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austin elwell resume Austin, TX 78745. Service Delivery Manager - Project Manager: Serve as the customer advocate for several state agencies. Responsible for the operation of three state agency data centers and the consolidation of those agencies into a single integrated data center for 28 state agencies. Provide leadership and management for IBM staff and contractors assigned to the agencies. Act as a single point of contact between the agencies and IBM. March 2007 -- Present. Texas Youth Commission, Austin, Texas. Assistant Deputy Executive Director of Information Resources: Responsible for the planning and ibsat, operation of the agency's IT resources and strategies. Manage the daily operations of the IT department and its 52 staff members. Provide information and respond to requests from the agency's executive management staff. Provide regular reports to the Department of Information Resources, the Legislative Budget Board, and the Legislature.

Provide leadership for the agency's IT investments and long-term planning. Questions Study. Oversee the management of IT projects throughout the agency. Communicate with agency staff and essay, promote the use of IT resources. Make decisions regarding the development and deployment of IT projects statewide. August 2002 -- February 2007 (served as Acting Director starting in August 2002) Texas Youth Commission, Austin, Texas. Director of Network Operations: Provide leadership and support to 16 full-time staff responsible for managing all network systems, servers, 2-way radios, and interview for case, telecommunications infrastructure functions of the agency. Manage implementation of such projects as conversion of agency network to 100 Mb/Gigbit ethernet, installation of ATM-switched T1 lines to field sites, the migration of the agency network from Novell-based to NT-based network services, and the implementation of a videoconferencing system at 15 locations statewide.

Establish security and control procedures for agency educational network and providing a safe environment in which incarcerated youth can access online resources. Oversee network and telecommunications layout and design for new facilities. Develop current standards, policies, procedures, security, and resource planning for network, server and telecommunications systems. Act as liaison for ibsat, network suppor staff at field locations statewide. June 1999 -- September 2003. How To Write. Texas Youth Commission, Austin, Texas. Network Manager: Provided and supported Internet/intranet access and infrastructure throughout the agency. Set up and administered agency web servers -- Apache running on Solaris 2.x and essay, Microsoft IIS running on NT 4.0. Established and maintained SMTP, DNS, and other Internet services for purdue, the agency. Monitored agency LANs and WAN using Cabletron Spectrum, Network General Sniffer, and other UNIX, Linux, and NT based tools. Developed and implemented network security procedures at facilities throughout the state.

Developed web-based intranet applications using Perl, PHP, and MySQL. Supervised and supported web development staff. October 1995 -- May 1999. University of Texas System, Austin, Texas. Computer Training Coordinator: Arranged all computer training for employees of essay, UT System. Contracted with various vendors in addition to developing and performing in-house training curricula.

Tracked all training performed and resume avoid words, administered evaluation tools to gauge continuing effectiveness of classes. February 1995 -- October 1995. Texas Youth Commission, Austin, Texas. Ibsat. Training Officer IV: Provided training for employees across the state. Set up and write a us history, maintained classroom LAN (including Novell file and print services). Developed and maintained database applications related to ibsat essay training. Developed and maintained purchase tracking database for Business Services department. Worked with vendors to provide training and materials for all types of software. Coordinated training for how to write a us dbq essay, employees to coincide with installation schedules at all LAN and ibsat, WAN sites. November 1991 -- February 1995. Texas Youth Commission, Austin, Texas.

Word Processing Operator II: Responsible for layout, design, and editing of agency publications including operating manuals, forms, handbooks, and newsletters. Religion Cause. June 1990 -- November 1991. School of essay, Information. University of Texas at Austin. Masters of book worksheets for 3rd, Information Studies, 1997. The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas. B.S. in Journalism, 1990. Essay. The University of Texas at Tyler, Tyler, Texas. Chair of the Architecture Components for the Enterprise (ACE) Data and Electronic Records Management Subcommittee. Taught Database Management Principles and Applications a graduate-level class in database programming and development at the School of book worksheets for 3rd grade, Information, University of Texas at Austin, Fall 2003, Spring 2004, Fall 2004, Spring 2005, and Fall 2005.

Taught Information in essay Cyberspace, an undergraduate level class at purdue owl thesis the School of Information, University of Texas at Austin, Fall 1999 through Spring 2003. Presentation for the Texas Association of Museums on The marriage of Collections and the Internet, Friday, April 28, 2000. Presentation for the Society of Southwest Archivists on Storming the Silicon Tower: How to ibsat Communicate with Your IT Staff, May 24, 1999. Presentation for librarians at Texas AM on Web Pages for Academic Libraries, November 11, 1998. Presentation for Austin chapter of the Association of a us history, Records Managers andAdministrators (ARMA) on essay New Hardware and Software for Records Managers. October 13, 1998. Taught two-day workshop Creating Electronic Documents for the Next Century for book report worksheets for 3rd grade, the continuing education program at the Graduate School of ibsat, Library Science, University of essays, Texas at ibsat essay Austin. August 6-7, 1998. Society of American Archivists, member and essays, student chapter president 1995-96 U.T. Austin Presidential Scholarship 1994 U.T.

Tyler Alumni Association Outstanding Student of the Year -- 1990 Member of the Chancellor's U.T. System Student Advisory Committee -- 1989-90 Alpha Chi member and officer -- National Collegiate Honor Society National Merit Scholar -- 1986. Coming to TERM: Designing the Texas Email Repository Model, D-Lib Magazine, Volume 8, Number 9, September 2002. Librarians at Ruby Ridge. Texas Library Journal , 77 no. Ibsat. 3 (Fall, 2001): pp. 104-106. The IPv6 Protocol, Advantages and book report worksheets for 3rd, Controversies, CTLA Press , Central Texas LAN Association, January 1997 Hey, Buddy, Can you Spare Some Cycles?, The Netly News , The Pathfinder Network, Time New Media, September 23, 1997.(This article was picked up on September 25, 1997 by ibsat essay, CNN Interactive in their Science and Technology section.) A Period Piece, The Netly News , The Pathfinder Network, Time New Media, September 29, 1997.

The War According to Dr. Bob, The Netly News , The Pathfinder Network, Time New Media, October 6, 1997. Antigravity Gravitas, The Netly News , The Pathfinder Network, Time New Media, December 15, 1997. Contributed to Managing Electronic Mail, Records Management Quarterly, Summer 1998. An electronic version of the document can be found here.

President of purdue, SBG Design, Inc., a company specializing in the design and operation of interactive web sites. Recent projects:

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Mitosis Replication of Eukaryotic Cells. Exercise 13 MITOSIS: REPLICATION OF EUKARYOTIC CELLS ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. a. Mitosis and cytokinesis are often referred to collectively as “cellular division. ” Why are they more accurately called cellular replication? The result of mitosis is production of two cells (replicates) identical to the parent cell. The genetic material is ibsat replicated rather than divided. b. Does the cell cycle have a beginning and an end? The organization of our study of cellular events indicates a beginning and end, but the events continue to repeat.

2. Interview For Case Research. a. If a nucleus has eight chromosomes during interphase, how many chromosomes does it have during metaphase? During metaphase there are 8 double-stranded chromosomes. b. Essay. How many does it have after mitosis is complete? After mitosis (and separation of essays chromatids) there are 16 chromosomes distributed between two nuclei. 3. a. Why would we choose an embryonic mass of cells for procedure 13. 3 in ibsat essay, which to study the stages of mitosis? embryonic cells are replicating and growing rapidly b. Which stage of mitosis most often is associated with the beginning of study research cytokinesis? usually late anaphase 4. a. What region of a root has the most mitotic activity? meristem, just above cap b. Why is pinching of the ibsat essay cytoplasm inadequate for cytokinesis in owl thesis, plant cells? Pinching of ibsat essay cytoplasm is not appropriate for rigid cell walls. c. Locate a plant cell in late telophase. What is the volume of the new cells relative to a mature cell? Each cell is smaller (approximately 1/2) than the parent cell. 5. a. A Us History. Why are the combined data from all the class members more meaningful than your results alone? Combined results reduce random error. Essay. b. A Us Dbq Essay. How accurate were your predictions for length of each stage of mitosis? probably not close c. What sources of error can you list for this technique to determine the ibsat essay time elapsed during each stage of mitosis? ariation in onion roots; student’s ability to distinguish stages; microscopic cross sections of roots may or may not pass through the resume avoid words nuclear material Exercise 14 MEIOSIS: REDUCTION DIVISION AND GAMETOGENESIS ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. a. Why would shuffling genetic material and producing new combinations of essay characteristics be advantageous to a species? New genetic combinations allow adaptation to changing environments. b. When would it be deleterious?

New combinations always produce a percentage of disadvantageous characteristics; the risk of bad gene combinations may be inappropriate in a stable, beneficial environment. 2. a. Why or why not? probably not, because cells in the ovary usually have not finished meiosis I, and polar bodies disintegrate rapidly DNA FINGERPRINTING LAB Restriction Digestion of DNA Samples Observation Questions 1. Describe the samples of DNA (physical properties). The DNA samples are clear, colorless liquid samples. 2. Is there any observable difference between the samples of DNA?

No. All samples appear similar. 3. Describe the appearance of the restriction endonuclease mix. Report For 3rd. The restriction enzymes appear to be clear, colorless liquids. Restriction Digestion of DNA Samples Review Questions 1. Before you incubated your samples, describe any visible signs of change in ibsat essay, the contents of the tubes containing the DNA combined with the restriction enzymes. On Hopelessness. DNA + EcoRI/PstI enzyme mix: No visible change apparent in ibsat, the tubes.

2. Essays. Can you see any evidence to essay, indicate that your samples of DNA were fragmented or altered in any way by the addition of EcoRI/PstI? Explain. No. No visible change apparent in book report for 3rd, the tubes. 3. Essay. In the absence of visible evidence of owl thesis change, is it still possible that the DNA samples were fragmented? Explain your reasoning. Yes. They may be chemically changed but the ibsat essay changes may not be visible. Enzymes may have cut the DNA. 4. After a 24 hour incubation period, are there any visible clues that the restriction enzymes may have in some way changed the interview DNA in any of the tubes? Explain your reasoning.

No. No visible change apparent in the tubes but the enzymes may have cut the DNA. The reactions are at the molecular level and too small to be seen. Ibsat Essay. Electrophoresis of Your DNA Samples Review Questions 1. The electrophoresis apparatus creates an electrical field [positive and negative ends of the gel]. DNA molecules are negatively charged.

To which pole of the electrophoresis field would you expect DNA to migrate (+ or -)? Explain. Positive. 2. What color represents the negative pole? Black. 3. After DNA samples are loaded in wells, they are “forced” to move through the interview gel matrix. Which size fragment (large vs small) would you expect to ibsat, move toward the opposite end of the gel most quickly?

Explain. Smaller. There is less resistance to their movement through the gel matrix. 4. Which fragments are expected to travel the shortest distance [remain closest to the well]? Explain. Larger. There is more resistance to their movement through the gel matrix.

Lesson 4 Thought Questions 1. What can you assume is contained within each band? DNA fragments. 2. Purdue. If this were a fingerprinting gel, then how many kinds (samples) of DNA can you assume were placed in each separate well? One. 3. Ibsat Essay. What would be a logical explanation as to why there is more than one band of for case DNA for each of the samples?

The DNA must have been cut into fragments by restriction enzymes. 4. What probably caused the DNA to ibsat, become fragmented? The chemical action of the restriction enzymes cutting at specific base sequences. 5. Which of the DNA samples have the same number of restriction sites for the restriction endonuclease used? Write the resume avoid lane numbers. Lanes 2, 3, and 4 (CS, S1, and S2).

6. Which sample has the smallest DNA fragment? The sample in lane 5 (S3). 7. Essay. How many restriction sites were there in lane three? Two sites that cut the sample into two fragments. 8. A Us Dbq Essay. Which DNA samples appear to have been “cut” into the same number and size of ibsat fragments?

Lanes 2 and 4 (CS and S2). 9. Based on your analysis of the photograph, what is purdue your conclusion about the DNA samples in the photograph? Do any of the samples seem to be from the same source. If so which ones? Describe the evidence that supports your conclusion.

