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mary white essay By Kathleen J. Canavan. In reading the incredibly moving text of real college, The Sovereignty and Goodness of God , a detailed narrative of Mary Rowlandson's eleven week captivity among Narragansett Indians, one cannot help but become aware of the presence of two distinct and alternating narrative voices throughout the body of the text. Critical Thinking And Learning? In fact, numerous scholars have taken pause to make note of college, this undeniable shift in thinking mason voice within their critical reflections of Rowlandson's narrative. David Minter describes a curious and double present-mindedness that exists in essays the text, explaining that on one hand Rowlandson is media studies, attempting to use her experience as a lesson for those who walk a troubled path away from salvation, while on college admission, the other hand she is on landscape architecture, using the act of writing about her experience to mark her own place as one of the Elect declared in a long line of admission, Puritan conversion narratives.1 Kathryn Zabelle Derounian discusses an successful social media marketing case studies empirical and rhetorical narration within the real essays, text-empirical defining the author's role as participant and rhetorical defining Rowlandson's role as interpreter and essay, commentator. The split in essays Rowlandson's narrative between the participant and the commentator voices is very clear, Zabelle Derounian states.2 These two voices, Zabelle Derounian further argues, are a result of on dreams by langston hughes, Rowlandson having suffered from a mental disorder today known as survivor syndrome where she tries to reconcile her feelings of college, guilt over having survived the Indian attack on Lancaster and her subsequent captivity with her obligation to paint her experience in the hues of providential affliction.3 Furthermore, David Downing notes that:
The combative nature of thinking, these two voices creates a very clear and uneasy tension that permeates Rowlandson's captivity narrative. For example, throughout most of the text, Rowlandson is cast as the Christian woman lost in the unknown wilderness among a savage people and wholly unsure of her surroundings. At one point of the real college admission, narrative, Rowlandson recounts her multiple experiences of sitting in her captors' wigwams at different times throughout her captivity and completely forgetting where she is before jumping up and running outside: . when I was without, and saw nothing but Wilderness and Woods, and a company of barbarous Heathen; my mind quickly returned to me, which made me think of that spoken concerning Sampson , who said, I will go out and shake myself as at personal essay my hero other times, but he wist not that the Lord was departed from him. 7 At yet another point in real college admission essays the text, Rowlandson states, My son being now about a mile from personal essay my hero me. away I went; but quickly lost myself travelling over Hills and through Swamps, and college admission, could not find my way to him.8 However, despite these allusions to being lost in the wilderness, Rowlandson in reality seems always to know her geographic location throughout the course of her captivity. At one point in the Third Remove, Rowlandson writes, This day in the afternoon, about an hour by the Sun, we came to the place where they intended, viz. an Indian town called Wenimesset, Northward of Quabaug.9 Later in the remove, we learn Rowlandson is near thirty miles from any English Town.10 Still further into the text, Rowlandson notes, We were at this place and essay my hero, time about two miles from the real admission, Connecticut river.11 In fact, when Rowlandson loses her way when going to visit her son, who also is being held captive by another group of Indians, she appears to have no trouble finding her way back to her own camp in order to then have someone show her the way to my hero, her son's residence. College Essays? In addition to apparently knowing where she is on any given day, Rowlandson also seems capable of critical mason, keeping track of which day it is.
At several points throughout the narrative, she makes note of her captors' activities on the Sabbath. It wouldn't seem unlikely that a person held hostage in real a completely alien environment for dissertation on landscape nearly three months could easily lose track of the days of the week; however, that doesn't seem to be a problem Rowlandson suffered. Instead of presenting her as the poor soul who has lost her way, these assertions of real essays, place and time instead cast Rowlandson in a decidedly resourceful light by hughes, showing us a woman capable of orienting herself spatially and real essays, temporally. Another point of disjunction between the two voices at work in the narrative revolve around the use of scripture in the text. Rowlandson would appear to be the very figure of piety in sections where scripture is on dreams by langston hughes, quoted and admission, she is and learning mason, cast as the pilgrim who, but for the grace of God, would long ago have perished without His word to guide her.
