, to help me essay, be sure, among the first to recognize the extent to which linguistic and grammatical practices generate metaphysical assumptions and radiography dissertations problems, he simply did not view metaphysical questions themselves as best framed as issues about the semantics of a given region of discourse (e.g., are the terms genuinely and successfully referential, or are they “merely” expressive?). It is doubtful, then, that there are adequate grounds for assigning Nietzsche a view on such subtle matters as whether ethical language is primarily cognitive or non-cognitive, when it clearly evinces aspects of both descriptive and prescriptive discourse. Two aspects of popular essay, Nietzsche's work may, however, seem to be in tension with value anti-realism, even understood as only a metaphysical doctrine: first, his reliance on the distinction between “higher” and “lower” types of human beings; and second, the force and seriousness with which he presents his evaluative judgments.
As we saw, above, Nietzsche's critique of morality presupposes a distinction between higher and lower types of people. But are there objective facts about who is “high” and who is “low”? And if so, would such a view be compatible with anti-realism? Suppose there are objective facts about radiography, “high” and on student “low”: Goethe really is dissertations, a higher type, and essay contests the herd animal really is a lower type. But there is radiography, still no objective fact about whether MPS is non-prudentially disvaluable just because it has the on student, effect of thwarting the flourishing of objectively higher types.
Realism about “high” and dissertations “low” does not entail realism about non-prudential value, so the help me essay, argument might go. Such a response cannot work for two reasons. First, the judgment that “X is a higher person” includes a significant evaluative component: “Goethe is a higher type” is not evaluatively neutral in the manner of “Goethe is a taller than average type.” In saying that someone is a higher type, we seem committed to radiography, some positive evaluative attitude towards that person (e.g., that it is good to have persons like that around). If there is an objective fact that “X is a higher type,” and it is a fact that MPS thwarts the flourishing of contests, higher types, then it would seem that at least some objective weight must accrue to the Nietzschean position that MPS is disvaluable because of radiography, this effect it has. Second, if it is an objective fact that Goethe is a higher type and, say, Hitler is popular essay, a herd animal, then the following counterfactual would seem to be true: (C) If Hitler had been like Goethe, he would have been better off. He would have been better off because he would have been a higher type, instead of radiography dissertations, a lower type and it is an writing a master s thesis, objective fact that the high are really high, and dissertations the low are really low. But this seemingly objective judgment that Hitler would have been better off had he been more like Goethe is a non-prudential value judgment; it is not a judgment about what is good for Hitler under the circumstances, but rather a judgment about what would make Hitler better off, but for his circumstances. In general, it seems that conceding the objectivity of “high” and “low” permits one to make objective non-prudential value judgments like: the good of the higher type is superior to the good of the lower type. For these reasons, if Nietzsche is an anti-realist about non-prudential moral value, then he must also be an anti-realist about judgments of “high” and “low,” It may be an objective fact that MPS thwarts the topics, flourishing of those Nietzsche regards as higher types; but it is not an radiography dissertations, objective fact that they are really higher.
In fact, there is textual evidence that this is exactly Nietzsche's view. For example, in research essay Thus Spoke Zarathustra , Nietzsche writes that, “Good and evil, and rich and poor, and high and low [ Hoch und Gering ], and all the names of values arms shall they be and clattering signs that life must overcome itself again and again” (Z II:7). Here Nietzsche is explicit that “high and low” are simply “names of values,” just like “good and radiography evil.” But since, as we have just seen, Nietzsche is an anti-realist about these latter evaluative concepts, it should hardly be surprisingly that he is an anti-realist about the former. The actual contexts in which Nietzsche marks traits as “high” and “low” invite the writing a master s thesis, same reading. Consider, for dissertations, example, the exposition in the Genealogy (I:14) of the sense in which slave morality is the “prudence of the lowest order” (GM, I:13). According to Nietzsche, slave morality takes certain typical characteristics of the “lowest order” and redescribes them in morally praiseworthy lights.
So, for example, their impotence becomes “goodness of heart,” their anxious lowliness becomes “humility,” their “inoffensiveness” and essay for adults “lingering at the door” becomes “patience”, and their desire for retaliation becomes a desire for justice. If Nietzsche were really a realist about the radiography, concept of “lowness”, then we ought to be able to identify the objective facts in virtue of which something is really low. Yet when Nietzsche tries to describe all patience as nothing more than a “lingering at the door” and all humility as simply “anxious lowliness,” it is natural to think that there is no “objective” fact about “lowness” here but simply a polemical and evaluatively loaded characterization. To think that all humility is really “anxious lowliness” is just to identify oneself as one who shares Nietzsche's evaluative sensibility, one “whose ears are related to ours” (GS 381), one “predisposed and 5 gateway predestined” for Nietzsche's insights (BGE 30). Radiography Dissertations! In short, given the way in which Nietzsche actually speaks of the “high” and “low,” we should understand Nietzsche's metaethical position as also characterizing these terms: to say that “X is low” is not to describe an help me essay, objective fact, but rather to identify oneself as sharing in radiography dissertations a certain evaluative sensibility or taste. There remains a final interpretive difficulty: for Nietzsche simply does not write like someone who thinks his evaluative judgments are merely his idiosyncratic preferences! On the metaethical position elaborated here, it seems Nietzsche must believe that if, in writing s thesis in education response to his point that “morality were to blame if the highest power and radiography dissertations splendor actually possible to a master, the type man was never in radiography dissertations fact attained” (GM Pref:6), someone were to writing s thesis in education, say, “So much the better for morality!”, there would be nothing further to dissertations, say to on student, that person: at the best, Nietzsche might turn his back and say, “Oh well doesn't share my evaluative tastes.” Yet there seems to radiography, be a substantial amount of Nietzschean rhetoric (see, e.g., BGE 259; TI V:6 IX:35; EH IV:4, 7, 8) that cannot be reconciled with this metaethical view, and which cries out instead for some sort of realist construal. Three sorts of considerations, however, block the inference from Nietzsche's rhetoric to the conclusion that he embraced a realist metaphysics of a master s thesis in education, value. First, while the radiography dissertations, rhetoric is forceful, the language of truth and falsity is conspicuously absent. As some of the passages quoted above suggest, Nietzsche writes with great force and passion in opposition to 5 gateway, MPS. But it is striking that he does not use the epistemic value terms the language of truth and falsity, real and unreal in this context.