The DNA samples in lanes 2 and essay, 4 (CS and S2) are from the same individual because they have identical restrictions sites that yield identical fragments. DNA Fingerprinting: Overview 1. What are we trying to determine? Restate the central question. We are trying to determine if samples of DNA that we were provided with are from the cause war essay same individual or from different individuals. 2. Essay. Which of your DNA samples were fragmented? What would your gel look like if the DNA were not fragmented? The number of fragmented samples will vary. They will have one band on the gel if the DNA was not cut.

3. What caused the DNA to book for 3rd, become fragmented? The addition of restriction enzymes. 4. What determines where a restriction endonuclease will “cut” a DNA molecule? A special sequence of ibsat bases on owl thesis, the DNA called restriction sites. 5. Essay. A restriction endonuclease “cuts” two DNA molecules at the same location.

What can you assume is identical about the molecules at that location? The restriction sites are identical. 6. Do any of your suspect samples appear to have EcoRI or PstI recognition sites at the same location as the DNA from the crime scene? The samples in lanes 2 and religion doesn't cause, 5 match (CS and S3). 7. Based on the above analysis, do any of the suspect samples of DNA seem to be from the same individual as the DNA from the crime scene?

Describe the scientific evidence that supports your conclusion. The CS and S3 samples appear to be identical. They both produce similar banding patterns on essay, the gel. Exercise 23 SURVEY OF BACTERIA: KINGDOMS ARCHAEBACTERIA AND BACTERIA ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. How To A Us Dbq Essay. a. Ibsat. Why is it important that bacteria release nutrients? Nutrients must be released and recycled for use by purdue other living organisms. If nutrients were not released by ibsat decomposers, the nutrients would all eventually be locked up in dead, non-decaying tissue. Essays On Hopelessness. . What term would best describe heterotrophic bacteria that feed on living tissue? parasitism 2. What is the shape and size of each bacterial colony? E. coli—medium rod; B. megaterium—large rod; R. rubrum—small and thin spirillum 3. a. Which type of bacteria is most prevalent in the sample from your teeth? How do you know? probably gram positive because most of the cells are purple b. Is Bacillus megaterium gram positive or gram negative? gram positive 4. a. Essay. Where are the bacteria? Are they between cells or inside cells? inside the cells b. Why is this relationship between a plant and bacterium called mutualism?

Both partners benefit from the grade association. c. How does Rhizobium benefit from this association? nutrients from the host d. How does the host plant benefit from the essay association? nitrogen supply from the bacterium 5. Based on their appearance, which drugs or chemicals retard the growth of bacteria? depends on on hopelessness, the drugs that you use 6. Essay. Do all cells of research a trichome of Oscillatoria appear similar? yes 7. a. Do adjacent cells share a common sheath? usually b. Ibsat Essay. What do you suppose is the function of the resume sheath? protection c. Do clusters of Gloeocapsa represent multicellular organisms? Why or why not? No, the cells are not obligate dependents—they can operate independently; the protoplasms of the cells are not connected; the aggregation of cells can be broken into individual cells without killing the cells. 8. Ibsat. a. How is the shape of Merismopedia different from other cyanobacteria you studied in this exercise? Merismopedia is a flat, square colony one cell thick. b. How would a colony attain this shape? equal divisions in two planes Exercise 24 Survey of Kingdom Protista: The Algae ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. a. Is the movement of interview research Chlamydomonas smooth or does it appear jerky? relatively smooth b.

Can you see both flagella? You may need to reduce the light intensity to see flagella. probably not, depends on student’s microscope c. How does methylcellulose affect movement of Chlamydomonas? slows it down d. How does the stigma help Chlamydomonas survive? detects light 2. a. Under what environmental conditions would a zygote not undergo meiosis immediately? unfavorable conditions b. Are spores of ibsat essay Chlamydomonas haploid or diploid? haploid c. Which portions of the life cycle of Chlamydomonas are haploid? all portions from meiosis to resume avoid words, syngamy d. Which are diploid? all portions from syngamy to meiosis 3. a. Are the filaments of Spirogyra branched? no b. What is the shape of the chloroplasts of Spirogyra? spiral c. Ibsat. Can you see any conjugation tubes? If you can’t, examine the prepared slides that demonstrate these structures. probably not seen on live material, but easily seen on prepared material d. Essays. How do you think that Spirogyra reproduces asexually? mitosis and ibsat essay, fragmentation 4. a. How is Cladophora morphologically similar to Spirogyra. How is it different? They are both filaments, but Cladophora is branched and religion doesn't cause, Spirogyra is unbranched. b. What is the shape of its chloroplasts? broad and dispersed 5. a. What is essay oogamy? ne gamete (sperm) is small and avoid, motile, the other gamete (egg) is larger and nonmotile b. What are the tiny spheres inside the ibsat larger sphere of Volvox? daughter colonies c. How do you suppose they get out? Parent colonies turn inside out or rupture. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. d. How do you think the for case study number of cells in a young Volvox colony compares to the number in ibsat, a mature colony? less than or equal to the number in the mature colony a. How is religion doesn't cause war essay Fucus’ structure different from green algae that you have examined earlier in essay, this exercise?

Fucus is larger, more parenchymatous, and flattened. b. Are all portions of the thallus photosynthetic? How can you tell? probably not, due to different concentrations of pigments c. Purdue. Considering where Fucus lives, what do you think is the function of its gelatinous sheath? Since Fucus lives in intertidal regions, the gelatinous sheath probably prevents desiccation. d. Are the swollen structures solid masses or are they empty? essentially empty a. Are the gametes of ibsat Fucus isogamous or oogamous? oogamous b. How does the structure of tissue surrounding the reproductive structures compare with that of green algae? Tissues in brown algae are more complex. a. Can you see any pores in the walls of diatoms? robably yes b. Are any of the diatoms moving? possibly c. Essays On Hopelessness. If diatoms lack flagella, how do you explain their motility? gliding on a gelatinous secretion d. Ibsat Essay. How would diatomaceous earth compare to sand as a swimming pool filter material? Which would be better and essays, why? Diatomaceous earth would be better because it is finer. Ibsat. How do the shapes of dinoflagellates compare with other unicellular algae that you have observed in this exercise? bizarre and varied What is the function of the eyespot of Euglena? detect light Exercise 25 SURVEY OF KINGDOM PROTISTA: PROTOZOA AND SLIME MOLDS ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. . Can you detect moving cytoplasm in the extending pseudopods of Amoeba? probably yes b. Owl Thesis. What do you suppose the ibsat essay Amoeba is moving toward or away from? light or food c. How does the Amoeba respond to nutrient broth? usually increased movement d. Approximately how long would it take an Amoeba to move across the field of view on low power? a few minutes e. Why is a contractile vacuole of a protozoan often more difficult to see than a food vacuole? A contractile vacuole contains clear excretory fluid, while food vacuoles contain particulate matter. f. Why would excess water tend to accumulate in Amoeba? ecause solute concentration in the amoeba is higher than the concentration in the environment and water diffuses into the cell 2. How could fossilized forams in different geological layers of rock or sediment indicate the probability of finding oil? Different species are present in different environmental conditions; therefore, a list of species may include those associated with environmental conditions appropriate for oil formation. 3. Doesn't Cause War Essay. a. Ibsat. How large is a trypanosome relative to an Amoeba? much smaller b. What alga does a trypanosome superficially resemble? Euglena 4. a. Are cilia visible on living or prepared Paramecium? probably not b.

Does Paramecium rotate as it moves? yes c. Cause War Essay. How does movement of Paramecium compare with that of Amoeba? With a flagellated alga? Paramecium moves much faster than Amoeba, but not as fast as many flagellated species. 5. a. Why is the division of Paramecium cells called “transverse” fission? The plane of separation is transverse to the longitudinal axis. b. Ibsat. Why is transverse fission not a sexual process? it doesn’t recombine genes c. What are the advantages and disadvantages of conjugation in Paramecium? disadvantages: conjugation requires more than one organism and is energy consuming advantage: creation of new genetic combinations 6. . Owl Thesis. What is the ibsat essay value or function of the essays rapid contraction stalk of Vorticella? avoid predation b. What is the probable function of the ibsat essay moving cilia of Vorticella? create water currents bringing food particles to write history, the organism 7. a. Is cytoplasmic movement of Physarum apparent? probably yes b. Is the ibsat movement in a particular direction? probably not, but on moist medium they may apparently move toward food c. What is a possible function of cytoplasmic movement in Physarum? avoid light, find food Exercise 26 SURVEY OF KINGDOM FUNGI: MOLDS, SAC FUNGI, MUSHROOMS, AND LICHENS ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. a. Are hyphae present? o b. Purdue. Are the cells motile? yes 2. a. How many species of mold are on the bread? 2, 3, or 4 b. Ibsat. Do any of the molds on the bread have hyphae modified as sporangiophores and sporangia? probably yes c. Is pigment distributed uniformly in each mycelium?

If not, where is the pigment concentrated in each mold? No, pigment is on hopelessness usually concentrated in sporangia. d. What is the adaptive significance of ibsat essay spores forming on ends of upright filaments rather than closer to the protective substrate? to enhance distribution of released spores 3. a. In what structure is the dark pigment of Rhizopus concentrated? sporangia b. Is Rhizopus reproducing sexually as well as asexually in the same petri dish? How can you tell? Yes (if students are provided with cultures with two strains); because sporangia as well as zygospores are visible. 4. What is the relative size of Penicillium hyphae compared to avoid, Rhizopus hyphae? Penicillium hyphae are much smaller than Rhizopus hyphae. Ibsat Essay. 5. a. Religion Doesn't Cause. Do you see chains of essay yeast cells produced by budding? probably yes b. How is the structure of yeast hyphae different from book for 3rd that of ibsat molds? Yeast hyphae are greatly reduced to a chain of one or two cells, while molds are very long and multicellular. Purdue. 6. What is the difference between dikaryotic and diploid cells?

Dikaryotic cells have two distinct nuclei, each with a haploid (single) set of chromosomes; a diploid cell has one nucleus with a diploid (double set of chromosomes). 7. How many spores would you estimate are present on the gills of a single cap of Coprinus? Remember that a prepared slide shows only a cross section. many, many thousands 8. a. What is the value of photosynthetic algae to the growth of ibsat essay a fungus in a us dbq essay, a lichen? Algae conduct photosynthesis and ibsat, produce an energy rich carbon source, (i. e. , glucose). b. Would you expect lichens to grow best in rural or urban environments? Why? best in rural environments because they are so sensitive to air pollution Exercise 27 SURVEY OF THE PLANT KINGDOM: LIVERWORTS, MOSSES, AND HORNWORTS OF PHYLA HEPATICOPHYTA, BRYOPHYTA, AND ANTHOCEROPHYTA ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. What are the functions of rhizoids? anchorage, possibly absorption 2. Essays. What is the function of essay these pores? gas exchange 3. How do the positions of the archegonium and antheridium relate to their reproductive function? Antheridia need to disperse sperm and are upright with pores on top of the words antheridial disk; archegonia are protected under the surface of the archegonial disk. . a. What is the function of the foot? nutrient transport from gametophyte to ibsat, sporophyte b. Are spores haploid or diploid? haploid c. Essays On Hopelessness. What is the functional significance of the response of elaters to moisture? dispersal of spores 5. a. How many cells thick is the leaflet? one or two b. Is there a midrib? Vein? yes c. Are stomata or pores visible on the leaf surface? probably not d. How does the symmetry of essay a moss gametophyte compare with that of a liverwort gametophyte? Mosses are radially symmetrical and liverworts are bilaterally symmetrical. Resume Avoid Words. 6. a. How many times its own weight did the moss absorb? or more times b. How does this compare with the paper towel? much greater c. Why is Sphagnum often used in shipping items that must be kept moist? because it holds water so well 7. Where is the egg located in the archegonium? egg is enlarged cell at base of neck 8. Ibsat Essay. Are sperm haploid or diploid? haploid 9. Is the sporophyte more prominent in mosses or liverworts? mosses 10. What is the adaptive significance of the seta of the sporophyte growing well above the mat of the resume gametophyte? better dispersal 11. a. What process produces spores? meiosis b. Is the capsule haploid or diploid? diploid 12. Can you think of ibsat essay any evolutionary implications of the similarity between a moss protonema and a filamentous green alga? both have similar form and live in similar habitat, which suggests that selective pressures for developing these structures may have been similar Exercise 28 SURVEY OF THE PLANT KINGDOM: SEEDLESS VASCULAR PLANTS OF PHYLA PTEROPHYTA, LYCOPHYTA, PSILOPHYTA, AND SPHENOPHYTA ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. a. Cause. Which parts of the life cycle are haploid? gametophyte b. Which are diploid? sporophyte 2. a. How many veins are present in each frond? usually 1 large vein b. Essay. What tissues compose a vein? ylem and phloem c. What is the function of the stalk?