In a passage representative of other scripture citations throughout the college essays, text, Rowlandson states: Then I took oaken leaves and laid to my side, and with the blessing of God it cured me also; yet before the cure was wrought, I may say as it is in Psal. xxxviii. 5, 6, My wounds stink and essay by langston hughes, are corrupt, I am troubled, I am bowed down greatly, I go mourning all the real admission, day long. 12 Here, God is attributed with curing Rowlandson of her injury rather than the oak leaves, which evidently posses some sort of medicinal property. Thinking And Learning Mark Mason? Even more so, God is attributed with the cure rather the captive who tells Rowlandson that oak leaves cured his wound, or even rather than Rowlandson herself who has the mental wherewithal to use the leaves on herself despite being consumed by concern for the health of real admission, her wounded child. In effect, God is of venice all that is not essay, responsible for everything, and scripture serves as a reminder for Rowlandson that her fate is in real college admission His hands.
Everywhere there are evidences of God's providence for His chosen, who need only wait patiently and suffer nobly to receive deliverance. However, when contrasted against of venice glitters gold essay, passages of the narrative where Rowlandson barters her services for food and money and actively navigates through her captors' society, we get the image of real college essays, a woman quite self-reliant and capable of surviving hardships in on landscape architecture her own right. For instance, Mary makes a shirt for King Philip's son, for which she is paid one shilling.13 At another point, not only does she make a shirt for an Indian but she also harasses him until he makes proper restitution for real admission her labor with the payment of a knife.14. While conflicts in voice are readily apparent throughout the text and many scholars seem quite comfortable highlighting the dueling voices that characterize Rowlandson's narrative, very few seem to question the source of personal essay my hero, these competing voices. Real Admission? There appears to be an implicit acceptance among those same scholars that the two voices are Rowlandson's own. Nearly a third of all Rowlandson's references are from Psalms, as apparently she found (emphasis mine) in the Psalmist the successful social case, most eloquent spokesman of her personal grief and despair. Downing notes, and in so doing grants Rowlandson authority over selection of scripture in her text.15 This despite the fact Downing comments on the shift in narrative voice when scriptures are mentioned in the text. Likewise, Zabelle Derounian states, Throughout, Rowlandson's narrative contains references revealing its author's depression and emotional bleakness, but frequently Rowlandson masks these signs with outward spiritual interpretations.16 Again, Rowlandson is real college admission essays, assumed to be the sole narrative voice at work in the text, despite an on dreams hughes acknowledged dichotomy between the voice telling the narrative details and the voice interpreting them.17.
When viewed in light of the significant historical data that suggest Puritan minister Increase Mather may have played a substantial role in editing and shaping Rowlandson's text before it went to press, however, it becomes more problematic to make critical interpretations of the narrative without accounting for real college the potential of Mather's voice being one of the two.18 In fact, there is little doubt among historians and essay to explain, literary theorists that Increase Mather is the anonymous author of the preface to the reader that introduces and provides testimony for Rowlandson's text. At the real college admission essays, very least, the historical data raise enough red flags that should lead the discerning reader to view the narrative as an amalgamation of authorial control between Mather and Rowlandson, if not indeed a reflection of two separate voices representative of two separate writers. What's more, in critical thinking and learning light of the college essays, severe limitations placed on women's public speech and writing at dissertation architecture the time, it seems questionable to think that a written work as powerful as Rowlandson's narrative would have been offered up for public consumption without first being strained through the filter of the Puritan ministry. An examination of the historical clues certainly indicate that, if nothing else, the publication of Rowlandson's narrative most definitely would have been of significant interest to Mather. One of the leading second-generation Puritan ministers in New England, Mather strongly believed King Philip's War was a divine punishment meted out by God in essays response to the waning religious devotion of next-generation Puritans and their increasing attention to material gain.19 Mather was particularly interested in the overall significance of case, Indian/English relations as they pertained-in his eyes-to God's dispensations to real college admission essays, his chosen people, and he very vigorously worked the successful marketing case studies, image of the redeemed captive as a metaphor for the entire Puritan community.20 Mather had a great deal to gain from the college admission, wide-spread distribution of marketing case, Rowlandson's tale of college essays, captivity and deliverance. At the time of King Philip's War, Mather was emerging as a powerful theological and political leader in New England, jockeying for the position as king of the city on dissertation, the hill with William Hubbard.21 For the two ministers, the war presented numerous opportunities for conflict over how best to bring it to a successful close.22 Unlike Mather, Hubbard did not think that the college, war was some kind of Armageddon. In fact, Hubbard felt that those who accepted unreservedly that the war was the manifestation of God's anger with the Puritans and that nothing could be done were shirking their responsibility as leaders of New England.23 With this rivalry in mind, Nelsen notes that Mather hurried to write and publish his Brief History of the of venice glitters is not gold, Warr With the Indians in New-England (in which Mather includes an account of Mary Rowlandson's captivity and release) before Hubbard could publish his own history, implying that the race was on real college admission essays, to be the first to successful social media case, provide the besieged Puritans with a theoretical framework within which to understand the war. For Mather, the college essays, events of the war had to critical mark mason, be read comprehensively, for their significance would have bearing on matters ranging from the microscopic polity of the real college, family to the organization of the cosmos under God.24 Slotkin and Folsom further contend that through the dissertation on landscape architecture, work of real college admission, writing his Brief History and then later a second history of the war, A Relation of the Troubles Which Have Hapened in New-England , Mather was attempting to create a new mythology of Indian-Puritan relations, which cast the Indians as a symbol of punishment for the Puritans' failure to adhere to orthodox doctrine. The story of Mary Rowlandson fit in very nicely with this new mythology. She was a minister's wife who, despite her already obviously close connection to God, was called upon to suffer terrible hardship by His hand and comes truly to know Him. And Learning? What better example could possibly exist to show New England Puritans the consequence of their folly and real college admission, the way to true salvation?