This, of course, might not be notable, except for the fact that in his equally forceful attacks on, e.g., Christian cosmology, or religious interpretations of natural events, he invokes the radiography, conceptual apparatus of truth and falsity, truth and lie, reality and appearance, all the popular, time (cf. Leiter 1994, pp. 336338). Thus, for example, Nietzsche lampoons Christian cosmology as lacking “even a single point of contact with reality” and as “pure fiction” which “falsifiesreality” (“ die Wirklichtkeit fälscht ”) (A, 15). Such epistemic value terms are strikingly absent in Nietzsche's remarks about value. One natural explanation for this difference in rhetoric natural especially in light of the substantial evidence for dissertations, his anti-realism is precisely that in coursework the moral case he does not think there is any fact of the matter. Second, in undertaking a “revaluation of dissertations, all values,” Nietzsche, as we have seen, wants to alert “higher” types to the fact that MPS is not, in fact, conducive to their flourishing. Thus, he needs to “wake up” his appropriate readers those whose “ears are related” to his to the dangers of MPS, a task made all the more difficult by MPS's pretension to be “morality itself.” Given, then, that Nietzsche's target is space research, a certain sort of misunderstanding on the part of higher men, and given the difficulty of supplanting the norms that figure in this misunderstanding (the norms of MPS), it should be unsurprising that Nietzsche writes with passion and force: he must shake higher types out of their intuitive commitment to dissertations, the moral traditions of two millenia! Moreover, Nietzsche's naturalism, and the prominent role it assigns to non-conscious drives and type-facts, leads him to contests for adults, be skeptical about the efficacy of reasons and dissertations arguments.
But a skeptic about the efficacy of rational persuasion might very well opt for persuasion through other rhetorical devices. Third, and perhaps most importantly, a rhetorical tone like Nietzsche's looked at in the context of his life does not really suggest realism about the content, but rather desperation on the part of the help me essay, author to reach an increasingly distant and uninterested audience. The Nietzsche who was almost completely ignored during the dissertations, years before illness erased his intellect and deprived him of his sanity might have resorted to more and essay more strident and dissertations violent rhetoric in frustration over not being heard and not because he was a realist. Indeed, in the absence of explicit evidence of value realism, this seems the most plausible explanation for 5 gateway welcome.url, the vast majority of the passages with which we have been concerned in this section. For these various reasons, then, the character of Nietzsche's rhetoric can be understood as compatible with his anti-realism about dissertations, value. 4. Nietzsche's Lack of a Political Philosophy. When the Danish critic Georg Brandes (18421927) first introduced a wider European audience to Nietzsche's ideas during public lectures in 1888, he concentrated on Nietzsche's vitriolic campaign against morality and what Brandes dubbed (with Nietzsche's subsequent approval) Nietzsche's “aristocratic radicalism.” On this reading, Nietzsche was primarily concerned with questions of value and culture (especially the value of morality and its effect on culture), and his philosophical standpoint was acknowledged to be a deeply illiberal one: what matters are great human beings, not the on student, “herd.” The egalitarian premise of all contemporary moral and political theory the radiography, premise, in one form or another, of the help me essay, equal worth or dignity of each person is simply absent in Nietzsche's work. This naturally leads to the question: what politics would Nietzsche recommend to us in light of his repudiation of the egalitarian premise? A striking feature of the reception of Nietzsche in the last twenty years is the large literature that has developed on Nietzsche's purported political philosophy.
Two positions have dominated the literature: one attributes to Nietzsche a commitment to dissertations, aristocratic forms of social ordering (call this the “Aristocratic Politics View” [e.g., Detwiler 1990]), while the other denies that Nietzsche has any political philosophy at all (call this the “Anti-Politics View” [e.g., Hunt 1985]). More recently, Shaw (2007) has staked out a third position, namely, that Nietzsche was, in essays on student fact, concerned with the normative legitimacy of state power, but was skeptical that with the demise of religion, it would be possible to achieve an effective normative consensus in radiography dissertations society at large that was untained by the exercise of essay contests, state power itself. Whether Nietzsche is really interested in these issues has been contested (Leiter 2009). Here we will concentrate on the two dominant lines of radiography, interpretation, noting that the evidence favors the help me essay, second view. Even the casual reader knows, of course, that Nietzsche has intense opinions about everything , from German cuisine to the unparalleled brilliance (in Nietzsche's estimation) of Bizet's operas, not to mention various and sundry “political” matters. The interpretive question, however, is whether scattered remarks and parenthetical outbursts add up to systematic views on questions of radiography dissertations, philosophical significance. Is Nietzsche even interested in political philosophy? Martha Nussbaum (1997: 1) declares that, “Nietzsche claimed to writing s thesis in education, be a political thinker, indeed an important political thinker”, but she can produce no clear textual evidence in support of that contention. She notes that, “In Ecce Homo he announced that he was ‘a bringer of glad tidings like no one before me,’ and that those glad tidings are political” (1997: 1). In fact, Nietzsche does not say the “tidings” are political; indeed, as the earlier discussion of his critique of morality shows, the “tidings” are directed only at dissertations, select readers, nascent higher human beings, for 5 gateway, whom morality is radiography dissertations, harmful.
That this section from Ecce Homo (IV:1) concludes with the hyperbolic claim that only essay contests for adults, with Nietzsche does “the earth [first] know[ ] great politics ” does as little to establish that he has a political philosophy as the claim, in the very same passage , that Nietzsche's “glad tidings” will cause “upheavals, a convulsion of radiography dissertations, earthquakes, a moving of mountains and valleys” does to essay for adults, establish that he has a geological theory. Nussbaum goes on to suggest that “serious political thought” (1997: 2) must address seven precise topics (e.g., “procedural justification” [“proceduresthat legitimate and/or justify the resulting proposals” for dissertations, “political structure”], “gender and the family,” and essays on student “justice between nations”) most of which, of course, Nietzsche does not address. (Marx does not address most of them either.) Instead of drawing the natural conclusion Nietzsche was not interested in questions of political philosophy she, instead, decries his “baneful influence” in political philosophy (1997: 12)! Those who claim to find a political philosophy in radiography dissertations Nietzsche typically rely on a handful of 5 gateway welcome.url, passages most often, sections 5657 of The Antichrist as the slender evidence on radiography, the basis of which elaborate views about the ideal forms of social and political organization are attributed to Nietzsche. In particular, Nietzsche is said to endorse (in A 5657) the caste-based society associated with the Hindu Laws of contests for adults, Manu as his political ideal: The order of castes, the supreme, the dominant law, is merely the dissertations, sanction of a natural order , a natural lawfulness of the first rank, over which no arbitrariness, no “modern idea” has any powerNature, not Manu, distinguishes the s thesis in education, pre-eminently spiritual ones, those who are pre-eminently strong in muscle and temperament, and those, the third type, who excel neither in one respect nor in the other, the mediocre ones the last as the great majority, the radiography, first as the elite. (A 57) This reading, however, does not withstand scrutiny, as Thomas Brobjer (1998) has argued. As Brobjer notes, the only other published discussion of the laws of Manu, in Twilight of the Idols , is highly critical, not laudatory (pp. 304305); Nietzsche's discussions of comparable caste-based societies are all critical (pp. 308309); and Nietzsche's unpublished notebooks contain numerous entries on the theme “a critique of the Laws of a master s thesis in education, Manu” (pp.
310312). The passage from The Antichrist only seems laudatory when read out of context; as Brobjer remarks: [Nietzsche's] purpose [in these passages in radiography The Antichrist ] is to make the s thesis, contrast with Christianity as strong as possible, to provoke the reader, to make the reader “realize” that even the laws of Manu is higher and dissertations more humane than Christianity. Essay Contests! Whereas Christianity destroys, the intention at least of the laws of Manu was to save and protect. (1998, pp. 312313) In other words, the rhetorical context of the radiography, passage is help me essay, crucial, though it is typically ignored by radiography dissertations commentators defending the Aristocratic Politics View. Indeed, the passage quoted above from A 57 is specifically introduced to illustrate the use of the “holy lie” (the lie being, in this case, the claim that “nature, not Manu” distinguishes the castes).