The blade? The pinnae? stalk—support; blade and pinnae—photosynthesis 3. a. What is the function of an annulus? breaking point for opening sporangium b. Are any spores in doesn't, the sporangium? probably so 4. Ibsat. a. Did the application of essays acetone cause the spores of the fern to disperse? probably yes b. How is the mechanism for spore dispersal in ferns similar to that of bryophytes? Moisture causes changes in cell (elater or annulus) shape to release spores. 5. a. Is the prothallium haploid or diploid? haploid b. Is the prothallium sporophyte or gametophyte? gametophyte 6. a. What is the adaptive significance of having these structures on the lower surface of the prothallium rather than on the upper surface? protection from desiccation b. What is the ibsat essay adaptive significance of having sperm and egg produced at different times? discourages inbreeding 7. How do Salvinia and Azolla differ from other ferns you’ve examined earlier? smaller, aquatic 8. a. What type of history dbq essay branching characterizes Psilotum? dichotomous b. Are any roots present? no c. Ibsat Essay. Are any leaves present? no d. Where are the sporangia? at end of short lateral branches e. Where does photosynthesis occur in Psilotum? stem 9. a. Where are the book report worksheets for 3rd leaves? n rings along stem b. What part of the plant is photosynthetic? stem c. Which part of the life cycle of Equisetum is dominant, the sporophyte or gametophyte? sporophyte 10. a. How does strobili formation in Equisetum compare with Lycopodium and Selaginella? sporangia of Lycopodium and Selaginella are on microphylls b. How do elaters aid in the dispersal of spores? moves spores 11. a. How could a rhizome be involved in ibsat essay, asexual reproduction? produces new growth, which could be separated from parent plant (e. g. , via fragmentation), thereby resulting in a new individual b. How is a rhizome different from a rhizoid? hizome is underground stem; rhizoid is small, rootlike structure c. Does the rhizome have leaves? depends on specimen, but probably yes d. What is the resume avoid words shape and size of the leaves? thin, elongate, arranged in spirals e. Ibsat. What is the significance of this form of the a us history dbq essay leaves? intercept light for photosynthesis f. Is a midvein visible? yes g. What does the word “evergreen” mean? does not lose all of its leaves seasonally h. Is “evergreenness” a good characteristic for ibsat essay, classifying plants? Why or why not? No, unrelated plants are evergreen. 12. a. How many sporangia occur on each sporophyll of Lycopodium? one b. Can you see why spores of how to a us Lycopodium are sometimes called “vegetable sulfur”? yes c. Why are the spores a good, dry lubricant? powdery; certain species produce some oil d. Which is the dominant part of the Lycopodium life cycle, the sporophyte or gametophyte? sporophyte 13. a. Are spores of ibsat essay Selaginella similar in size? no b. What is this condition called? heterosporous c. What is the functional significance of the difference in avoid, the appearance of dehydrated and rehydrated Selaginella? water conservation and ibsat, survival during drought d. Owl Thesis. Can you see why these plants are sometimes referred to as “resurrection plants”? yes. Haven’t found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected]

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Essay in ibsat

Resume Aesthetics: Fonts, Margins, and ibsat essay, Paper Selection Guidelines. While many of the resources at Resume Genius focus largely around the core principals of resume writing in terms of on-page content, this particular guide focuses solely on the visual aesthetics of the resume as a whole, from the best choice for font style and size to interview for case optimal paper shades and textures, everything is covered. While generally regarded as supplementary, visual aesthetics have the ibsat essay potential to how to write be much more than just a supplement, especially when the essay difference between standing out amongst other competitive applicants can be by just the owl thesis smallest of measures. Next, we give a comprehensive look at the three primary areas that comprise a standard resume (both reverse chronological and combination styles) and which deserve the most attention when writing your resume. The shape of a resume refers to ibsat the impact its overall look has on the reader without taking into account the meaning or significance of the text printed on said page. The shape of the resume is the very first thing to owl thesis make an impact upon the reader , as it is the first thing the brain processes before having the time to read the text or recognize the name or appreciate the paper. Essay! Being the first thing the reader subconsciously processes the shape of a resume is essays, quite important. The first aspect to consider when analyzing shape is the proportion of the essay page margins. Having standardized margins guarantees a resume that won’t stand out and is the safest choice for 95% of resume writers. 1 inch resume margins are pretty standard, and avoid words, especially useful for job applicants without much experience. Margins can vary by tenths of a point and still be acceptable, however it may be difficult for the amateur resume writer to really understand what is “acceptable” in ibsat the industry, and thus sticking to a standardized margin is recommended.

1 inch resume margins are pretty standard, and especially useful for job applicants without much experience as 1” margins are the largest allowed on resume avoid resumes and will help make the typed text seem lengthier than it is. Resume Genius’ resume maker actually utilizes precise .63” margins, as Resume Genius experts feel that .63” strikes the perfect harmonious balance between making the text appear broader, and “fuller” than larger margins of 1” which create slightly too much white space. It should be noted that the proportion of “white space” is a constant measurement of ibsat, a resumes shape, as too much white space (blank space) on the page makes a resume seem lacking and worksheets for 3rd grade, appear barren, while too little white space makes a resume feel cramped and too busy. Going any lower than .5” margins on your resume is not advisable because it often leaves the ibsat hiring manager feeling claustrophobic. As with margins, the length of report worksheets for 3rd, a resume is a critical formatting factor that has a large impact in essay the overall aesthetic of the document and thus is consequential enough to give considerable consideration. Also like margins, the perfect resume length is a hotly contested subject within the resume writing community. There are few general rules of thumb however to help you determine what length is most appropriate for you. Alignment of resumes is book for 3rd, a pretty straightforward process as they are almost always left alighted , as this is how most in the western world read text. Ibsat! Headings, experience bullet points, educational information and additional skills will all be left aligned. Contact details and write a us, applicant names will be center aligned 90% of the essay time , however some special styles will left alight the contact information. There are special areas of the resume however that can be center aligned under the right circumstances outside of contact information.

The resume’s introduction is also sometimes centered. Choosing to do so is essays, a matter of ibsat essay, personal taste and both perfectly acceptable. 2. Aesthetics: Fonts Font Size, Lines, Symbols, and Colors. Determining the most appropriate font style for report worksheets for 3rd a resume can be a difficult task for the applicant with an untrained eye. There are thousands of different styles of ibsat, fonts, but only a few that are appropriate for professional documents such as cover letters, resumes and thank you letters. Before choosing a particular style applicants must first choose between two worlds, that of serif and sans serif fonts. Serif fonts have small lines attached to the ends of the book worksheets grade letters. This is most commonly used in word processing or other non-traditional forms of typesetting. Sans Serif, “Sans” being French for “without” is lettering that does not include small lines or hooks at essay, the end of each letter. Choosing between one or another is how to write history, a matter of personal preference and no one font can be said to ibsat essay be definitely better than another. Like colors, personal preference plays a large role, and since guessing a HR’s personal preference is purdue, impossible choosing a personal favorite is perfectly acceptable.

For a crisper font at smaller sizes it is ibsat, advisable to browse less stylized Sans Serif fonts. Times Roman fonts have been used the most, however the smaller the on hopelessness font size the harder these become to read because of essay, their artistic Serif nature. Bookman Old Style Georgia Times Roman Times New Roman. Arial Avenir Calibri Helvetica Veranda. Styles vary so much that one may look horrible at 10.5 while another font looks best at 10.5 and too bloated at 11.5. Many applicants may be surprised to learn that there is dbq essay, no one single correct resume font size. There are “safe bets” like 11pt font that should look aesthetically pleasing in many different styles, however this is a very one-size-fits all approach to ibsat essay what is a very delicate process. Resume writing is not an approximate art but instead a precise operation, and the more attention given to precision the better the final product. Your resume font size should actually be linked directly to font style. Styles vary so much that one style may look horrible and nearly unreadable at 10.5 while another font looks best at 10.5 and too bloated at 11.5.

To achieve a perfect balance first select a desired font style, then adjust it’s size accordingly, using one –tenth of a decimal place to fine tune the final size. See how the purdue style makes the type look much different even though they are the ibsat same size? Do not make the mistake of letting page length dictate font size. If an applicant’s resume is just exceeding one page by a few words or a sentence try fitting to one page by first choosing synonyms or rewriting sentences to book worksheets for 3rd grade make them shorter and ibsat essay, more succinct. Purdue Owl Thesis! Only after an applicant has exhausted their ability to shorten their resume with language should they turn to minor margin and font size and style adjustments. Just remember, don’t sacrifice overall aesthetic quality with the single-minded goal of fitting to one page. A resume is ibsat, valued for the sum of all parts, not just its length . Beyond just margins and font selection the overall shape of a resume can also be greatly influenced by the subtle and strategic use of lines and purdue, bullet points.

These are the ibsat essay only two non-alphanumerical symbols allowed on doesn't cause a professional resume, as elements such as clipart; word art, smiley faces or even diamonds are simply not acceptable. Lines break up a page and stop the eye from reading further momentarily , allowing the brain to process the just read information for a fraction of a second longer should there have never existed a break line in the first place. Such break lines can be inserted into a resume after a career objective or summary of qualifications for essay example to emphasize the statement above. Break lines can also be used to separate special titles or unique sections like key skills if writing a functional or combination style resume. Only use lines sparingly, as too many will break up the page into too many pieces and obstruct the readers eye from interview research, moving fluidly from section to essay section, ultimately frustrating the reader. Symbols may only be used in the form of bullet points or spacers. The most common symbol used is the traditional bullet point, which consists of a small black dot. This is the preferred form of using bullet points, and is the safest choice. Those applicants who are a little more unconventional in their style could perhaps consider an alternative bullet shape such as a small black square, but this is about as big of a deviation as is acceptable. Essentially, applicants are to choose between a bowtie or a tie , both communicating a similar message. Write Dbq Essay! Only use one style on a resume, never mix and match circle and square bullet points horribly ugly travesty.

Resumes are traditionally written in black, as it is the most widely accepted, safest and conservative approach. Resumes can however make use of subtle additions of essay, color throughout to help them stand out in how to write dbq essay a stack of nearly identical black and white documents. Here are a few examples of ibsat essay, how you can use color on on hopelessness your resume. If an applicant does choose to essay use color it should be a primary color and it should be muted, no bright neon or zany variations. Simple and subtle reigns supreme in the resume world.

The key with color in resumes is retaining the focus on the experiences, achievements and skills in the words rather than moving focus to avoid words colors. Colors on resumes are meant to assist the communication of the information, not detract or take away from ibsat essay, its central importance. Resume paper selection is an important aspect of the questions for case presentation of a completed resume. First priorities must always remain focused on the quality of writing, makings sure every sentence, every word is essay, chosen for a purpose and is the best possible choice. After the content of a resume, next in importance comes the formatting, the margins, the fonts and the spacing. Finally, with a completed product in hand, it’s time to print and distribute. This is where paper comes into play. Not sure which kind of paper is best for you? Check out how to history our resume paper comparison where we rate the top 7 styles that you can buy.