Mitchell Breitwieser observes: The problems of on dreams by langston hughes, voice that mark Rowlandson's narrative have parallels within the real, body of literature on slave narratives and collaborative women's autobiography, and score, this scholarship provides a theoretical framework within which to consider The Sovereignty and Goodness of God . In his discussion of narration, authentication and essays, authorial control in slave narratives, Robert B. Stepto contends that the successful marketing, narratives are full of other voices which are frequently just as responsible for articulating a narrative's tale and admission essays, strategy.30 Stepto goes on to explain most of these voices appear in dissertation on landscape architecture the form of introductions and appendices attached to real essays, slave narratives that vouched for the legitimacy and essay low gmat score, authenticity of the college admission essays, written narrative, as well as the existence and reliability of the former slave who wrote the essay to explain, text. Stepto states: When looking at Rowlandson's narrative, the validating techniques used in slave narratives are identical to those at play in her text. Real Admission? An anonymous introduction most likely written by Increase Mather accompanied Rowlandson's tale when it was first published in 1682. The introduction is an entreaty to the reader to pay close heed to the terrible events visited upon successful case studies this Handmaiden of admission, God so that he or she might learn from all that is not essay her experience. However, and real essays, more importantly, the introduction also serves as validation for personal the story being told in the first place.
After Anne Hutchinson very publicly claimed numerous Puritan ministers relied too heavily on a doctrine of good works in assessing experiences of grace among church members and declared that God had revealed to her the assurance of her own salvation, most Puritan women were denied the freedom to speak publicly in any capacity.32 In order for Rowlandson to admission, relate her story and be acknowledged by the desired Puritan readership, her act of successful social media, public speaking had to real admission, be made palatable. Social? Through the work of his introduction, Mather sets forth to admission essays, accomplish that task by straightforwardly telling the of venice is not essay, reader that they should not be repelled by Rowlandson's act of writing, but should instead be inspired. Mather further asserts that Rowlandson is a true and pious Christian woman who would never seek the limelight for college herself, but recounts her story at the insistence of her friends and for the benefit of the Puritan community: This Narrative was Penned by this Gentlewoman her self, to be to her a Memorandum of God's dealing with her, that she might never forget, but remember the same, and the several circumstances thereof, all the daies of her life. A pious scope, which deserves both commendation and imitation. Personal My Hero? 33 Furthermore, Mather tells the reader that if after reading the narrative they are unable to ascertain the importance of Rowlandson's tale, it is they who should be ashamed for failing to grasp the truth of God's word rather than Rowlandson for speaking it.34 The entire effect, of course, is to suggest that in this particular instance, Rowlandson is college admission essays, justified in publishing her account because it is such a remarkable example of God's providence that to not publish, to not grant Rowlandson her voice, would be the greater sin. To bestow even more validity upon all that essay Rowlandson's act of public expression, the first edition of The Sovereignty and Goodness of God was published with the last sermon of Joseph Rowlandson (Mary's first husband).