And as even the title of the book would suggest, Nietzsche's target is Christianity, and the laws of Manu are invoked simply to drive home that point. Thus, although Manu and Christianity both depend on essay, lies, at radiography dissertations, least the Manu lies, according to Nietzsche, are not put in the service of Christian ends, i.e., “poisoning, slander, negation of life, contempt for the body, the degradation and self-violation of man through the concept of sin” (A 56). Similarly, Nietzsche goes out of his way to show that Christian views of female sexuality compare unfavorably with Manu views (A 56). The most balanced and careful defense of the Aristocratic Politics View, Detwiler (1990), is not able to on student, adduce much additional evidence. For example, Detwiler (1990) ends up relying quite heavily on dissertations, an essay the 27-year-old Nietzsche never published (1990: 39-41, 63)!
As to passages in space research essay the “mature” corpus, Detwiler adduces ones that “appear[ ] to dissertations, have explicit political implications” (1990: 43; cf. 44), or that “strongly suggestpolitical consequences” (1990: 4546), or that “raise the issue of troubling political implications of Nietzschean immoralism” (1990: 49). But “implications” and “consequences” are one thing, and having a political philosophy another. The canon of political philosophers is essay, composed of thinkers (like Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau) who have philosophical views about political questions the state, liberty, law, justice, etc. not thinkers whose views about other topics merely had “implications” for politics. As the conscientious Detwiler admits: “[t]he political implications of radiography dissertations, Nietzsche's revaluation of essay, values are never center stage for long” (1990: 58). Yet it is natural to think that Nietzsche's attack on morality does indeed have real political implications. Radiography Dissertations! When Nietzsche commends the laws of Manu for “mak[ing] possible the higher and the highest types” (A 57), this resonates, all too obviously, with Nietzsche's central concern that morality is harmful to the highest types of human beings. Yet the undeniable “resonance” fails to show that Nietzsche endorses the laws of Manu. 5 Gateway Welcome.url! Most obviously, the “higher types” protected by the laws of Manu essentially a priestly caste have nothing in common with the nascent Goethes that concern Nietzsche. Radiography Dissertations! Nietzsche's worry for these potential higher types is, as we have seen, that they suffer from false consciousness , i.e., the false belief that “morality in the pejorative sense,” i.e., MPS, is good for essay contests, them.
MPS is radiography dissertations, a threat to essays, the flourishing of nascent Goethes, and it is this flourishing that interests Nietzsche above all. It would suffice for Nietzsche's purposes that nascent Goethes give up their faith in MPS in dissertations other words, it is individual attitudes not political structures that are Nietzsche's primary object (“The ideas of the herd should rule in research the herd,” says Nietzsche, “and not reach out beyond it” [WP 287]). That should hardly be surprising if we recall Nietzsche's sustained hostility to dissertations, politics throughout his career, as defenders of the Anti-Politics View emphasize. Even in the early Untimely Meditations , this hostility is already evident. Space! So, for radiography, example, Nietzsche comments: Every philosophy which believes that the popular essay topics, problem of existence is touched on, not to say solved, by a political event is a joke- and pseudo-philosophy. Many states have been founded since the world began; that is an old story. Radiography Dissertations! How should a political innovation suffice to turn men once and for all into contented inhabitants of the earth? [That people think the answer to existential questions might come from politics shows] that we are experiencing the consequences of the doctrinethat the popular essay topics, state is the highest goal of dissertations, mankind and 5 gateway welcome.url that a man has no higher duty than to serve the radiography dissertations, state: in which doctrine I recognize a relapse not into paganism but into stupidity.
It may be that a man who sees his highest duty in popular essay serving the radiography, state really knows no higher duties; but there are men and duties existing beyond this and one of the duties that seems, at least to me, to be higher than serving the space research, state demands that one destroys stupidity in every form, and therefore in this form too. That is why I am concerned with a species of man whose teleology extends somewhat beyond the welfare of a state, and with [this kind of man] only in relation to a world which is again fairly independent of the welfare of radiography dissertations, a state, that of culture. (U III:4) The same, almost anarchistic attitude is apparent in Thus Spoke Zarathustra , where Nietzsche calls the “statethe coldest of all cold monsters” and remarks, aptly enough, that “the statewhatever it says it liesEverything about it is help me essay, false” (Z I:11). Dissertations! “Only where the state ends, there begins the human being who is not superfluous” (Z I:11) Of course, it is only the latter individual that really interests Nietzsche. And who is essay, that individual? The next section (Z I:12) tells us: he is the one who values his “solitude,” which is dissertations, precisely what the “marketplace” of politics violates, with its “showmen and actors of great [sic] things.” “Far from the market place and from fame happens all that is great” (Z I:12): in other words, great things (and great people) are to research essay, be found far from the radiography, realms of politics and economics. Passages like these seem to space, support the dissertations, Anti-Politics View. On this account, Nietzsche occasionally expresses views about political matters, but, read in essay contests context, they do not add up to a theoretical account of any of the radiography, questions of political philosophy. He is more accurately read, in the end, as a kind of esoteric moralist , i.e., someone who has views about space essay, human flourishing, views he wants to communicate at least to a select few. “This book belongs to the very few,” he says of The Antichrist , though the point holds more generally.
Indeed, Nietzsche is clearly describing his own work when he writes in an earlier book that, It is not by any means necessarily an objection to a book when anyone finds it impossible to understand: perhaps that was part of the author's intention he did not want to dissertations, be understood by just ‘anybody.’ All the nobler spirits and tastes select their audience when they wish to communicate; and research essay choosing that, one at the same time erects barriers against ‘the others.’ All the more subtle laws of any style have their origin at this point: they at the same time keep away, create a distance, forbid ‘entrance,’ understanding, as said above while they open the radiography dissertations, ears of those whose ears are related to ours. (GS 381) Or similarly: “Our highest insights must and essay should sound like follies and dissertations sometimes like crimes when they are heard without permission by those who are not predisposed and predestined for them” (BGE 30). Nietzsche, the esoteric moralist, wants to reach only select individuals those nascent higher human beings who are “predisposed and predestined” for his ideas and alter their consciousness about morality. The larger world, including its forms of political and on student economic organization, is simply not his concern. Even without a political philosophy, however, there remain disturbing questions about Nietzsche's critique of morality and its political implications . For example, when Nietzsche objects that morality is an obstacle to radiography, “the highest power and splendor possible” to man, one is tempted to object that this gets things perversely backwards.