White paper is the traditional color choice for resumes written by amateurs and ibsat essay, professionals alike. White takes away nothing from the words on the page but doesn’t contribute anything either. Report Worksheets For 3rd! White is traditional and a safe choice for resumes of all career levels and for all different industries. Colored paper has been a quick way to ibsat add style to any resume for years now, as next to a bunch of true white documents a slightly yellowed or “cream” hued resume will instantly stand out without being obnoxious. While this isn’t the questions for case conservative approach, it is by no means “radical” and thus a fair option for anyone who feels their resume may need a boost in ibsat essay standing out amongst others for a highly competitive position. A common resume paper weight in office and avoid, home printers is about 20lbs bond. Essay! This is doesn't, acceptable for a resume however for such an important document it may be worth spending a little extra money for 24-25lb bond weight paper, as this is just slightly weightier and feels better in the hand. Anything exceeding 25lb bond weight is ibsat, bordering on excessive. Our experts find that 24-25lbs bond is the essays sweet spot for resume paper weight. Paper texture is ibsat essay, determined by its composition and the press used to manufacture it.

Some premium papers are pressed with very subtle crosshatching while others have even less noticeable imperfections pressed upon them to give them a unique feel to the touch. Look for a well-weighted paper, with texture or not, with at resume avoid, least 25% cotton composition. The more cotton the stronger the paper and crisper it feels. Many colored and textured papers are already manufactured as “premium” and will thus have a cotton fiber percentage of essay, 50-100%, resulting in interview research a very impressive document. All resume paper should be 8.5” X 11”; there are NO EXCEPTIONS to this rule. 8.5” X 11” is the size that filing units are built to essay contain, the size scanners are by default set to process, and the size common manila envelopes are made to book report for 3rd grade contain, so it is highly inadvisable to print paper any smaller or larger. By taking into ibsat, consideration all of the owl thesis above guidelines, any job applicant can write a perfect resume sure to be impressive to even the most critical of human resources managers. Don’t want to go through the hassle of creating your own resume? We encourage you to essay use our resume builder here, which will format your resume into one of our 8 battle tested templates, which have been proven to land more interviews. We also invite you to download those resume templates for free, and resume, insert the ibsat essay bullet point yourself.

If you’re having trouble coming up with bullet points, take inspiration from interview questions study research, our numerous industry resume samples and writing tips. Additional Resume Aesthetic Resources. What a well written comprehensive piece! Thank you so very much! We are glad that you found it helpful! Glad you like it! very informative…. Thanks a lot. You’re Welcome!

We like Bookman Old Style the most. This is essay, very helpful. Religion Cause War Essay! Thank you. #128578; Share Resume Aesthetics: Fonts, Margins, and Paper Selection Guidelines Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market.

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3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. Ibsat! There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to avoid download one, but be sure to ibsat essay make small modifications to words unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. Resume Builder Comparison | Resume Genius vs.

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10 Tips to Become a More Competitive Peace Corps Applicant. Deciding to volunteer overseas with the United States Peace Corps is a life-altering choice. Essay? Peace Corps Volunteers (PCVs) live and a us history dbq essay work within a community for up to 27 months. The decision to serve for essay over two years volunteering overseas is not a small one to make. Ready to apply? HOW PEACE CORPS’ APPLICATION PROCESS WORKS. From the time an application is submitted to when a successful candidate is invited to serve usually takes about one year. Plan ahead and apply far in advance of availability. After submitting an application, if an applicant meets the minimum requirements, he or she will be contacted by a regional recruiter to have an interview. Owl Thesis? If the interview goes well, a recruiter will likely nominate him or her for service.

A nominee usually corresponds directly with staff at ibsat Peace Corps’ headquarters following nomination. Upon medical and legal clearance, a placement officer ultimately extends an resume words invitation to serve if a candidate is deemed suitable based on factors such as current openings and competitiveness. TIPS TO BECOME A MORE COMPETITVE PEACE CORPS APPLICANT. Applying to volunteer with the Peace Corps is a competitive process. Peace Corps receives many applications each year, and while thousands of volunteers are placed in the field, not all applicants are suitable or competitive for service. There are several ways to become a more competitive applicant. Essay? 1. Research? Be flexible on location and assignment. Applicants are encouraged to express an area and/or country of particular interest when applying. However, be willing to go anywhere and do anything. Peace Corps places volunteers based on a blend of skillset and a country’s specific needs. Ibsat Essay? If an applicant is not open to serving anywhere, regardless of personal preference, it could be considered a red flag for what is to come.

Working in emerging countries requires PCVs to be adaptable. Flexibility helps placement staff find the best matches for a candidates. The more flexible an applicant is about location and assignment, the easier he or she is to place. 2. Gain volunteer and report worksheets leadership experience. Ibsat? A commitment to service is a core component of how to a us dbq essay, being a competitive Peace Corps applicant. What better way to do demonstrate this dedication than to gain volunteer experience before applying, and throughout the application process? Peace Corps wants applicants with strong leadership and ibsat community service skills. The more knowledge a candidate has in specific volunteer assignment areas, the more competitive his or her application will be. Serving in a leadership capacity within a community or school, or tutoring English on the weekends are a few ways applicants can acquire the resume words necessary volunteer experience to be more competitive. 3. Have a college degree and/or relevant work experience. It is best to ibsat essay have a bachelor’s degree (or be working toward achieving it) before applying to serve with Peace Corps.

Most volunteer positions require it. Applicants with a two-year degree, and 3-5 years of relevant work experience in areas such as: agriculture, business, environment, health, information technology, and youth development are still considered apt for select positions. The monthly stipend PCVs receive is meant to cover living expenses in a country of service, and would not be sufficient to purdue pay off previously accumulated debt. Applicants with outstanding debt must be able to prove how bills would be paid during service. Ibsat Essay? Many student loans can be deferred for essays on hopelessness up to 36 months, but car payments, credit cards, and mortgages cannot. Ibsat Essay? Paying debt off or down is essential before receiving an write dbq essay invitation to volunteer, unless enough savings or another source of income would be accessible. 5. Demonstrate cultural appropriateness. Ever lived abroad?

Traveled? Know what it is like being the minority? These are a few areas to essay expand upon when applying and interviewing for a PCV position. Applicants should demonstrate cultural appropriateness by interview questions for case study research using socially acceptable language, and give examples of diverse living and/or working conditions they may have experienced. 6. Essay? Dress and correspond professionally. Although it may seem like serving with Peace Corps means volunteers can wear whatever they want, especially if they are living on some remote island, keep in mind applying to serve with Peace Corps is essentially like applying to work for the U.S. government. Treat it as such from start to finish. Dress professionally for doesn't the interview. Present a good example of personal capabilities. Correspondence with Peace Corps staff should also be professional.

7. Be prompt with application tasks. Placing applicants from the point of nomination to invitation is not a small task. Just like countries volunteers serve in, Peace Corps has to essay work within an ever-changing and evolving environment. Promptly submitting materials shows enthusiasm, and purdue following through with requests from Peace Corps staff helps move the process along. Ibsat? 8. Strengthen foreign language skills. Knowing a second language is not necessary for all PCV positions; however, some regions require volunteers to know Spanish or French. To be competitive for these areas, candidates should have at least two university semesters, and/or four years of a romance language in high school.

Applicants are encouraged to strengthen their foreign language skills during the application process as well. Service with Peace Corps can be physically, emotionally, and mentally demanding. Health exams before, during, and after service are mandatory. Be in good health, and ensure medical records are up to date. Having certain health issues could restrict where Peace Corps is essays, able to place an applicant, possibly making him or her unsuitable for service. 10. Be okay with being a “general applicant”. The term “general applicant” is often used behind the scenes of the application process to describe candidates who do not necessarily fit into a certain sector, but are strong nominees for ibsat service. It is a good thing.

Many applicants who fall into this category might be assigned to purdue owl thesis do something they were not originally nominated to do, and sooner or later than expected. Be okay with this. It is all part of the ibsat journey. Two years is a huge commitment to make, and service with Peace Corps is not right for everyone. Peace Corps’ application process is rigorous for a reason. It prepares applicants for what actual service might be like. There are loads of unknown, heaps of religion war essay, changes, and essay the need for candidates to be flexible. Not only is making it through to avoid words the point of ibsat, invitation a huge accomplishment, but the best is yet to come. Owl Thesis? Hard work pays off. An incredible, life-changing adventure awaits successful candidates.

To be eligible for Peace Corps service, applicants must be at least 18 years of ibsat essay, age and from the United States. Not a U.S. citizen? Look for similar organizations supporting long-term volunteer work abroad like Voluntary Service Overseas (VSO). The contents of for case, this article are the author’s opinions, and do not necessarily reflect any position of the U.S. Ibsat Essay? Government or the U.S.

Peace Corps. As a Returned Peace Corps Volunteer (RPCV, Guyana, South America, 2008-2010), I crave a good challenge. As a former Guest English Teacher (GET) with the English Program in Korea (EPIK, 2011-2013), and essays currently a Foreign English Instructor in Yangon, Myanmar, I believe in the power of education. Capturing stories of people and the nuances of culture through various forms of media is my passion. Ibsat Essay? Exploring a country by bicycle is resume words, my hobby. A Perfect Guide for Who Are Planning To Go Abroad For Studies. A Practical Guide for Moving to Thailand. Ibsat Essay? A Practical Guide to Moving Abroad. Choosing the Right Volunteer Program. Interview For Case Research? Environmental Volunteering On The Island Of Ibiza, Spain.

We showcase the best programs, countries and institutions in the world, so whether you are interested in ibsat interning abroad, studying abroad, working abroad or simply traveling or living abroad, we have your back. Join our 36727 strong tribe of worksheets for 3rd, world travellers and students! We will notify you about latest opportunities abroad and our new blog posts.

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Current Trends Risks Associated with Human Parvovirus B19 Infection. This report* was developed to assist physicians, public health officials, and other health-care professionals respond to ibsat essay, public concerns about recently recognized, serious complications of human parvovirus B19 (B19) infection, including transient aplastic crisis (TAC), chronic anemia, and fetal death. It includes background information about the virus, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, epidemiology, and diagnostic testing. Book Report Grade! In addition, interim guidelines are presented for preventing B19 infection, managing persons exposed to ibsat, persons with B19 infection, and managing patients infected with B19. These guidelines reflect both the current limited information about the extent to which B19 infection leads to words, severe complications and ibsat essay the limited availability of diagnostic testing. Religion Doesn't War Essay! Priorities for future research are identified. GENERAL INFORMATION. B19 was discovered in ibsat essay, England in 1975 in serum specimens from healthy blood donors (1). Since its discovery, B19 has been shown to be the causative agent of erythema infectiosum (EI) (also known as fifth disease) and is the owl thesis primary etiologic agent of TAC in patients with chronic hemolytic anemias (2-4).

B19 has also been associated with fetal death (both spontaneous abortions and stillbirths), acute arthralgias and arthritis, and chronic anemia in immunodeficient patients (5-14). The virus belongs to the family Parvoviridae, which includes two genera of ibsat essay vertebrate viruses: genus parvovirus (autonomously replicating parvoviruses) and how to a us history dbq essay genus dependovirus (parvoviruses that require a helper virus, such as adenovirus or herpes virus, for replication); and one genus of invertebrate viruses, the essay genus densovirus (15). B19 is in the genus parvovirus, which includes a number of how to a us animal parvoviruses such as the canine parvovirus and feline panleukopenia virus. The parvoviruses tend to be species-specific; only the essay adeno-associated parvoviruses (members of the dependovirus genus) and resume B19 are known to infect humans. The adeno-associated parvoviruses have not been associated with disease in humans. Ibsat Essay! Fecal parvoviruses and the RA1 virus have been reported but not confirmed to be human pathogens (16,17). B19 is a heat-stable virus and can survive at 60 C (140 F) for up to 12 hours.

CLINICAL FEATURES OF B19 INFECTION Erythema Infectiosum (Fifth Disease) The most commonly recognized illness associated with B19 infection is EI. Purdue! EI is a mild childhood illness characterized by a facial rash (slapped cheek appearance), and essay a reticulated or lacelike rash on the trunk and extremities (18). Interview Questions For Case Study! Reappearance of the rash may occur for several weeks following nonspecific stimuli such as change in essay, temperature, sunlight, and for 3rd grade emotional stress. Ibsat Essay! Typically, the patient is otherwise well at rash onset but often gives a history of owl thesis mild systemic symptoms 1-4 days before rash onset. In some EI outbreaks, pruritis has been a common clinical feature. In addition to typical EI, B19 infection has been associated with a variety of other exanthems, including those that are rubella-like, vesicular, and purpuric (18). Asymptomatic Infection. In outbreak investigations, asymptomatic infection has been reported in approximately 20% of children and adults (19,20). Arthropathy.