It was a common practice in New England at real admission the time to posthumously publish the last sermon of well-known ministers.35 So to further dilute the impact of a woman writing, this convention is utilized to present Rowlandson's narrative in a more favorable light. Salisbury describes Joseph's sermon as a typical jeremiad that chastised New Englanders for faltering spirituality. In addition, Salisbury calls the sermon a long theological footnote to the narrative that reflected similar themes of low gmat score, punishment and redemption advocated in the narrative.36 What is strangely interesting about real admission, Joseph Rowlandson's text being attached to to explain low gmat, his wife's text is that had it not been for Mary Rowlandson's narrative, Joseph's sermon probably never would have been published on its own because, in fact, his fame derived from real his wife's.37 However, the fact that Rowlandson's narrative had to be published with Mather's introduction and her husband's sermon indicates the text could not stand on its own in the eyes of Puritan society. Personal Essay My Hero? Rowlandson's own unadulterated voice was wholly unacceptable and unrecognizable for the time; it simply was not allowed to be. Admission Essays? In much the same way as the slave narratives described by Stepto, Mary Rowlandson's voice could only successful media studies, be heard in conjunction with the supporting voices of college admission essays, Mather and her husband. Highlighting a similar point of collective narrative voice and authorial control, Carole Boyce Davies states in her discussion of writing women's oral autobiography that editorial involvement cannot be dismissed when considering the authenticity of a literary voice. Once the successful marketing studies, editorial process is closely scrutinized, Davies writes, it reveals how the editor becomes a co-maker of the text. College Admission? The phrases 'I edited,' 'I arranged,' and 'selected' camouflage a whole host of detailed ordering and creating operations.38 Although Davies is making her point in marketing studies the context of a female editor who records or transcribes another woman's story and then writes the narrative herself, the real college essays, point of the editor functioning as a co-maker of narrative voice applies equally well to a situation such as Rowlandson's where the successful media marketing case, protagonist (most likely) writes her own story, but is later edited by admission, another person before publication.
Through the very acts of my hero, deleting or adding or rearranging or polishing an author's original text, the editor necessarily introduces his or her own sensibility and voice to the finished piece. At that point of intervention, Davies explains, the narrative ceases to present an autobiographical I, but rather reflects an autobiographical we.39 As with the slave narratives, giving voice to these silenced or disenfranchised women can only be accomplished through external mediation and manipulation that validates their life experience and consequently requires that the pure I be relinquished. In her discussion of the cultural significance of the captivity figure to Puritan society, Tara Fitzpatrick includes as a matter of course the real admission essays, assumption that Puritan captivity narratives included the voice of the former captive and their sponsoring minister: By explicating the relations between the dual, sometimes dueling textual voices of the captives and their ministerial sponsors, we find that Puritan women's captivity sagas generally relied on two narrators: the redeemed captives themselves and the ministers who propagated the captives' histories for didactic purposes of their own.40. Fitzpatrick additionally contends there is nothing accidental about the glitters essay, formulation of the admission, Puritan captivity narrative. Captivity narratives, properly edited and prefaced, would instruct prospective settlers about the horrors they might encounter as punishment for their restlessness and inconstancy, she states.41. Several clues point to Mather's voice constituting part of the narrative we that exists in The Sovereignty and social marketing studies, Goodness of God . In his discussion of Mary Rowlandson's use of scripture in her narrative, Downing acknowledges that the practice of incorporating biblical references was commonplace among Puritan writing. College Essays? What is odd about Rowlandson's use though, he explains, is her heavy reliance upon Old Testament verse. Of her numerous Biblical references, fewer than one tenth are from the New Testament; in fact, the name of Jesus Christ is never directly mentioned in her account, Downing observes, further stating that this peculiar paucity of New Testament references is due primarily to the conscious identification of the New England Puritans with the Old Testament Hebrews.42 Specific instances of this occur when comparisons are made between Rowlandson's experiences and Job. For instance, when Rowlandson recounts snatching a piece of boiled horse's foot from a starving English child also being held captive, which she hurriedly consumes and calls savory, the narrative says of the meat: That I may say as Job, chap. vi. 7. The things that my Soul refused to touch are as my sorrowful meat .43 Slotkin and Folsom explain that Mather relied significantly upon Old Testament history and philosophy in the formulation of his typological historiography because:
I would contend the heavy use of Old Testament scripture in the Rowlandson narrative is all that glitters essay, indicative of Mather's influence on essays, the text and an attempt on his part to fashion Rowlandson's experience as divine verification of his own ideology at the time. Further evidence of some startling theoretical similarities between Rowlandson's text and Mather's ideological tenets can be found in Slotkin and Folsom's assertion that the captivity narrative and Mather's mythology of suffering and redemption are built on the same mythic pattern.45 Specifically, they note, the progress of Rowlandson's tale and on landscape, Mather's mythology revolve around the interaction between sovereign God and the individual soul, the association of the outer Indian with 'Indian' traits of spirit in real college admission essays the Christian, the salvationary exorcism of both Indians by successful studies, means of providential rescue, and the final renewing of the covenant between individual and God, citizen and society.46 Of course, the entire narrative is a dialogue on the interaction between sovereign God and individual soul; however, specific instances of that interaction are revealed through the use of scripture, which provides a divine explanation for individual moments of suffering for real Rowlandson. The scripture readings constitute God's contribution to the ongoing conversation between He and Rowlandson in the narrative. Rowlandson may have a tough path to walk, but ultimately God is telling her it's all for a greater good: For a small moment have I forsaken thee; but with great mercies will I gather thee .47 Additional reflections of the mythic pattern, occur when Mary seems to become Indian- or savage-like at various times during her captivity, as with the incident of taking food from a child or when in the Twelfth Remove she actually uses an Indian word, Nux , when relating if she will be sold back to her husband.48 Then upon successful social media case studies Rowlandson's release, we learn she had the opportunity to escape her captors at some point earlier in her captivity when an Indian couple offered to help her run away and that she refused them, choosing to stay put and let God choose when she was fully redeemed and ready to be released: Her complete supplication to God is what saves her in the end. Mather's handiwork in the Rowlandson text also is evident in the ordering of events in admission essays the narrative. Douglas Edward Leach notes that upon a close reading of The Sovereignty and Goodness of God , the perceptive reader is struck by the organizational confusion of the story. Rowlandson is often vague in defining periods of time, geographical locations, and sequence of events, Leach writes.50 As mentioned above, this ambiguity of the whens in merchant of venice is not gold Rowlandson's narrative is particularly disconcerting when contrasted against her apparent ability to state with a great degree of confidence what day of the week certain events occurred or where in college essays the wilderness she is merchant of venice glitters gold essay, located.
However, when considering that Mather readily reordered the college admission essays, events of King Philip's War in his own histories so that they closely followed his interpretation of God's judgment and punishment, it does not seem unreasonable to assume Mather did the same when editing Rowlandson's narrative so that her experience would mirror the rhetoric he was preaching at the time.51 This distortion, Slotkin and Folsom write, of course suits Mather's intention, which is to restore a religious world view, a God-centered consciousness of historical process, and a sense of man's powerlessness and successful marketing, absolute dependence on the will of an almighty God.52. With these examples of close mirroring between Rowlandson's narrative and Mather's philosophy, it seems somewhat far-fetched to attribute the real essays, occurrence of such parallels to mere coincidence. What these similarities strongly suggest is an intentionality of purpose on the part of Increase Mather to architecture, align Mary Rowlandson and her experience with his concept of struggle and redemption. While it is not my intention to real college admission essays, propose that Mary Rowlandson's voice is nonexistent in the narrative, I do believe it has been significantly muted by Mather for the benefit of his own agenda. Of course, this intrusion of on landscape architecture, Mather's voice into Rowlandson's narrative presents some substantial problems for numerous past critical interpretations of The Sovereignty and Goodness of real college, God that take for dissertation architecture granted Rowlandson's voice as pure within the body of the text. The failure to account for more than one distinct voice in the narrative invalidates many scholarly readings of the admission, text. For example, Downing writes, By admitting her spiritual complacency and recognizing the need for repentance, Rowlandson re-enacts her conversion experience.53 However, once we introduce the specter of Mather's manipulation, it becomes nearly impossible to know whether or not Rowlandson strives to re-enact her conversion experience, which implies an glitters is not act of personal self-reflection, or whether Mather strives to simply cast Rowlandson as empathetic protagonist.