For surely it is the space essay, lack of morality in radiography dissertations social policy and public institutions a lack which permits widespread poverty and despair to persist generation upon generation; that allows daily economic struggle and uncertainty to define the basic character of most people's lives that is most responsible for a lack of human flourishing. Welcome.url! Surely, in radiography dissertations a more moral society, with a genuine commitment to social justice and space essay human equality, there would be far more Goethes, far more creativity and admirable human achievement. As Philippa Foot has sharply put it: “How could one see the present dangers that the radiography dissertations, world is in help me essay as showing that there is too much pity and too little egoism around?” (1973, p. 168). Here, though, one must remember the earlier discussion of Nietzsche's critique of morality. Consider the Nietzsche who asks: “Where has the last feeling of decency and self-respect gone when even our statesmen, an otherwise quite unembarrassed type of radiography dissertations, man, anti-Christians through and through in their deeds, still call themselves Christians today and attend communion?” (A 38). Clearly this Nietzsche is under no illusions about the help me essay, extent to which public actors do not act morally. Radiography Dissertations! Indeed, Nietzsche continues in help me essay even more explicit terms: “Every practice of every moment, every instinct, every valuation that is dissertations, translated into action is today anti-Christian: what a miscarriage of falseness must modern man be, that he is not ashamed to be called a Christian in spite of popular essay, all this!” (A 38). Dissertations! What, then, is going on here? If Nietzsche is not, contrary to help me essay, Foot's suggestion, embracing the absurd view that there is too much pity and altruism in the world, what exactly is radiography dissertations, his critical point?
Recall Nietzsche's paradigmatic worry: that a nascent creative genius will come to take the norms of MPS so seriously that he will fail to realize his genius. Rather than tolerate (even welcome) suffering, he will seek relief from hardship and devote himself to the pursuit of pleasure; rather than practice what Nietzsche calls “severe self-love”, and attend to himself in essays the ways requisite for productive creative work, he will embrace the ideology of altruism, and reject “self-love” as improper, and so forth. It is not, then, that Nietzsche thinks people practice too much altruism after all, Nietzsche tells us that egoistic actions “have hitherto been by far the most frequent actions” (D 148) but rather that they believe too much in the value of altruism, equality, happiness and the other norms of MPS. Even though there is neither much altruism nor equality in the world, there is almost universal endorsement of the value of radiography, altruism and equality even, notoriously (and as Nietzsche seemed well aware), by those who are its worst enemies in practice. On Student! So Nietzsche's critique is that a culture in the grips of MPS, even without acting on MPS, poses the dissertations, real obstacle to flourishing, because it teaches potential higher types to disvalue what would be most conducive to for adults, their creativity and value what is irrelevant or perhaps even hostile to it. Nietzsche's worry, in radiography dissertations short, is that the popular essay topics, man in dissertations the grips of MPS becomes “ imprisoned among all sorts of terrible concepts [ schrekliche Begriffe ]” that leave him “sick, miserable, malevolent against himself: full of hatred against the springs of life, full of suspicion against all that was still strong and happy” (TI VII:2, emphasis added). So, contrary to Foot, Nietzsche is not claiming that people are actually too altruistic and too egalitarian in their practice; he is worried that (as a consequence of the contests for adults, slave revolt in dissertations morals, etc.) they are now “imprisoned among.concepts” of a master s thesis in education, equality and altruism, and that this conceptual vocabulary of value is radiography, itself the obstacle to the realization of certain forms of help me essay, human excellence. That is a very different charge, one that raises subtle psychological questions that no one, to date, has really explored. To be sure, one might still object that if our society really were more altruistic and egalitarian, more individuals would have the chance to flourish and radiography do creative work. Yet it is essay topics, precisely this moral optimism common, for example, to utilitarians and Marxists this belief that a more moral society would produce more opportunity for more people to dissertations, do creative work that Nietzsche does, indeed, want to question. Nietzsche's illiberal attitudes in writing s thesis this regard are once again apparent; he says to take but one example that, “We simply do not consider it desirable that a realm of justice and harmony [ Eintracht ] should be established on earth” (GS 377).
It is radiography dissertations, bad enough for contests for adults, Nietzsche that MPS values have so far succeeded in saying, “stubbornly and inexorably, ‘I am morality itself, and nothing besides is morality’” (BGE 202); it could only be worse on his view if more and more of our actions were really brought into accord with these values. For Nietzsche wants to urge contrary to the moral optimists that in radiography a way largely unappreciated and (perhaps) unintended a thoroughly moral culture undermines the conditions under which the most splendid human creativity is possible, and generates instead a society of coursework, Zarathustra's “last men” (Z P:5): “What is love? What is creation? What is longing? What is a star?” thus asks the dissertations, last man, and he blinks. The earth has become small, and on it hops the last man, who makes everything small.
His race is as in space essay eradicable as the flea-beetle; the last man lives longest. “We have invented happiness,” say the last men, and they blink. If we are trained always to think of happiness and comfort and dissertations safety and the needs of others, we shall cut ourselves off from the preconditions for creative excellence on the Nietzschean picture: suffering, hardship, danger, self-concern, and the rest. Consider a particularly powerful statement of this view. Speaking of those “eloquent and profoundly scribbling slaves of the democratic taste and its ‘modern ideas’” who seek to promote “the universal green-pasture happiness of the herd” and research who take “suffering itselffor something that must be abolished” (BGE 44), Nietzsche retorts that when we look at, how the plant “man” has so far grown most vigorously to a height we think that this has happened every time under the opposite conditions, that to this end the dangerousness of his situation must first grow to radiography, the point of a master in education, enormity, his power of invention and simulation (his “spirit”) had to radiography dissertations, develop under prolonged pressure and constraint into refinement and audacity.
We think thateverything evil, terrible, tyrannical in man, everything in him that is essay, kin to beasts of radiography, prey and serpents, serves the enhancement of the for adults, species “man” as much as its opposite does. Indeed, we do not even say enough when we say only that much. Radiography! (BGE 44) At the end of this passage, Nietzsche does hint at a role for morality as well it is just that what morality opposes is equally important. He, of course, qualifies this by suggesting that even to concede their equal importance may “not even say enough”: that is, perhaps there will not be much role for morality at all in a master the conditions under which “the plant ‘man’” will grow to its greatest heights. But notice that, even in this passage, what is radiography, called for contests for adults, is not a political transformation, but an individual one, that of the nascent higher human being: it is dissertations, “his situation” that “must first grow to research, the point of enormity” and it is “ his power of invention and simulation” that “had to develop under prolonged pressure and constraint into refinement and audacity.” As he writes in a Nachlass note of 1887, regarding those “human beings who are of any concern to me”: “I wish [them] suffering, desolation, sickness, ill-treatment, indignities I wish that they should not remain unfamiliar with profound self-contempt, the torture of self-mistrust, the wretchedness of the vanquished” (WP 910). This is not the outline of a political program, but rather a severe regimen for the realization of individual potential at least for the select few. A. Dissertations! Nietzsche's Writings and Key to Citations. For untranslated material and emendations to existing translations, I have relied on Friedrich Nietzsche, Sämtliche Werke: Kritische Studienausgabe in writing a master s thesis in education 15 Bänden , ed. G. Colli M. Montinari (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1980); this is cited as KSA, followed by the volume number, a colon, and radiography dissertations the fragment number(s). Nietzsche's works are cited as follows, unless otherwise noted: roman numerals refer to essay, major parts or chapters in Nietzsche's works; Arabic numerals refer to sections, not pages.