In some outbreaks of EI, arthralgias and arthritis have been commonly reported (7,8,21). Infection may produce a symmetrical peripheral polyarthropathy. Joints in the hands are most frequently affected, followed by the knees and wrists. Symptoms are usually self-limited but may persist for several months. Joint symptoms, more common in adults, may occur as the sole manifestation of infection. Transient Aplastic Crisis and Severe Anemia.

B19 is the primary etiologic agent causing TAC in patients with chronic hemolytic anemias (e.g., sickle cell disease, hemoglobin SC disease, hereditary spherocytosis, alpha-thalassemia, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia) (22,23). Ibsat Essay! It can also cause TAC in other conditions in which increased red cell production is necessary to maintain stable red cell indices, as may occur in anemia due to blood loss. Patients with TAC typically present with pallor, weakness, and lethargy and doesn't cause war essay may report a nonspecific prodromal illness in ibsat essay, the preceding 1-7 days. Few patients with TAC report a rash. In the religion war essay acute phase of the illness, #12;patients usually have a moderate to essay, severe anemia with absence f reticulocytes, and bone marrow examination shows a hypoplastic or an aplastic erythroid series with a normal myeloid series. Recovery is indicated by a return of reticulocytes in the peripheral smear approximately 7-10 days after their disappearance.

TAC may require transfusion and hospitalization and can be fatal if not treated promptly. B19 Infection in Immunodeficient Patients. A B19-related severe chronic anemia associated with red cell aplasia has been described in report worksheets for 3rd, patients on maintenance chemotherapy for acute lymphocytic leukemia, patients with congenital immunodeficiencies, and ibsat patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related immunodeficiency (9-14). It is not yet known how often B19 causes chronic anemia in worksheets, immunodeficient patients or which patients are most susceptible to essay, this complication of infection. Chronic B19 infection should, however, be included in the differential diagnosis of chronic anemia in resume avoid, the immunodeficient patient. Infection in the Pregnant Woman Intrauterine infection and fetal death. In most of the ibsat essay reported B19 infections occurring during pregnancy, the fetus has not been adversely affected (5,6,24-30).

However, in how to a us history dbq essay, some cases B19 infection has been associated with fetal death. The risk of fetal death attributable to parvovirus infection following documented maternal infection (B19 IgM-antibody-positive) is not known, but preliminary results of one study from the United Kingdom suggest that it is less than 10% (30; SM Hall, unpublished data). Ibsat Essay! In that study, 174 pregnant women with IgM antibody to B19 were followed prospectively to delivery. How To History! Fetal loss occurred in 30 (17.2%): 21 (19.1%) of 110 women infected during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, seven (15.2%) of 46 women infected during weeks 13-20, one (6.3%) of 16 women infected after 20 weeks, and one of two women with unknown time of infection. Fetal death most commonly occurred from the 10th through the 20th weeks of pregnancy. Not all fetal deaths directly resulted from B19 infection. Ibsat Essay! Since this study did not include a control group, the religion doesn't number of essay deaths attributable to B19 infection cannot be calculated directly. Essays On Hopelessness! In other studies, rates of recognized pregnancies ending in spontaneous abortions from all causes by 28 weeks' gestation range from essay 10% to 25% (31). In the British study, the purdue number of fetal deaths linked to ibsat, B19 infection can be estimated by determining whether fetal tissues contain B19 DNA. Tissues from 14 fetuses were tested for religion cause B19 DNA: six were positive, two were equivocal, and six were negative. Ibsat Essay! The cause of for 3rd grade death is likely to have been B19 infection for ibsat the DNA-positive fetuses; thus, at least six (3.4%) of 174 infected women were likely to have had a B19-associated fetal loss.

When the results of the 14 tested were extrapolated to all 30 fetal deaths, an estimated 17 fetuses would be B19 DNA-positive or equivocal, suggesting that less than or equal to17 (less than or equal to9.8%) of the how to a us history 174 B19-infected women might have had a B19-associated fetal loss. Antibody studies of liveborn infants and hybridization studies of ibsat essay fetal tissues indicate that less than one third of maternal infections are associated with fetal infection in this study. Results from an ongoing study in the United States also suggest that B19- attributable fetal deaths are infrequent (CDC, unpublished data). In this study, 95 pregnant women with IgM antibody to B19 are being followed prospectively. Fetal loss has so far occurred in how to dbq essay, two (4.1%) of 49 women followed to term. It is ibsat not known whether the how to write dbq essay two fetal deaths were caused by B19 infection. One fetus was hydropic; the other was not described. No tissues from either fetus were available for essay B19 hybridization studies. When the antibody status of the woman is essays unknown, estimates of the risk of fetal death after exposure must take into account the ibsat essay rate of purdue owl thesis susceptibility in the population and the risk of infection after the exposure.

For example, by ibsat taking these factors into report for 3rd grade account, the upper limit estimate of the risk of fetal death would be less than 2.5% after exposure to household members with documented infection (less than 0.1 risk of fetal death x 0.5 rate of susceptibility x 0.5 rate of infection x 100; see sections on ibsat essay Epidemiologic Features of B19 Infection: Prevalence and Transmission) and less than 1.5% after prolonged exposure at schools with widespread EI among students (less than 0.1 risk of fetal death x 0.5 rate of susceptibility x 0.3 rate of essays infection x 100). The upper limit risk estimate of fetal death after other types of exposure (e.g., schools with limited EI among students) is likely to be substantially less. A study of 96 women who had stillbirths, 96 women who had spontaneous abortions, and controls matched by age, duration of pregnancy, and location suggests that B19 is not responsible for a substantial #12;proportion of ibsat essay fetal deaths in on hopelessness, the general population (32). In this study, the rate of serologically confirmed B19 infection was the same (1%) in cases and controls. In a survey of 50 fetuses with nonimmunologic hydrops fetalis, an uncommonly diagnosed cause of fetal death, four (8%) were positive for B19 DNA (25). Congenital anomalies.

Since some of the animal parvoviruses are teratogens (33), the possibility that infection may also be associated with congenital anomalies in humans is a concern. However, there is ibsat no evidence that the write a us history dbq essay rate of congenital anomalies following B19 infection exceeds background rates. B19-associated congenital anomalies have not been reported among several hundred liveborn infants of B19-infected mothers. One aborted fetus with eye anomalies and histologic evidence of damage to multiple tissues born to a B19-infected woman has been reported (34). An anencephalic fetus was reported in a B19-infected woman, but the timing of essay infection made it unlikely that B19 contributed to the defect (35). ATHOGENESIS. The pathogenesis of the rash in EI is unknown, but the rash may be immune- complex-mediated. The other, more serious manifestations of B19 infection are related to the propensity of the on hopelessness virus to infect and lyse erythroid precursor cells and interrupt normal red cell production (36). In a person with normal hematopoiesis, B19 infection produces a self-limited red cell aplasia that is clinically inapparent. Transient leukopenia, lymphocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia have also been reported with B19 infection in the normal host (37,38). In patients who have increased rates of red cell destruction or loss and who depend on compensatory increases in ibsat, red cell production to maintain stable red cell indices, B19 infection may lead to TAC.

Patients at risk for TAC include those with chronic hemolytic anemias and those with anemias associated with acute or chronic blood loss. In immunodeficient persons, B19 infection may persist, causing chronic red cell aplasia, which results in chronic anemia; chronic neutropenia has also been described (10). B19 DNA-positive tissues have been reported in 20 fetal deaths; in interview questions for case, all 17 cases in which pathologic findings were described, the fetuses had nonimmunologic hydrops fetalis (6,25-27,30,35,39-44). The precise pathogenesis of fetal death remains unclear. Severe anemia may precipitate congestive heart failure, generalized edema, and ultimately fetal death. The fetus may be particularly vulnerable to B19 infection because red cell survival is short, and the red cell volume is rapidly expanding. Severe anemia, B19 viremia, and cytologic changes in erythroid precursor cells have been described in fetuses just before death (26,27,39). Chronic infection may occur in the fetus (one fetus was viremic for at least 4 weeks) (26). In one case report, infection of myocardial cells was noted, suggesting that direct damage to myocardial tissue may also contribute to the disease process in the fetus (29). Ibsat! EPIDEMIOLOGIC FEATURES OF B19 INFECTION Prevalence.

B19 infection occurs worldwide (45,46). Infection with B19 can occur throughout the year, in all age groups, during outbreaks of EI, or as sporadic cases. B19 infection is most frequently recognized during outbreaks of EI in schools. Religion Cause War Essay! These outbreaks often begin in essay, late winter or early spring and dbq essay may continue until school recesses for the summer. The level of ibsat EI activity in a community varies from religion doesn't war essay year to year; periods of increased activity lasting several years are generally followed by ibsat essay several years of owl thesis decreased activity (47-50). Ibsat! The reported seroprevalence ranges from 2% to 15% in children 1-5 years old, 15% to purdue owl thesis, 60% in children 5-19 years old, and 30% to 60% in adults (18,40,51,52).

Incubation Period. Studies of secondary illness in households suggest that the incubation period for clinical EI and essay TAC is usually 4-14 days but can be as long as 20 days (18). In volunteer studies, rash illness occurred 17-18 days after inoculation (37,38). Transmission. B19 DNA has been found in respiratory secretions in viremic patients, which suggests that these secretions are involved in on hopelessness, transmission (19,20,37). In studies of human volunteers, serum and respiratory secretions became positive for ibsat essay B19 DNA 5-10 days after intranasal inoculation (during the on hopelessness prodromal illness) (37,38). By the time of onset of rash or arthralgia, serum specimens had been negative for 1-5 days. B19 has not been detected in the respiratory secretions and only rarely in the serum of patients after onset of EI (37). In contrast, acute serum specimens are often positive for B19 DNA in patients when they present with TAC; serum specimens are usually negative by 7 days after onset of ibsat illness (53). How To Write Dbq Essay! The presence of B19 DNA in ibsat, serum or respiratory secretions presumably correlates with infectiousness; thus, patients with EI are probably past the period of greatest infectiousness, while patients with TAC are likely to be #12;infectious during the course of book report worksheets grade their illness. The presence of IgG antibody correlates with a lower risk of infection.

This decreased risk has been suggested in volunteers who were experimentally inoculated with B19: four of five IgG-negative but only one of four IgG-positive volunteers developed serologic evidence of infection (37). The IgG-positive volunteer who became infected had low levels of IgG antibody before challenge and had a lower titer and shorter duration of ibsat viremia than had the four infected volunteers who were IgG-negative. The virus is history dbq essay transmitted effectively after close contact exposures. The secondary attack rate for infection among susceptible household contacts of patients with TAC or EI is ibsat about 50% (19,20). In school outbreaks, 10%-60% of students may develop EI. In outbreaks in which student involvement is widespread, preliminary data suggest 20%-30% of susceptible (IgG-antibody-negative) staff may develop serologic evidence of B19 infection during the course of the outbreak (CDC, unpublished data). In outbreak settings, it is not known whether the religion doesn't cause primary mode of transmission involves direct person-to-person contact, fomites, large-particle droplets, or small- particle droplets.

The virus can also be transmitted parenterally by transfusion of blood or blood products and vertically from mother to fetus (1,54,55). Transmission rarely occurs during transfusion with single-donor blood products but is ibsat essay common during treatment with clotting-factor concentrates even after steam- or dry-heat treatment of the clotting factor concentrate (1,54,55). Religion Cause! Tattooing was suspected as the source of B19 transmission in two instances (56). DIAGNOSIS B19 Antibody Assays. The most sensitive test to detect recent infection is the IgM-antibody assay. B19 IgM antibody can be detected by capture-antibody radioimmunoassay or enzyme immunoassay in approximately 90% of cases by the third day after symptoms of TAC or EI begin (57,58). The titer and the percentage of positives begin to essay, decline 30-60 days after onset. B19 IgG antibody is interview questions study research usually present by essay the seventh day of illness and questions for case persists for years. B19 antibody may not be detectable in immunodeficient patients with chronic B19 infection, and additional testing for B19 DNA or viral antigens may be necessary to document infection. B19 has not been grown in standard cell culture systems or animal model systems, but it has been grown in ibsat essay, bone marrow explant culture systems (59). The inability to grow the virus in sufficient quantity to produce antigen for interview questions study diagnostic assays has precluded widespread availability of B19 testing (36,60,61).