Similarly, in her discussion of the place of the woman subject in Rowlandson's narrative, Lisa Logan asserts, Rowlandson's narrative expresses her ambivalence about those representations of women and admission, their experience which are available to her.54 This becomes an incredibly problematic statement to make, let alone prove, when so much ambiguity surrounds who expresses what in the body of the text. The presence of this uncertainty throws a very large wrench into the mechanics of any argument that relies on an untainted intellectual blackboard for Mary Rowlandson to write upon. Even Zabelle Derounian's argument that Rowlandson suffered from survivor syndrome becomes suspect in light of the critical thinking and learning mason, duality of real college admission essays, voice at play in the text. While the certainty of the authenticity of Mary Rowlandson's own voice within the narrative should be viewed with considerable caution, it does not detract from the text's ability to wield considerable emotional power over the reader. In fact, an acknowledgment of the duality of voice in the text makes the task of interpretation more interesting than it would be with the assumption of just one voice. Buried beneath the and learning, surface of the story told on the page lies another compelling tale of human conflict and struggle and domination and submission. As with her captivity and release, Mary Rowlandson must subvert herself for college admission essays the sake of finding her place among history's chosen this time. To Explain Low Gmat? Her salvation in print is as dependent on the will of an external being as the real admission essays, salvation of her soul is dependent on God.
To attribute autonomy to Rowlandson's voice in the narrative ultimately does a disservice to her because it pulls a veil across the face of her life and the controlling forces-husband, church and Mather-that most likely defined that life. The Sovereignty and Goodness of God should not be read as a testament to the saving power of Grace or a celebration of the human spirit in the face of hardship but as a commentary on the societal bonds that held Mary Rowlandson captive, even after her release. 1 David Minter, By Dens of Lions: Notes on Stylization in Early Puritan Captivity Narratives, American Literature 45 (1973-74): 341. 2 Kathryn Zabelle Derounian, Puritan Orthodoxy and the 'Survivor Syndrome' in Mary Rowlandson's Indian Captivity Narrative, Early American Literature 22 (1987): 82. 3 Zabelle Derounian, 83. 4 David Downing, 'Streams of Scripture Comfort': Mary Rowlandson's Typological Use of the Bible, Early American Literature 15 (1980-81): 252. 6 Deborah J. Dietrich, Mary Rowlandson's Great Declension, Women's Studies 24:5 (1995): 427. 7 Unless otherwise stated, references to Mary Rowlandson's narrative pertain to the version published in Colonial American Travel Narratives, which is based on the London edition of 1682. Wendy Martin, ed., A True History of the Captivity of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson, Colonial American Travel Narratives.
New York: Penguin Books, 1994, 27. 8 Rowlandson, 23. 9 Rowlandson, 14. Merchant Of Venice Essay? This same passage, incidently, also lets us know that, in addition to being able to chart her geographic loaction, Rowlandson knew how to keep time during the day by observing the college, sun's position in the sky. 10 Rowlandson, 17. 11 Rowlandson, 26. 12 Rowlandson, 14. 13 Rowlandson, 22. 14 Rowlandson, 23.
16 Zabelle Derounian, 86. 17 Zabelle Derounian, 82. 18 Kathryn Zabelle Derounian provides compelling evidence of Increase Mather's probable involvement with the production and publication of Mary Rowlandson's captivity narrative in The Publication, Promotion, and Distribution of essay, Mary Rowlandson's Indian Captivity Narrative in the Seventeenth Century. Kathryn Zabelle Derounian, The Publication, Promotion, and Distriubtion of Mary Rowlandson's Indian Captivity Narrative in the Seventeenth Century, Early American Literature 23:3 (1988): 239-261. 19 Richard Slotkin and James K. Admission Essays? Folsom, eds., So Dreadful a Judgment: Puritan Responses to King Philip's War, 1676-1677. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press, 1978, 57. 20 Mason I. Lowance, Jr., Increase Mather.
New York: Twayne Publishers, 1974, 43-44. 21 Anne Kusener Nelsen presents a fascinating portrait of the rivalry between Mather and Hubbard that was played out against the backdrop of King Philip's War. Anne Kusener Nelson, King Philip's War and the Hubbard-Mather Rivalry, William and of venice all that glitters, Mary Quarterly 27 (1970): 615-29. 24 Slotkin and Folsom, 57. 25 Mitchell Robert Breitwieser, American Puritanism and the Defense of Mourning: Religion, Grief, and Ethnology in real college admission essays Mary White Rowlandson's Captivity Narrative.
Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1990. 7-8. 26 Joanne Gaudio presents an interesting analysis of Mather's negotiation between alternating personas as minister and politician. Joanne M. Gaudio, 'So many parts of myselfe': Increase Mather, Minister or Politician? CEA Critic 57 (1994): 67-76. 27 Slotkin and Folsom, 303. 28 Neal Salisbury, ed., The Sovereignty and Goodness of God by Mary Rowlandson with Related Documents. Boston: Bedford Books, 1997.
44. 29 Zabelle Derounian, Publication and social media, Promotion 242. 30 Robert B. Real Admission? Stepto, I Rose and Found My Voice: Narration, Authentication, and essay, Authorial Control in college admission essays Four Slave Narratives, Within the Circle: An Anthology of African American Literary Criticism from the merchant glitters essay, Harlem Renaissance to the Present, ed. Angelyn Mitchell, (Durham: Duke University Press, 1994) 256. 33 Rowlandson, 7. 34 Rowlandson, 9. 35 Salisbury, 45. 36 Salisbury, 45. 37 Salisbury, 45. 38 Carole Boyce Davies, Collaboration and real college, the Ordering Imperative in Life Story Production, De/Colonizing the Subject: The Politics of Gender in merchant of venice all that glitters Women's Autobiography, eds.
Sidonie Smith and Julia Watson, (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992) 12. 40 Tara Fitzpatrick, The Figure of college essays, Captivity: The Cultural Work of the Puritan Captivity Narrative, American Literary History 3:1 (1991) 2. 41 Fitzpatrick, 13. 43 Rowlandson, 33. 44 Slotkin and successful media marketing case, Folsom, 58. 45 Slotkin and Folsom, 74. 46 Slotkin and Folsom, 74. 47 Rowlandson, 29. 48 Rowlandson, 25.
49 Rowlandson, 43. 50 Douglas Edward Leach attempts to accurately delineate the timeline of events during Mary Rowlandson's captivity by comparing her recollections with historic knowledge of King Philip's War. Douglas Edward Leach, The 'Whens' of Mary Rowlandson's Captivity, New England Quarterly 34 (1961): 353. 51 In So Dreadful a Judgment Slotkin and admission, Folsom discuss in detail Mather's penchant for personal my hero tweaking the real essays, order of events of King Philip's War in personal essay his written histories of the admission, conflict so that it would follow the mythology he created on Indian/Puritan relations. Dissertation Architecture? Sel. 60-70. 52 Slotkin and Folsom, 67. 54 Lisa Logan, Mary Rowlandson's Captivity and the 'Place' of the Woman Subject, Early American Literature 28 (1993): 274. 1. Breitwieser, Mitchell Robert. American Puritanism and the Defense of Mourning: Religion, Grief, and Ethnology in Mary White Rowlandson's Captivity Narrative. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1990.
2. Davies, Carole Boyce. Collaboration and college admission, the Ordering Imperative in Life Story Production. De/Colonizing the Subject: The Politics of Gender in Women's Autobiography. Eds. Sidonie Smith and Julia Watson. Merchant Of Venice All That Glitters Is Not Essay? Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992. 3-19. 3. Dietrich, Deborah. Mary Rowlandson's Great Declension.
Women's Studies 24:5 (1995): 427-439. 4. Downing, David. 'Streams of Scripture Comfort': Mary Rowlandson's Typological Use of the real college, Bible. Early American Literature. 15 (1980-81): 252-259. 5. Fitzpatrick, Tara. The Figure of Captivity: The Cultural Work of the Puritan Captivity Narrative. Personal Essay My Hero? American Literary History 3:1 (1991): 1-26. 6. Gaudio, Joanne M. 'So many parts of myselfe': Increase Mather, Minister or Politician? CEA Critic 57:1 (1994): 67-76. 7. Leach, Douglas Edward. The 'Whens' of Mary Rowlandson's Captivity.
New England Quarterly 34 (1961): 352-363. 8. Logan, Lisa. Mary Rowlandson's Captivity and the 'Place' of the Woman Subject. Early American Literature 28:3 (1993): 255-277. 9. College Admission? Lowance, Jr., Mason I. Dissertation On Landscape? Increase Mather. Admission Essays? New York: Twayne Publishers, Inc., 1974. 10. Minter, David L. By Dens of Lions: Notes on Stylization in Early Puritan Captivity Narratives.
American Literature 45 (1973): 335-347. 11. Nelsen, Anne Kusener. King Philip's War and on landscape, the Hubbard-Mather Rivalry. William and Mary Quarterly 27 (1970): 615-629. 12. Rowlandson, Mary. A True History of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson. Colonial American Travel Narratives. Ed.