The Antichrist , in The Portable Nietzsche (below). Radiography! Cited as A. Writing A Master S Thesis In Education! Beyond Good and Evil , trans. Radiography! W. 5 Gateway Welcome.url! Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1966. Cited as BGE. The Birth of Tragedy , trans.
W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1966. Cited as BT. The Case of Wagner , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1966. Cited as CW. Daybreak: Thoughts on the Prejudices of Morality , trans. Dissertations! R.J.
Hollingdale, ed. M. Coursework! Clark B. Dissertations! Leiter, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. Cited as D. Ecce Homo , trans. W. Essays! Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1967. Cited as EH. The Gay Science , trans. W. Kaufmann, New York: Vintage, 1974. Cited as GS. On the Genealogy of Morality , trans. M. Dissertations! Clark A. Swensen, Indianapolis: Hackett, 1998.
Cited as GM. Human, All-too-Human , trans. Welcome.url! R.J. Radiography Dissertations! Hollingdale, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986. Writing A Master! Cited as HAH. Nietzsche contra Wagner , in The Portable Nietzsche (below). Cited as NCW. Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks , trans. M. Cowan, Washington, DC: Regnery Gateway, 1962. Cited as PTAG. Radiography Dissertations! Philosophy and Truth: Selections from Nietzsche's Notebooks of the Early 1870's , ed. Popular! trans.
D. Breazeale, Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1979. Cited as PT, by page number. The Portable Nietzsche , ed. trans. Radiography! W. Kaufmann, New York: Viking, 1954. Cited as PN, by page number.
Thus Spoke Zarathustra , in The Portable Nietzsche (above). Cited as Z. Twilight of the Idols , in The Portable Nietzsche (above). Cited as TI. Untimely Meditations , trans. R.J.
Hollingdale, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983. Cited as U. The Will to Power , trans. W. Kaufmann R.J. Hollingdale, New York: Vintage, 1968. Cited as WP.
B. References and essay for adults Works on dissertations, Nietzsche's Moral and Political Philosophy. Brobjer, Thomas, 1998. “The Absence of Political Ideals in Nietzsche's Writings: The Case of the Laws of Manu and the Associated Caste-Society,” Nietzsche-Studien , 27: 300318. Clark, Maudemarie, 1990. Nietzsche on Truth and Philosophy , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. , 1994. “Nietzsche's Immoralism and the Concept of Morality,” in Schacht (1994). , 2001. “On the Rejection of Morality: Bernard Williams's Debt to Nietzsche,” in Schacht (2001). Clark, Maudemarie and Brian Leiter, 1997. Essay! “Introduction” to Nietzsche's Daybreak , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Detwiler, Bruce, 1990. Radiography! Nietzsche and the Politics of Aristocratic Radicalism , Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Popular Essay Topics! Foot, Philippa, 1973. “Nietzsche: The Revaluation of Values,” reprinted in Richardson Leiter (2001). Radiography Dissertations! Gemes, Ken, and coursework 5 gateway John Richardson (eds.), 2013. The Oxford Handbook of Nietzsche , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Geuss, Raymond, 1997. “Nietzsche and Morality,” European Journal of Philosophy , 5: 120.
Hollingdale, R.J., 1985. Nietzsche: The Man and His Philosophy , London: Ark Paperbacks. Hunt, Lester, 1985. “Politics and Anti-Politics: Nietzsche's View of the State,” History of Philosophy Quarterly , 2: 453468. , 1991. Nietzsche and the Origin of Virtue , London: Routledge. Dissertations! , 1993. “The Eternal Recurrence and Nietzsche's Ethic of Virtue,” International Studies in Philosophy , 25 (2): 311. Hurka, Thomas, 1993. Perfectionism , Oxford: Oxford University Press. , 2007. “Nietzsche: Perfectionist,” in Leiter Sinhababu (2007).
Hussain, Nadeem, 2007. “Honest Illusions: Valuing for Nietzsche's Free Spirits,” in space research Leiter Sinhababu (2007). , 2013. “Nietzsche's Metaethical Stance”, in Gemes and Richardson (2013). Dissertations! Janaway, Christopher, 2007. Beyond Selflessness: Reading Nietzsche's Genealogy , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Katsafanas, Paul, 2005. “Nietzsche's Theory of Mind: Consciousness and Conceptualization,” European Journal of popular essay, Philosophy , 13: 131. , 2013. “Nietzsche's Philosophical Psychology,”, in radiography Gemes and Richardson (2013). Leiter, Brian, 1994. “Perspectivism in Nietzsche's Genealogy of Morals ,” in Schacht (1994). , 1997. “Nietzsche and the Morality Critics,” Ethics , 107: 250285. Research! Reprinted in Richardson Leiter (2001). , 1998. “On the Paradox of dissertations, Fatalism and Self-Creation in Nietzsche,” in C. Janaway (ed.), Willing and Nothingness: Schopenhauer as Nietzsche's Educator , Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Reprinted in Richardson Leiter (2001). , 2000. “Nietzsche's Metaethics: Against the popular essay, Privilege Readings,” European Journal of Philosophy , 8: 277297. , 2002. Nietzsche on radiography dissertations, Morality , London: Routledge. For Adults! , 2007. “Nietzsche's Theory of the Will,” Philosophers' Imprint , 7 (7): 115. , 2009. “Review of Shaw (2007)”, Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews , 2009.01.21 [Available online]. , 2013. “Nietzsche's Naturalism Reconsidered,” in Gemes and Richardson (2013). , 2015. Nietzsche on Morality , 2nd edition, London: Routledge. Dissertations! Leiter, Brian and Neil Sinhababu (eds.), 2007. Nietzsche and essay Morality , Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Magnus, Bernd, 1978. Nietzsche's Existential Imperative , Bloomington: Indiana University Press. May, Simon, 1999. Radiography Dissertations! Nietzsche's Ethics and his “War on Morality” , Oxford: Clarendon Press. Montinari, Mazzino, 1982. Nietzsche Lesen , Berlin: de Gruyter. Nehamas, Alexander, 1985. Nietzsche: Life as Literature , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, esp. Essay For Adults! Chs. Dissertations! 57. Nussbaum, Martha, 1997. “Is Nietzsche a Political Thinker?” International Journal of Philosophical Studies , 5: 113.
Reginster, Bernard, 2006. The Affirmation of Life: Nietzsche on coursework welcome.url, Overcoming Nihilism , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Dissertations! Riccardi, Mattia, 2015a. “Nietzsche on the Superficiality of Consciousness”,in M. Dries (ed.), Nietzsche on Consciousness and research essay the Embodied Mind , Berlin, de Gruyter. , 2015b. “Inner Opacity: Nietzsche on Introspection and Agency”, Inquiry , 58: 221243. Radiography Dissertations! Richardson, John, 1996. Nietzsche's System , Oxford: Oxford University Press, esp. Ch 3. Richardson, John, and Brian Leiter (eds.), 2001. Nietzsche , Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Schacht, Richard, 1983. Nietzsche , London: Routledge, esp. Help Me Essay! Chs. IV-VII. (ed.), 1994. Nietzsche, Genealogy, Morality , Berkeley: University of radiography dissertations, California Press. (ed.), 2001. Nietzsche's Postmoralism , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Essay! Shaw, Tamsin, 2007.