Recently parvovirus B19 DNA has been incorporated into ibsat essay the genome of research a Chinese hamster ovary cell line (62). This cell line expresses B19 capsid proteins as noninfectious virionlike particles that can be used as antigen for antibody assays; this source of antigen should lead to increased availability of diagnostic tests. Assays for B19 DNA. The most sensitive test for detecting the virus is nucleic acid hybridization (63,64). This test has been used to ibsat, identify B19 DNA in serum, leukocytes, respiratory secretions, urine, and interview questions for case tissue specimens.

One group reported that B19 DNA was more likely to be detected in leukocytes than in serum (65). Ibsat Essay! Histologic Features of B19 Infection. Light and electron microscopy can be helpful in diagnosing B19 infections (1,23,41) By light microscopy, eosinophilic nuclear inclusions with peripheral condensation of chromatin can be seen in erythroid precursor cells of infected patients. The inclusions contain parvovirus-like particles by transmission electron microscopy (28,41,66). Doesn't! B19-like particles may also be seen by electron microscopy in serum specimens of ibsat essay some infected patients (1,23,41). Histologic findings in fetal tissues also may include a severe leukoerythroblastic reaction and avoid excessive iron deposition in tissues, which indicates hemolysis.

Assays to Determine Site of essay Infection. It is not known which tissues, in addition to erythroid precursor cells, support virus replication. Several tests have been developed that distinguish virus infection of tissue or cells from deposition of virus by passive transfer in blood. In situ hybridization can demonstrate viral DNA in specific cells and has been used to show that B19 sometimes infects fetal myocardial cells (29). Replicative forms of B19 DNA and purdue nonstructural proteins can be demonstrated by Southern and Western blot analysis, respectively, indicating infection in ibsat, the tissue (67,68). PREVENTION OF INFECTION Risk Groups. Although B19 infection usually produces a mild, self-limited illness, three groups of persons are at risk for words serious complications of infection: 1) persons with chronic hemolytic anemias, 2) persons with congenital or acquired immunodeficiencies, and ibsat 3) pregnant women.

Since infection in these persons can lead to substantial morbidity #12;and some mortality, consideration should be given to on hopelessness, preventing or ameliorating disease. Immunization Active. There is no vaccine to prevent B19, but a recently developed cell line that expresses B19 capsid proteins as noninfectious viruslike particles has been proposed as a source of ibsat antigen for development of a candidate vaccine (62). Passive. No studies have been conducted to determine whether preexposure or postexposure prophylaxis with commercially available immune globulin (IG) preparations would prevent infection or modify the a us dbq essay course of illness during community outbreaks. Routine prophylaxis with IG cannot be recommended at essay this time. Health-Care Settings. Guidelines for interview questions for case study isolation precautions in hospitals have been published for EI (69), but recent information suggests that these guidelines should be modified. Most patients with EI are past their period of infectiousness and do not present a risk for further transmission; thus isolation precautions are not indicated. However, there is risk for ibsat essay nosocomial transmission of B19 from avoid patients with TAC and from immunodeficient patients with chronic B19 infection. These patients should be considered infectious and placed on isolation precautions for the duration of their illness or until the essay infection has been cleared.

Nosocomial transmission of B19 has been associated with one case of history TAC (70). Ibsat! Transmission of B19 infection has also occurred in medical research laboratories (4,71). Patients with TAC or chronic B19 infection should be admitted to private rooms. Religion Cause! Persons in close contact with the ibsat essay patients should wear masks. Gloves should be worn by persons likely to touch infective material such as respiratory secretions, and essays gowns should be worn when soiling is anticipated (contact isolation) (69). Hands should be washed after the patient or potentially contaminated articles are touched and before care is provided to another patient. B19-infected patients may share a room with another B19-infected patient unless sharing is contraindicated by another infection or condition.

Health-care workers should be advised that they are at risk of B19 infection after exposure in the hospital or in the community and that there may be a risk for further transmission to ibsat essay, patients. Routine infection-control practices should minimize the how to history risk of transmission. Personnel who may be pregnant or who might become pregnant should know about potential risks to the fetus from ibsat essay B19 infection and about preventive measures that may reduce those risks. Purdue! Homes, Schools, and Workplaces. When outbreaks of B19 infection occur in situations in which prolonged, close contact exposures occur (e.g., at home, in schools, or in day-care centers), options for preventing transmission are limited.

The greatest risk of transmitting the essay virus occurs before symptoms of EI develop; therefore, transmission cannot be prevented by identifying and excluding persons with EI. The efficacy of decontaminating toys and environmental surfaces to decrease B19 transmission has not been studied. The efficacy of handwashing to decrease B19 transmission has not been studied either, but handwashing is recommended as a practical and essays probably effective measure. When outbreaks occur, parents of school-aged children and employees should be advised about the ibsat risk of transmitting and acquiring infection and about who is at on hopelessness risk for serious complications. Ibsat! Persons who wish to obtain additional information about risks and management of B19 exposures should be referred to their health-care provider and state or local health officials. The decision to try to decrease any person's risk of infection by write dbq essay avoiding a workplace or school evironment in which an EI outbreak is ibsat essay occurring should be made by the person after discussions with family members, health-care providers, public health officials, and employers or school officials. A policy to routinely exclude members of high-risk groups is not recommended. PATIENT MANAGEMENT Patients with Chronic Hemolytic Anemia. The exposed patient with chronic hemolytic anemia should be managed by alerting the patient or his/her parents or guardians about the exposure, the grade symptoms and signs associated with TAC (pallor, weakness, and lethargy), and the need to ibsat essay, consult a physician immediately if symptoms or signs of TAC develop. Management of the patient with TAC is based on treating symptoms of the associated anemia and may require blood transfusion. Patients with Congenital and resume avoid Acquired Immunodeficiencies.

The exposed patient with a congenital or acquired immunodeficiency should be managed by advising the patient or his/her parents or guardians about the exposure and the possibility that B19 infection may lead to chronic anemia. The physician should consider B19 infection in essay, the differential diagnosis of chronic anemia in this group of grade patients, especially if there is an outbreak of ibsat EI in the community. #12; In several patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia, the administration of religion cause war essay IG resulted in disappearance of viremia and improvement in red cell indices (10). Ibsat! In other patients, the infection and associated anemia resolved when immune function returned (12,14). The role of IG in the treatment of these patients needs further study. Pregnant Women.

The knowledge that B19 infection during pregnancy can cause fetal death has created concern among health-care providers, public health officials, and pregnant women and their families. In managing exposed pregnant women, risks should be considered in the context of other risks to essays, the pregnancy and the risks associated with intervention. For women with a documented infection, maternal serum #156;ga-fetoprotein levels and diagnostic ultrasound examinations have been used to ibsat, identify adversely affected fetuses, but the sensitivity and specificity of religion war essay these tests, their appropriate timing, and the risks and benefits of their use in managing infected pregnant women have not yet been determined (39,41). Interpretation of the ultrasound is difficult early in pregnancy and essay should be supervised by a physician experienced in purdue owl thesis, diagnosing fetal abnormalities. Ibsat! Intrauterine blood transfusion (IBT) has been proposed as treatment for the fetus with B19-induced severe anemia. However, IBT is a high-risk, specialized procedure of interview questions for case research unproven benefit in this situation and cannot be recommended for routine treatment of B19-related hydrops fetalis (72). AVAILABILITY OF DIAGNOSTIC TESTING AT CDC. Diagnostic testing is available at only a few sites, primarily research laboratories; increasing the availability of diagnostic testing is essay a public health priority. The Division of Viral Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC, can accept a limited number of specimens for B19 diagnostic testing.

At this time, CDC is accepting specimens through state health departments from patients with TAC, immunodeficient patients with chronic anemia, pregnant women exposed to B19 or with symptoms suggestive of B19 infection, and cases of essays on hopelessness nonimmune fetal hydrops possibly related to B19 infection, and not accepting specimens for routine antibody testing. Physicians can arrange testing at essay CDC by consulting their state health department. PRIORITIES FOR FUTURE RESEARCH. The following areas have been identified as high priorities for future public health-related research on B19 infection: Develop surveillance methods that distinguish outbreaks from book report grade sporadic disease. 2.Refine estimates of infection rates following exposures in the home, the workplace, and school. Ibsat! 3.Refine risk estimates for adverse fetal outcomes associated with B19 infection during pregnancy. 4.Evaluate methods to interview questions for case, treat and prevent B19-related fetal hydrops. 5.Determine the disease burden associated with B19 infection in immunodeficient patients, including patients with HIV infection.

6.Determine the ibsat essay risk of infection and factors associated with transmission in health-care settings. 7.Determine the efficacy of cause war essay IG for prevention and treatment of B19 infection. 8.Determine the potential reduction in ibsat essay, morbidity and purdue owl thesis mortality associated with development and use of a B19 vaccine. Reported by: Div of Reproductive Health, Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and ibsat essay Health Promotion; Div of Immunization, Center for war essay Prevention Svcs; Div of Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Center for Environmental Health and Injury Control; Div of Surveillance and ibsat Epidemiologic Studies, Epidemiology Program Office; National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; AIDS Program, Hospital Infections Program, Div of Host Factors, Div of doesn't cause war essay Viral Diseases, Center for ibsat essay Infectious Diseases, CDC. Cossart YE, Field AM, Cant B, Widdows D. Parvovirus-like particles in human sera. Lancet 1975;1:72-3. 2.Anderson MJ, Jones SE, Fisher-Hoch SP, et al. Human parvovirus, the cause of erythema infectiosum (fifth disease)? (Letter). Lancet 1983;1:1378. 3.Anderson MJ, Lewis E, Kidd IM, Hall SM, Cohen BJ.

An outbreak of erythema infectiosum associated with human parvovirus infection. J Hyg (Lond) 1984;93:85-93. 4.Pattison JR, Jones SE, Hodgson J, et al. Parvovirus infections and hypoplastic crisis in sickle-cell anaemia (Letter). Lancet 1981;1:664-5. Resume! 5.Knott PD, Welply GAC, Anderson MJ. Serologically proved intrauterine infection with parvovirus. Ibsat Essay! Br Med J 1984;289:1660. 6.Brown T, Anand A, Ritchie LD, Clewley JP, Reid TMS.

Intrauterine parvovirus infection associated with hydrops fetalis (Letter). Lancet 1984;2:1033-4. 7.White DG, Woolf AD, Mortimer PP, Cohen BJ, Blake DR, Bacon PA. Human parvovirus arthropathy. Lancet 1985;1:419-21. #12;8.Reid DM, Reid TMS, Brown T, Rennie JAN, Eastmond CJ. Human parvovirus-associated arthritis: a clinical and essays on hopelessness laboratory description. Lancet 1985;1:422-5. 9.Van Horn DK, Mortimer PP, Young N, Hanson GR. Human parvovirus-associated red cell aplasia in the absence of underlying hemolytic anemia. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 1986;8:235-9.

10.Kurtzman GJ, Ozawa K, Cohen B, Hanson G, Oseas R, Young NS. Chronic bone marrow failure due to persistent B19 parvovirus infection. Essay! N Engl J Med 1987;317:287-94. 11.Davidson JE, Gibson B, Gibson A, Evans TJ. Parvovirus infection, leukaemia, and immunodeficiency (Letter). Lancet 1989;1:102. 12.Smith MA, Shah NR, Lobel JS, Cera PJ, Gary GW, Anderson LJ.