Nietzsche's Political Skepticism , Princeton: Princeton University Press. Solomon, Robert C., 2001. “Nietzsche's Virtues: A Personal Inquiry,” in Schacht (2001). Wilcox, John, 1974. Truth and Value in Nietzsche: A Study of His Metaethics and Epistemology , Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Williams, Bernard, 1993. “Nietzsche's Minimalist Moral Psychology,” European Journal of Philosophy , 1: 414.
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Review our Chief Financial Officer sample resume below to see how to make the essay topics most of your credentials. Chief Financial Officer Sample Resume. A resourceful financial professional with 30 years experience in financial management, telecommunications, software/multimedia, real estate development and construction, health care and radiography dissertations, public accounting for a variety of public and closely held companies. Technically proficient: Finance (public and private sources of debt and equity); GAAP, S.E.C. and writing a master s thesis, regulatory accounting; GAAP, S.E.C., regulatory, internal and board reporting; taxes; treasury management; cash management; mergers and acquisitions; asset/liability management; management information systems; human resources; investor relations; facilities; administration. Broad industry knowledge: financial services; commercial banking; internet; direct marketing; software/multimedia; telecommunications; health care; real estate and construction; distribution. Strategic perspective: business strategy development and implementation, tax and acquisition planning; company restructuring or reengineering; creating a new focus; business plans; identifying new businesses or product lines. Radiography Dissertations! Leadership: team building; vision; focus on essay contests for adults bottom line and long term goals; motivation; PL responsibility. Established the Financial Services Division to radiography dissertations, provide alternative financing vehicles for purchases by members. Founded and managed CUShopper Mortgage Services LLC in partnership with a nationwide mortgage banking company.
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Created a strategy to improve earnings by diversifying funding sources which resulted in creation of the radiography dissertations Financial Services Division. Responsible for finance, accounting, reporting, lending, customer relations, direct marketing and compliance for a $34 billion financial services company owned by and lending to credit unions, banks, savings and loans and insurance companies to stimulate investment in residential real estate. Created new financial products and repriced exisiting products to increase online transaction volume from space essay several million dollars daily to dissertations, several billion dollars daily. Created and implemented a new, aggressive marketing plan. Helped the bank grow profitably in assets by over $7 billion in one year. Responsible for overall operations, finance, marketing and coordinating services for for adults, a company providing interim and radiography dissertations, transitional senior corporate management services to a variety of business organizations, including start ups, turnarounds, acquiring companies, companies preparing to sell and companies preparing to go public. Acted as initial CFO/COO/VP of Business Development for a start up with a virtual office technology delivered over the Internet; one of the business development efforts led to a business affiliation agreement that allowed the company to raise it first outside round of funding.
Restructured and performed transitional management as interim CFO for a public $160 million mail order specialty pharmaceutical firm that lost $34 million in 9 months and contests for adults, whose founder and his CFO committed fraud.. Resolved issues with the SEC, restructured operations, implemented new cash management systems, controls and processes, implemented new reimbursement systems, controls and processes and helped find a buyer. Successfully brought a construction materials and mining company out of Chapter 11 Bankruptcy while retaining $4 million in personal assets for the sole proprietor owner and arranging for $15 million in debt. Helped restructure and turn around an HMO losing over $1.5 million per month and raise $18 million in radiography, new capital by structuring a tri-party private placement. Created an entirely new plan focused on for adults being an integrated health care delivery system. Revitalized two commercial banks under memoranda of understanding with Federal regulators. Created and implemented new capital plans, asset/liability management policies and radiography dissertations, procedures and streamlined operations.
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In any piece of literature, imagery plays a significant role in illustrating the characters. Welcome.url? In the play, Macbeth , written by William Shakespeare, the characters of Macbeth and Lady. ENG3UR Macbeth The Meaning of Blood : Honour, Evil, and Guilt The famous 17th century poet Oscar Wilde once wisely stated “when liberty comes with hands dabbled in blood , it is dissertations, hard to shake hands with her.” This statement illustrates the connection made by essay, modern and historical society between. Burke English 2 2 April 2014 Macbeth : The Bloodbath Macbeth is by far the bloodiest of William Shakespeare’s plays. It begins with a civil war battle between the Scottish and Norwegian army, where Macbeth embodies his heroic and courageous figure. However, Macbeth eventually transforms into a villain. Blood Imagery in Macbeth Shakespeare’s plays are well known for the richness of their imagery . This is radiography, particularly true in Macbeth and the many allusions to blood . The use of coursework, blood imagery gives the reader some foresight into what is going on in the play and how the characters are thinking. In the dissertations play Macbeth , by William Shakespeare, blood imagery plays a vital role in the development of the coursework welcome.url plot, theme, and character development. We first hear the word “ blood ” in Act I, Scene II, when King Duncan asks a soldier to report what was occurring on the battlefield. The unnamed soldier then. Declline of Macbeth from Noble Hero to Ruthless Tyrant.
reader a preiview of Macbeths character when the soldiers say brave Macbeth , from dissertations this we know that he is a famous and noble man When we first meet Macbeth he is with Banquo and they run into the three withces who greet Macbeth with the following titles All hail Macbeth , hail to thee, Thane. ?The Red Stuff, The Clear Stuff, and The Aftermath. In William Shakespeare’s play Macbeth , there are reoccurring symbols which help develop the major themes. There are some symbols used to foreshadow guilt which plays a big role in the theme of the play. It is evident that there are other symbols.
Macbeth is a man; therefore he is the character most capable of essay, violence. Is this what Shakespeare says? Shakespeare illustrates how not just Macbeth , but other male and female characters, can be violent. Violence is a subjective term. Perhaps physical violence is what Macbeth is radiography, capable of due to his. In “ Macbeth ”, the protagonist, Macbeth , is portrayed as a dynamic tragic hero that becomes dominated by his tragic flaw, as it frequently is for on student most Shakespearean characters.
His character is tempered by paradoxical states of mind, in dissertations, which he develops an internal complex on many levels. Moreover, his. Macbeth Essay In the drama script, Macbeth , written in 1606 by William Shakespeare, features such as language, and syntax in the important section of Act 1 Scene 7 were used to show the idea of the corrupting power of vaulting ambition. In Act 1 Scene 7, Macbeth , through a soliloquy, ponders about the. depiction of evil in Macbeth is help me essay, far more compelling than his depiction of virtue. Radiography? Macbeth - i) Theme of deception is explored in varied and coursework interesting ways in the play Discuss this view the play, with reference blah blah blah. ii) Shakespeare's depiction of evil in Macbeth is far more compelling. 24 May 2010 The Role of radiography dissertations, Blood in Shakespeare’s Tragedy of in education, Macbeth The Tragedy of Macbeth is one of William Shakespeare’s most famous works. Junior high students, high school students as well as college students have studied this popular play over hundreds. Shakespeare's Use of Imagery in Macbeth In 16th century literature, primarily plays, it is common practice for authors to employ various forms of imagery in order to draw more emotion from the reader or audience. William Shakespeare, a literary master, makes heavy use of radiography, imagery in most of his works.
story of Macbeth by William Shakespeare uses blood as an a master s thesis, important symbol to illustrate the characters feelings and beliefs. Blood is used everywhere in Macbeth , the beginning in the battle field scenes, after they kill Duncan, when Banque was killed and at the end when Lady Macbeth feels that blood has stained. How Does the Recurring Imagery in Macbeth Add to dissertations the Power of the Play? How does the recurring imagery in Macbeth add to the power of the play? In this essay I will discuss as to whether recurring imagery within Macbeth adds to the power of the play. I will do this by using quotes and different points from the play. Imagery is the essays on student use of vivid or figurative language to. Blood Imagery in Macbeth Imagine a war without guns, missiles, or bombs. A war with swords, daggers, and arrows. A war with blood , gallons and gallons of blood flooding the battlefields.
Set in eleventh century Anglo-Saxon Scotland, this would be the typical battle scene in Shakespeare’s bloody tragedy. “To what extent is Macbeth and Son more than a story about Luke and Lulachs acceptance of a new father?” Fiction is radiography dissertations, a platform of writing that presents the important issues and values in writing s thesis in education, life. The Author of ‘ Macbeth and radiography dissertations Son’, Jackie French presents a dual plot about two boys named Luke and Lulach. How Shakespeare represents change in Macbeth. Explain how Shakespeare represents the change in Macbeth throughout the play. Macbeth is introduced as a hero, a soldier who has earned great honour from his fame on the battlefield.
Although he is naturally a man of ambition, supernatural elements as well as the goading from his wife influence him. Macbeth Essay William Shakespeare used the imagery of animals in “ Macbeth ” to help describe the nature of various characters throughout the play which helps readers understand the play better. The sergeant said, “Yes, / As sparrows eagles, or the hare the lion” (1.2. 38-39). Eagles and lions have always. The Presentation of essay, Choice in Macbeth (Shakespeare), My Last Duchess (Browning) The presentation of choice in Macbeth (Shakespeare), My Last Duchess (Browning) and The Laboratory (Browning) Macbeth Macbeth’s choices are essentially presented through the soliloquys and asides, and radiography basically boil down to “To murder or not to murder?”.
As soliloquys and asides are effectively. “ Macbeth ” by William Shakespeare is a play in which the eponymous hero changes from a good to a bad character at the turning point in the play. This is research essay, a result of the radiography king being murdered by Macbeth and lady Macbeth . It is the consequences of the murder by the two protagonists that the play is based. William Shakespeare's play Macbeth is about a struggle for power in Scotland. Macbeth , the on student main character, gets prophecies from three witches about his future accomplishments that will come to him. One of his prophecies is that Macbeth will become king, Macbeth hearing this he becomes ambitious and later. Lady Macbeth: Accountable for King Duncan's Assassination. Lady Macbeth is dissertations, more accountable than Macbeth for King Duncan’s assassination, but that doesn’t mean that she is a more evil person than Macbeth . At first, it just seemed like Macbeth was honest and pure, and popular topics that Lady Macbeth was trying to manipulate her husband into dissertations, committing murder. As the play. 'Art thou not, fatal vision.
Or art thou A dagger of the mind , a false creation'. (Lines 36-28) • Vision changes to one of a bloody dagger, and Macbeth seems to be concerned about the change, and it brings about the turning point within his soliloquy. • He feels that by seeing it, his eyes 'are made. Malcolm's reference to Macbeth as a 'Dead Butcher' and Lady Macbeth as a 'Fiend-like Queen', is not entirely true. This is on student, due to dissertations the fact that at space research essay, the beginning of the play, Macbeth is shown as a very brave soldier, with good morals and very loyal to radiography dissertations Duncan. Help Me Essay? Later on in the play he hires murderers and. Macbeth. a Dead Butcher and His Fiend Like Queen. *Towards the end of the play Malcolm describes Macbeth and radiography Lady Macbeth as “this dead butcher and his fiend like Queen”. To what extent is this a* fair assessment of the pair? Even though Macbeth would love to popular essay be king, he does not want to become king by killing Duncan. He doesn’t want to kill him. ? Macbeth Themes – Class Notes APPEARANCE .Vs.
REALITY CHARACTERS: Macbeth King Duncan Lady Macbeth Macduff Ghost of Banquo Witches KEY PASSAGES: MacBeth see’s the ghost of Banquo, it’s not actually there. (Pg 52, Act 3, Scene 4) MacBeth believed that he was invincible because no one could. ENG3UI date Macbeth Essay: The Influences of Supernatural According to the Merriam-Webster’s dictionary, supernatural is of relating to an order of existence beyond the visible observable universe. Dissertations? This word generates an image of magical ideations in a reader’s mind. However, the popular play Macbeth , composed. Shakespeare's plays he uses many forms of radiography dissertations, imagery . Imagery , the art of making images, the products of essay, imagination. In the play ' Macbeth ' Shakespeare applies the imagery of clothing, darkness and blood . Dissertations? (listed from least to s thesis in education most), Each detail is his imagery , it seems to contain an important symbol of. Shakespeare: Hamlet and Macbeth , imagery is a common, and dissertations often undiscovered aspect of his writings.
From the subtle animalisitc imagery , which provides for much of the personalities of the character, to the blood imagery in Macbeth . In Shakespeare's play, Hamlet, animalistic imagery is seen throughout. Nature and the Unatural in Macbeth. prediction/indication) of the kind of king that Macbeth will become. After Lady Macbeth receives her husband's letter, she is eager to talk him into doing the essays on student murder she knows that he has in mind. To prepare herself, she calls upon radiography dissertations, evil spirits. Help Me Essay? Lady Macbeth wants to be unnatural, so that she can. robes. They told Macbeth that he is now The Thane of Cawdor. Then Macbeth and dissertations his friend, Banque traveled to the king’s castle before going to s thesis in education their own homes.
The king congratulated them for their victorious battle and on Macbeth’s new title. What did Lady Macbeth say to Macbeth when he told her what. What is guilt and dissertations is it shown in the play Macbeth ? Who demonstrates this guilt, and why is it being displayed? Guilt is a feeling that haunts the conscience for a while. Usually this feeling comes when one has committed an offence, crime, violation or wrong act. It is the feeling of responsibility for. Macbeth the use and abuse of essays on student, power.
ESSENTIALLY THE PLAY MACBETH IS ABOUT POWER, ITS USE AND ABUSE. This was my actual LC essay title. The other essay title was on the evolving Macbeth -Lady Macbeth relationship which was a little tedious and not enough angles to look at it - I thought, so for a higher mark I went with the power. Macbeth and dissertations Illusions It is a truth universally acknowledged that things are often not what they seem. William Shakespeare’s Macbeth is recognized as one of the earliest literary examples utilizing the theme of essay, reversal of reality. In Macbeth , appearances and dissertations symbols are deceptive, alluding to the.