Severe anemia caused by human parvovirus in a leukemia patient on maintenance chemotherapy. Purdue Owl Thesis! Clin Pediatr 1988:27:383-6. 13.Kurtzman GJ, Cohen B, Meyers P, Amunullah A, Young NS. Ibsat Essay! Persistent B19 parvovirus infection as a cause of avoid severe chronic anaemia in children with acute lymphocytic leukaemia. Lancet 1988;2:1159-62.

14.Coulombel L, Morinet F, Mielot F, Tchernia G. Parvovirus infection, leukaemia, and immunodeficiency (Letter). Lancet 1989;1:101-2. 15.Siegl G, Bates RC, Berns KI, et al. Characteristics and taxonomy of Parvoviridae. Intervirology 1985;23:61-73. 16.Paver WK, Clarke SKR. Comparison of human fecal and ibsat serum parvo-like viruses.

J Clin Microbiol 1976;4:67-70. 17.Simpson RW, McGinty L, Simon L, Smith CA, Godzeski CW, Boyd RJ. Association of parvoviruses with rheumatoid arthritis of humans. Science 1984;223:1425-8. 18.Anderson LJ. Role of parvovirus B19 in human disease. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1987;6:711-8. Purdue! 19.Plummer FA, Hammond GW, Forward K, et al. An erythema infectiosum-like illness caused by human parvovirus infection. N Engl J Med 1985;313:74-9. 20.Chorba T, Coccia P, Holman RC, et al.

The role of ibsat parvovirus B19 in aplastic crisis and erythema infectiosum (fifth disease). J Infect Dis 1986;154:383-93. 21.Ager EA, Chin TDY, Poland JD. Epidemic erythema infectiosum. N Engl J Med 1966; 275:1326-31.

22.Serjeant GR, Goldstein AR. B19 virus infection and the aplastic crisis. In: Pattison JR, ed. Purdue! Parvoviruses and human disease. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1988:85-92. 23.Young N. Hematologic and hematopoietic consequences of B19 parvovirus infection. Ibsat Essay! Semin Hematol 1988;25:159-72. 24.Anderson LJ, Hurwitz ES.

Human parvovirus B19 and pregnancy. Clin Perinatol 1988; 15:273-86. 25.Porter HJ, Khong TY, Evans MF, Chan VT-W, Fleming KA. Parvovirus as a cause of hydrops fetalis: detection by in situ DNA hybridisation. Essays! J Clin Pathol 1988;41:381-3. Ibsat! 26.Anderson MJ, Khousam MN, Maxwell DJ, Gould SJ, Happerfield LC, Smith WJ. Human parvovirus B19 and on hopelessness hydrops fetalis (Letter). Lancet 1988;1:535. 27.Franciosi RA, Tattersall P. Fetal infection with human parvovirus B19.

Hum Pathol 1988; 19:489-91. 28.Caul EO, Usher MJ, Burton PA. Intrauterine infection with human parvovirus B19: a ight and essay electron microscopy study. J Med Virol 1988;24:55-66. 29.Porter HJ, Quantrill AM, Fleming KA. B19 parvovirus infection of myocardial cells (Letter). On Hopelessness! Lancet 1988;1:535-6.

30.Public Health Laboratory Service Working Party on Fifth Disease. Study of human parvovirus (B19) infection in pregnancy. Ibsat Essay! Comm Dis Rep 1987;87/20:3. Avoid! 31.Edmonds L, Hatch M, Holmes L, et al. Guidelines for ibsat reproductive studies in exposed human population. In: Bloom AD, Paul NW, eds. Guidelines for studies of human populations exposed to mutagenic and reproductive hazards: proceedings of conference held January 26-27, 1981, in Washington, DC. White Plains, New York: March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation, 1981:71. 32.Kinney JS, Anderson LJ, Farrar J, et al.

Risk of adverse outcomes of pregnancy after human parvovirus B19 infection. J Infect Dis 1988;157:663-7. 33.Siegl G. Biology and pathogenicity of autonomous parvoviruses. In: Berns KI, ed. The parvoviruses. New York: Plenum Press, 1984:297-362. 34.Weiland HT, Vermey-Keers C, Salimans MMM, Fleuren GJ, Verwey RA, Anderson MJ.

Parvovirus B19 associated with fetal abnormality (Letter). Lancet 1987;1:682-3. Owl Thesis! 35.Rodis JF, Hovick TJ Jr, Quinn DL, Rosengren SS, Tattersall P. Human parvovirus infection in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1988;72:733-8. Essay! 36.Young N, Harrison M, Moore J, Mortimer P, Humphries RK. Direct demonstration of the human parvovirus in erythroid progenitor cells infected in vitro. J Clin Invest 1984; 74:2024-32. 37.Anderson MJ, Higgins PG, Davis LR, et al. Experimental parvoviral infection in humans. J Infect Dis 1985;152:257-65.

38.Potter CG, Potter AC, Hatton CSR, et al. Variation of report worksheets grade erythroid and myeloid precursors in the marrow and peripheral blood of volunteer subjects infected with human parvovirus (B19). J Clin Invest 1987;79:1486-92. #12;39.Carrington D, Gilmore DH, Whittle MJ, et al. Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein--a marker of fetal aplastic crisis during intrauterine human parvovirus infection. Lancet 1987;1:433-5. Essay! 40.Schwarz TF, Roggendorf M, Deinhardt F. (Letter). On Hopelessness! Lancet 1987;1:739.

41.Anand A, Gray ES, Brown T, Clewley JP, Cohen BJ. Essay! Human parvovirus infection in pregnancy and hydrops fetalis. N Engl J Med 1987;316:183-6. Purdue Owl Thesis! 42.Bond PR, Caul EO, Usher J, Cohen BJ, Clewley JP, Field AM. Essay! Intrauterine infection with human parvovirus (Letter). Lancet 1986;1:448-9.

43.Woernle CH, Anderson LJ, Tattersall P, Davison JM. Human parvovirus B19 infection during pregnancy. J Infect Dis 1987;156:17-20. 44.Maeda H, Shimokawa H, Satoh S, Nakano H, Nunoue T. Nonimmunologic hydrops fetalis resulting from intrauterine human parvovirus B-19 infection: report of two cases. Obstet Gynecol 1988;72:482-5. Interview Questions For Case Study Research! 45.Courouce AM, Ferchal F, Morinet F, et al. Human parvovirus infections in France (Letter).

Lancet 1984;1:160. 46.Okochi K, Mori R, Miyazaki M, Cohen BJ, Mortimer PP. Nakatani antigen and human parvovirus (B19) (Letter). Lancet 1984;1:160-1. Ibsat! 47.Goldstein AR, Anderson MJ, Serjeant GR.

Parvovirus associated aplastic crisis in homozygous sickle cell disease. Arch Dis Child 1987;62:585-8. 48.Anderson MJ, Cohen BJ. Human parvovirus B19 infections in doesn't, United Kingdom 1984-86 (Letter). Lancet 1987;1:738-9. Ibsat! 49.Naides SJ. Erythema infectiosum (fifth disease) occurrence in Iowa. Write A Us! Am J Public Health 1988;78:1230-1. 50.Anderson MJ, Cherry JD. Parvoviruses.

In: Feigin RD, Cherry JD, eds. Textbook of pediatric infectious diseases. Ibsat! 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1987:1646-53. On Hopelessness! 51.Cohen BJ, Buckley MM.

The prevalence of antibody to human parvovirus B19 in England and Wales. J Med Microbiol 1988;25:151-3. 52.Mortimer PP, Cohen BJ, Buckley MM, et al. Human parvovirus and essay the fetus (Letter). Lancet 1985;2:1012. 53.Saarinen UA, Chorba TL, Tattersall P, et al. Human parvovirus B19-induced epidemic acute red cell aplasia in patients with hereditary hemolytic anemia. Blood 1986;67:1411-7. 54.Mortimer PP, Luban NLC, Kelleher JF, Cohen BJ. Transmission of serum parvovirus-like virus by clotting-factor concentrates. Lancet 1983;2:482-4.

55.Bartolomei Corsi O, Assi A, Morfini M, Fanci R, Rossi Ferrini P. Human parvovirus infection in haemophiliacs first infused with treated clotting factor concentrates. For Case! J Med Virol 1988;25:165-70. Essay! 56.Shneerson JM, Mortimer PP, Vandervelde EM. Febrile illness due to a parvovirus. Br Med J 1980;1:1580. Book For 3rd Grade! 57.Cohen BJ, Mortimer PP, Pereira MS. Diagnostic assays with monoclonal antibodies for the human serum parvovirus-like virus (SPLV).

J Hyg (Lond) 1983;91:113-30. 58.Anderson LJ, Tsou C, Parker RA, et al. Detection of ibsat essay antibodies and cause antigens of human parvovirus B19 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Ibsat Essay! J Clin Microbiol 1986;24:522-6. 59.Ozawa K, Kurtzman G, Young N. Productive infection by B19 parvovirus of human erythroid bone marrow cells in vitro. Blood 1987;70:384-91.

60.Mortimer PP, Humphries RK, Moore JG, Purcell RH, Young NS. A human parvovirus-like virus inhibits haematopoietic colony formation in vitro. Doesn't Cause! Nature 1983;302:426-9. 61.Young NS, Mortimer PP, Moore JG, Humphries RK. Characterization of a virus that causes transient aplastic crisis. J Clin Invest 1984;73:224-30. 62.Kajigaya S, Fujita S, Ozawa K, et al. A cell line that expresses B19 parvovirus structural proteins and produces empty capsids (Abstract no. 86). Blood 1988;72(suppl 1).

63.Anderson MJ, Jones SE, Minson AC. Ibsat Essay! Diagnosis of human parvovirus infection by dot-blot hybridization using cloned viral DNA. J Med Virol 1985;15:163-72. 64.Clewley JP. Detection of human parvovirus using a molecularly cloned probe. J Med Virol 1985;15:173-81.

65.Kurtzman GJ, Gascon P, Caras M, Cohen B, Young NS. B19 parvovirus replicates in resume avoid words, circulating cells of acutely infected patients. Blood 1988;71:1448-54. 66.Knisely AS, O'Shea PA, McMillan P, Singer DB, Magid MS. Electron microscopic identification of parvovirus virions in erythroid-line cells in essay, fatal hydrops fetalis. Essays! Pediatr Pathol 1988;8:163-70. 67.Ozawa K, Kurtzman G, Young N. Replication of the ibsat essay B19 parvovirus in human bone marrow cell cultures.

Science 1986;233:883-6. 68.Cotmore SF, McKie VC, Anderson LJ, Astell CR, Tattersall P. Identification of the major structural and nonstructural proteins encoded by human parvovirus B19 and mapping of their genes by procaryotic expression of isolated genomic fragments. Report Worksheets For 3rd Grade! J Virol 1986; 60:548-57. Ibsat! 69.Garner JS, Simmons BP. Cause War Essay! Guideline for isolation precautions in hospitals. Infect Control 1983;4(suppl):245-325. 70.Evans JPM, Rossiter MA, Kumaran TO, Marsh GW, Mortimer PP. Ibsat! Human parvovirus aplasia: case due to cross infection in a ward. Br Med J 1984;288:681. #12;71.Cohen BJ, Courouce AM, Schwarz TF, Okochi K, Kurtzman GJ. Laboratory infection with parvovirus B19 (Letter). Religion Doesn't War Essay! J Clin Pathol 1988;41:1027-8.

72.Schwarz TF, Roggendorf M, Hottentrager B, et al. Human parvovirus B19 infection in pregnancy (Letter). Lancet 1988;2:566-7. *The information and ibsat essay recommendations in this document were developed and compiled by CDC in consultation with representatives of the American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Obstetricians and how to write a us dbq essay Gynecologists, American College of Physicians, Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, Immunization Practices Advisory Committee, and the National Institutes of Health. The consultants also included MJ Anderson, PhD, University College and Middlesex School of Medicine, London; SM Hall, MBBS, Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, London; and GR Serjeant, MBBS, University of West Indies, Kingston. These recommendations may not reflect the views of ibsat individual consultants or the organizations they represented.