The impressions of Macbeth in lines 123-146 of Act 3, Scene 4 are that of an uneasy man. He had just seen the ghost of Banquo at his royal celebratory banquet and it had severely disturbed him. When he and help me essay Lady Macbeth talk in dissertations, lines 126-127 they talk about murder. Popular Essay Topics? “What is the dissertations night?” “Almost at odds. Macbeth: Psychological or Metaphysical Drama. Macbeth : Psychological or Metaphysical Drama? The starting point for deciding whether Macbeth is essay, a metaphysical and psychological drama concerns the definition of these two terms. Metaphysical is defined as “the theoretical philosophy of being and radiography knowing” which suggests that “being” and “knowing”. Macbeth - Blood Imagery in research, Macbeth. William Shakespeare wrote the Tragedy of Macbeth in approximately 1606 AD.
He loosely based it on dissertations a historical event occurring around 1050 AD. Macbeth is the story of a nobleman, who, while trying to fulfill a prophecy told to help me essay him by three witches, murders his King to cause his ascension to the throne. “Sleep” in radiography dissertations, Macbeth The image of sleep is consistently mentioned in Macbeth with the intention of creating a symbolic importance - consciousness. Coursework 5 Gateway Welcome.url? Sleep is an essential element in life, similar to breathing and eating, to be sleeplessness is usually associated with emotional or mental tension while. The Role of the Witches in dissertations, the Play Macbeth.
Macbeth The first three cycles of the play are: A. The prophesy B. The murder C. The betrayal The main worry for Macbeth after he achieves power is that he will not be able to pass on that power that in fact it is likely according to the witches prophecies to on student be passed onto his friend Banquo. The. Preliminary Year 2013 Literature Stage directions in Shakespeare’s Macbeth Supervised by radiography dissertations, Dr. Mohamed Rifaie Done by Yara Ashraf Ahmed Soliman Preliminary Year Literature Section Stage directions in Shakespeare’s Macbeth According to Webster's New World College Dictionary 2010, stage direction. How far is Lady Macbeth responsible for the murder of welcome.url, King Duncan? Shakespeare was born in 1564 in Stratford-upon-Avon. Radiography Dissertations? He was known for “The Globe” a theatre where he would act out one of his plays. He is seen as one of the most distinguished playwright to have ever walked across the writing a master face of the. Title Author: Macbeth by radiography, William Shakespeare Publication Date: 1606 Genre: text adaptation of play Writing Style/Point of View: 3rd person objective, dialog/stage directions, old, “Shakespeare” language Setting/Atmosphere: Various part of Scotland Characters: Macbeth : Scottish General.
play “ Macbeth ”, Shakespeare reveals both good and evil characteristics of humanity. This is presented in coursework welcome.url, the lead characters, Macbeth and lady Macbeth and highlighted with a range of language techniques and narrative devices. In the beginning of the play, Shakespeare clearly portrays Macbeth as the. “ Macbeth ” : Character Evaluation I have read the play “ Macbeth ” by William Shakespeare, and in this essay I aim to answer the question “To what extent did Macbeth cause his own downfall?” I have come to the conclusion that Macbeth was only partially responsible for this, and I will try to back up. Guilt Blood Imagery in Macbeth Guilt is a frustrating feeling; it evokes regret, self-punishment, and shame. Macbeth and Lady Macbeth do not know it, but every time they murder, their guilt increases, and they step closer to radiography their downfall. Space Research Essay? Shakespeare uses the radiography dissertations imagery of blood in Macbeth to help me essay illustrate. limitations on what a woman could do in a marriage. This is reflected in the marriage of Lady Macbeth and dissertations Macbeth . The husband has more responsibility than his wife.
Lady Macbeth is the dominant partner in the Macbeth marriage. Anything she says goes. She is a strong and very persuasive influence on her. image upon a play as short as Macbeth . In any literary work, it is extremely important that the author can effectively manipulate a reader's feelings towards a character. In Macbeth , that feat is accomplished magnificently by Shakespeare. Through his skillful use of imagery , Shakespeare shows us a deeper. the judgments and responses of the audience. In Shakespeare’s Macbeth the on student readers get glimpse of the dissertations innermost workings of the character’s mind through their soliloquies. “There’s no art to find the mind’s construction in the face”.
Macbeth who appears as a valiant hero in Act 1 Scene2 begins to project. Imagery and Symbolism Employed in Macbeth. Macbeth Essay How does the imagery and symbolism employed in Macbeth contribute to help me essay the tone of the radiography dissertations text and the development of its major themes? Imagery and symbolism are both significant to the development of the coursework 5 gateway tone and major themes of guilt and madness reoccurring throughout both the film and. during the 16th century, explored a variety of themes through his work. His play Macbeth , a tragedy which explores the potential for both good and evil within human nature through the central characters Macbeth and radiography dissertations Lady Macbeth and a range of research essay, dramatic and language devices. The play highlights the potential. The text Macbeth by famous playwright William Shakespeare portrays a dramatic power struggle by the careful employment of various literary techniques. Dissertations? Authority poisons everybody who takes authority on himself (Vladimir Ilyich Lenin) aptly describes this prominent theme of Macbeth . Techniques include. Macbeth essay on Act 3, Scene 4 The impressions of Macbeth in lines 123-146 of Act 3, Scene 4 are that of an uneasy man. He had just seen the ghost of Banquo at a master s thesis, his royal celebratory banquet and it had severely disturbed him.
When he and Lady Macbeth talk in lines 126-127 they talk about murder. “What. Diederich 10671118 11/10/13 Blood in Macbeth In the play, “ Macbeth ” blood can be used in a very imagery way. Researching blood in radiography, this blood and researching online I figured out contests that Blood is used to develop the character Macbeth . Throughout the whole play, “ blood ” changes its meaning and it used. | Scottish play for radiography James I | * Macbeths views on Good/evil Right/wrong | * Contemporary audience confused by space research, the conflicting opinions in the first two scenes- Macbeth linked to both good and evil. | * Witches-“fair is foul and radiography dissertations foul is fair” * Macbeth -“so foul and fair a day I have not seen”. The theme of Appearance vs. Reality in Macbeth is apparent throughout the play. Coursework? Shakespeare makes this clear by how he incorporates character’s feelings, subconscious motives, or whether the radiography dissertations blood on their hands is help me essay, real or not . Appearance vs. Radiography? Reality is the way something is displayed (appearance), clashing. Macbeth is essay contests, a tragedy that falls together by many different forms of evil.
Lady Macbeth plays the radiography main female character in this play forced by motive for power. Macbeth is greeted by three witches whom foreshadow the evil in the story telling him that he is going to become Thane of Cawdor, and after that. “ “Come, you spirits that tend on mortal thoughts, unsex me here, And fill me from the crown to the toe top-full of direst cruelty! Make thick my blood ; stop up the access and passage to remorse……… ………… Come, thick night, and pall thee in the dunnest smoke of help me essay, hell, That my keen knife see not the wound. Powerful images heighten our experience of the play “Macbeth” experience of the play “ Macbeth ” It is said that writer’s imagery reveals their own idiosyncrasies*.
Shakespeare reveals the inner most thoughts of Macbeth with the use of radiography, striking imagery . Writers naturally tend to draw attention to things they know best or think most about . Macbeths thoughts are betrayed.