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Simply scroll down to find a Microsoft Word template that presents your unique job experience in the best possible way. Templates on this page are compatible with Microsoft Word. Please see these resources for professional resume templates in other formats: OpenOffice – In this primer on the OpenOffice resume, you’ll learn how to insert tables, images, and graphs into your resume. Ibsat Essay? We also offer free resume and cover letter templates in both OTT and ODT formats. Google Docs – Google Doc offers a robust word processor on a powerful, free-to-use platform. Learn about the many ways Google enables file sharing, or download one of interview questions study research trenty Google Docs resume examples. You can export these templates into Word or OpenOffice, save them in essay rich text or as a pdf, or even publish them as a web page.

Photoshop – For resumes that benefit from images, the Photoshop PSD template can be a powerful tool. Not every resume needs images. However, there are applicants, such as graphic designers or photographers, who should consider them. When used appropriately, images can anchor your resume in cause war essay the mind of the hiring manager. Follow the essay link to essays find a multitude of essay resume examples in a variety of styles. InDesign – Created by Adobe, InDesign can be thought of as page-layout software. Write A Us History? It enables the easy movement around the page of images, text, icons, or other artwork. This allows you to manipulate your resume in ibsat creative ways. On Hopelessness? At the link you will find 26 resume templates using the InDesign INDD (InDesign Document) format.

LaTeX – LaTeX is not a word processor; it is a “high quality type-setting system.” LaTex was created for academics whose publications include numbers, graphs, and ibsat non-Roman scripts. This platform offers users a way to create these kinds of images that its competition lacks. Follow the link to find over thirty resume templates in the LaTeX file format, downloadable as ZIP files. If you are applying for work in academia, you might need a CV template. Please see our Curriculum Vitae page for how to write a us history dbq essay, a CV writing guide and essay examples. Some documents from our template library use “ lorem ipsum ” text. We refer to those documents as “blank resume templates” because they are designed to essays assist you with the resume style. We also have examples with sample resume outlines, bullet points, professional profiles, experiences, summary statements, objectives, and ibsat essay other content.

These are created to help guide the resume writing process. Explore our free resume library, download free resume examples and templates, personalize them to match your experience and needs, and start landing more interviews. For job-hunters on interview research the go, here are three “Editors’ Choice” sample resume template designs. Each professional template has been prepared by resume experts and is suitable for most career stages and experience levels. You can also browse some of the most popular layouts we’ve created. Our hall of fame – Top 10 Best Templates – includes our ten most popular resume templates for ibsat essay, you to download for essays on hopelessness, free. Chronological resumes allow potential employers to ibsat review your work history, duties and accomplishments at on hopelessness, a glance. Ibsat? This type of resume is a great choice for job seekers with a long and essays on hopelessness stable employment record. Essay? Many hiring managers prefer seeing this traditional resume style. See our Chronological Resume Format Guide to format your own resume, and to download free chronological resume examples.

Functional resumes take the focus away from work experience and emphasize qualifications and skills. This resume type works best for career changers, job seekers who have gaps in how to write history dbq essay their work history, and applicants with entry-level resumes. See our Functional Resume Format Guide to essay learn how to interview questions for case study research create your own skills-based resume, and to ibsat essay download functional resume examples. Combination Resumes (also known as “hybrid resumes”) show your employment timeline while also highlighting your most relevant qualifications. This format works best for applicants with significant work experience and many job requirements and responsibilities.

Our Combination Resume Format Guide provides the tools you’ll need to make this tricky format work for how to write a us history, you, as well as free examples. Our Basic Resume Templates are for applicants in traditional or conservative fields. Basic does not need to be boring. These layuts are streamlined and organized, and may add a touch of color to help your application stand out. They are appropriate in most industries and career phases (entry-level, managerial, or executive). Essay? Three of our favorite examples are below, and owl thesis thirty more are in essay our Basic Resume Template library. Many companies now use an Applicant Tracking System in purdue their recruitment process. Some of these systems cannot read graphics, tables, symbols, or charts. If you want to ensure that an ATS doesn’t lose information in your resume, then plain text format is the ibsat safest choice.

This modern resume style features a clean layout, traditional sans-serif fonts, and book for 3rd grade prominent titles. See all of our ATS-Ready Resume Examples. Tested for clarity and readability, Clean and Simple Resume Templates will add just the ibsat right amount of style to how to history your professional profile. These effective designs rely on essay typography, white space, and color to create a professional and current look. If you think this resume style is for you, download one of three examples below, or choose from seventy options we offer here.

Our Modern designs are elegant and religion doesn't streamlined with a twist of creativity. While these layouts would be appropriate for a variety of essay industries, they are ideal for owl thesis, high-tech professions where candidates want to portray experience, discipline, and knowledge, as well as show that they are progressive and current with the latest technology. See three examples below, or follow the link to view more templates in our Modern Resume Design Library. Our Contemporary Templates will help you create an up-to-date and ibsat dynamic resume. These modern designs read like actual newsletters with headlines and teasers.

They are set up as two-column or three-column layouts. If you think a Contemporary Template format is right for you, you can download any of our twenty-two eye catching examples from the Contemporary Collection. In this resume template library, the designs incorporate actual images of professional work. If you are an artist, photographer, graphic designer, web designer, or other creative professional, you can use one of for case research our Portfolio Resume Templates to ibsat present your creativity and accomplishments in a visual way. See all of our Portfolio examples here. Struggling to decide what to trim from avoid words your two-page resume? Our One-Page Resume guide will teach you all the tricks professional resume makers use to not exceed a single page. For eighteen sample resumes, each showcasing different techniques to fit resume content on a single page, follow the link to our discussion of One-Page Resumes. These artistic templates are a great design choice for any industry that values creativity. As fancy and bursting with imagination as they are, be sure to consider who will be reading them. You may love them, but not every employer will find them appropriate.

If a creative resume template is right for you, download one of our 40+ examples from the ibsat essay Creative Resume Library. Infographic resumes are a new trend, and have gained a great deal of popularity in 2017. This resume type uses images, charts, and graphs to tell the story of your professional life. For Case Study? Creative resumes and essay visual layouts are not yet well accepted by all hiring managers, so be sure to consider your industry. We created 12 new designs featuring a variety of on hopelessness graphics for you to download – see our Infographic Resume Library. This new resume template library provides resume examples for various careers and career stages. If you are a student or recent graduate with little or no job experience, then try our entry-level job examples: For students or recent graduates with some work experience, see more of our entry-level resume samples: Use these industry-specific examples if you have three or more years of professional experience in customer service or healthcare industries: If you live in one of the South Asian countries (Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, India), then please see our country-specific examples: Good, bad or ugly?

Should you use a resume template? Some recruiting professionals advise against essay using templates and resume builders. They believe using those tools makes your resume look generic and keeps you from words standing out from ibsat essay other candidates. This concern is purdue owl thesis worth considering. Essay? Recruiters and hiring managers see hundreds of resumes every day. One that is poorly crafted in questions study research either its formatting or its content will be quickly spotted and moved to the slush pile. Templates fix the issue of ibsat essay poor formatting by doing it for you. Purdue? With a template, you will not spend hours trying to essay adjust margins and fonts.

The content produced by resume avoid words, resume templates and ibsat essay builders, however, is not meant to be the final result. Every job seeker’s experience is unique, and a template needs to be customized to purdue owl thesis match and ibsat promote that singular experience. A chronological resume template should not be used by a job-hopper, and a skills-based resume is not the best choice for executives with an impressive vertical career progression. Templates are meant to be a place to start the difficult process of creating your resume. They aren’t one-size-fits all, cookie-cutter solutions, and they shouldn’t be treated as ready-made resumes. When used for for case research, guidance and essay inspiration when writing your own unique and original resume, resume templates can be a powerful weapon in doesn't cause landing more interviews more quickly. What are they and do you need one? If resume formatting is not your thing, you can get help from an online resume builder. This resume-making tool handles both design and content, and can create excellent first drafts. The search for work is a race, and resume builders are starting blocks.

They don’t get you to the finish line, but can give you a head start over your competition. Resume builders offer many features that simplify the job-hunting process. Here are a few: Email and online resume – You can email prospective employers or post your resume online in many formats. Essay? Writing Tips – Use tips and sample phrases to describe your work history and achievements.

Cover letter templates and builders – Build a strong cover letter with templates and tips. Design – Built-in resume templates take care of formatting and design. Resume samples – Compare your resume against samples. Resume analytics – Find out if your resume is being viewed and downloaded. … but keep in book report worksheets mind. As powerful a tool as resume builders can be, they are still best treated as first drafts.

The algorithms resume builders use are able to incorporate basic syntax and industry jargon. They do not, however, always sound natural. As Brenda Barron pointed out at, “Using canned sentences can seem like keyword stuffing.” Resumes serve two functions. Their overt function is to list your skills, experience, and education. Ibsat? But their covert function is to show prospective employers how well you communicate, as well as your communication style. Religion Doesn't War Essay? Because of ibsat essay this, you need to edit your resume so that it sounds close to your natural, professional speaking voice. If you feel a resume builder is the religion war essay tool for you, see this page to find an online resume builder.

Starting off on ibsat essay the right foot. A resume cover letter needs to do more than introduce you and history highlight some of your skills. It needs to be engaging, well crafted, and well researched. It needs to ibsat essay avoid sounding like a hard sell while still selling you to the company. If a resume is a list of your accomplishments, then its cover letter is where you get to tell the story of how you achieved those accomplishments. Religion War Essay? Use it to explain how your experiences will benefit the company. Ibsat Essay? Tell the purdue potential employer why this job is ibsat important to you. To help you avoid some common pitfalls and maximize the potential of your application, experts agree that you should consider the following guidelines. Don’t skimp – While not all hiring managers read cover letters, they are not a waste of worksheets time.

Just having one could increase your chances of getting a job interview—even if the employer doesn’t read it. And if the hiring committee has a tough choice between you and a few other applicants, then a cover letter can be what separates you from your competitors. Ibsat Essay? Keep it brief – And the shorter the better. According to a resume survey of employers in Orange County, California, “Nearly 70% of employers want either a half page cover letter or ‘the shorter the better’ approach.” But there is some leeway here. If the position or your experiences warrant it, then using more than half a page would be fine. Just make sure it’s well crafted. If possible, create a narrative – Especially when experience or the position warrants a longer cover letter—executive resumes, for example—make it tell a story. The narrative structure is a powerful device, and if you can use context, conflict, and resolution, then the reader won’t care that it is long.

For a resume, a narrative’s context might be your work history. Essays On Hopelessness? The conflict may be experiences you’ve had in ibsat the past that left you wanting to do more than your previous position allowed. And the resolution could be getting this new job. Do your research – Research each company you apply to, and craft a new cover letter for each of them. With social media, this is far easier than it used to be. Follow accounts of the company and interview for case its executives on Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn to study their content and the culture. Ibsat? Focus on details – Make sure that every word is essential. Use a spelling and grammar checker and writing apps. On Hopelessness? Ask someone else to read it and ibsat essay give you advice.

Read from the end to the beginning and essays on hopelessness use other editing and proofreading tips. Learn how to format a resume by making the most of ibsat Microsoft Word’s features. Our short video tutorials will teach you some basic formatting tips and tricks. How to use paragraph styles and interview for case research themes How to change header, footer, margins, and page size How to fit resume text on one page, and essay how to remove blank pages How to customize tabs, text boxes and tables How to interview questions study add and remove sections. Please keep in mind that: All files are compatible with Microsoft Word, and essay many of war essay them will work in other applications such as Mac Pages, Google Docs and OpenOffice. We create our templates in ibsat essay Microsoft Office 2010 and we use Microsoft Word default fonts. If you do not have these fonts installed or use a different operating system, our templates might look different on your computer. We use text styles and built-in color schemes to on hopelessness create our templates. Knowing how to use paragraph styles will ease the process of modifying a template.

While most resumes are US Letter size, some are A4. You can change the page size to make it compatible with the size used in your country. For creative designs with colored backgrounds, consider setting the essay page color to “none” and print on a high-quality colored paper. Cause? If the essay design requires borderless printing, a local print shop can help you if that feature is unavailable on your home printer. 855.213.0348 | MON-FRI 8A-8P, SAT 8A-5P, SUN 10A-6P CST.

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