Wendy Martin. New York: Penguin Books, 1994. 1-48. 13. Salisbury, Neal. Ed. The Sovereignty and admission, Goodness of God by personal, Mary Rowlandson with Related Documents. Boston: Bedford Books, 1997. 14. Slotkin, Richard and James K. Folsom.
Eds. So Dreadful a Judgment: Puritan Responses to King Philip's War, 1676-1677. Real College? Middletown: Wesleyan University Press, 1978. 15. Stepto, Robert B. I Rose and Found My Voice: Narration, Authentication, and Authorial Control in Four Slave Narratives. Within the personal my hero, Circle: An Anthology of college admission essays, African American Literary Criticism from the Harlem Renaissance to the Present. Ed.
Angelyn Mitchell. Durham: Duke University Press, 1994. Architecture? 256-281. 16. Zabelle Derounian, Kathryn. The Publication, Promotion, and Distribution of Mary Rowlandson's Indian Captivity Narrative in the Seventeenth Century.
Early American Literature 23:3 (1988): 239-261. 17. ---. Essays? Puritan Orthodoxy and the 'Survivor Syndrome' in Mary Rowlandson's Indian Captivity Narrative. Early American Literature 22 (1987): 82-93.
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22 When an affronted House of Commons in April 1738 forbade the reporting of its debates at any time, regardless of whether or not the sessions had ended, the real college essays GM simply renamed its monthly leader Debates of the Senate of Lilliput, complete with thinly disguised anagrams or corruptions of the Members' names. 23 The device worked perfectly until Cave brazenly reported the treason trial of the Jacobite rebel, Simon, Baron Lovat, before the House of Lords in April 1747. Arrested, convicted of breach of privilege by on dreams hughes, the Upper Chamber, fined, and college admission essays compelled to marketing beg forgiveness on real, his knees at the bar of the Lords, 24 Cave reluctantly ordered a moratorium on the printing of the debates, only resuming the feature in 1752. With the death of Edward Cave in essay on dreams, 1754 and the succession of David Henry (1709-92) and later John Nichols (1745-1826) to the mantle of Sylvanus Urban, the GM entered into a period of tremendous growth, not only in the length of its monthly numbers but also in real college essays, the range of materials offered up to the magazine's readers. Henry began the transformation, working after 1778 in close cooperation with Nichols, who that year became part proprietor of the GM with Henry, handled much of the social marketing case studies editorial duties of the magazine during the college admission essays 1780s, and succeeded Henry as editor in critical thinking and learning, 1791. Under the two men's direction the real GM vastly expanded its literary and theatrical reviews, with John Hawkesworth (1720-73), 25 Rev.
John Duncombe (1729-86), and Richard Gough (1735-1809) serving successively as chief literary critics for the magazine. Mark Mason? At the same time, the GM all but abandoned the practice of allotting large amounts of space to excerpts from the newspaper press, with the exception of the early 1760s, when the nation was caught up in a contentious debate over Lord North's Peace of Paris. Just as the magazine in Cave's day brought mathematical and astronomical concerns before its readership, the GM under the real college admission aegis of my hero Henry and Nichols continued its coverage of pure and applied science, publishing letters on Halley's Comet, Herschel's discovery of Uranus, Vincent Lunardi's balloon flight (the first in Britain), and Edward Jenner's discovery of vaccination for college smallpox; 26 disquisitions on archaeology and numismatics; meteorological diaries; descriptions of newly invented agricultural implements, including a diagram of Jethro Tull's seed drill; 27 and synopses of the Transactions of the Royal Society . Building on readers' interest in Samuel Johnson's earlier series on the lives of personal celebrated admirals, the GM gave extensive space to accounts of college admission essays voyages of discovery, most notably a lengthy series of articles on Captain James Cook's voyage of 1768-71 in the Endeavour . 28 David Henry, who was a friend of Benjamin Franklin and a first cousin of Patrick Henry of Virginia, was particularly interested in news from America, and under his direction and that of Nichols the GM provided substantial coverage of events in the New World, reporting with remarkable impartiality the hughes build-up and college progress of the essay hughes American Revolution and milestones in the history of the new republic, including the ratification of the Constitution (printed in its entirety), 29 festivities attending the inauguration of George Washington (himself a subscriber to the GM ), 30 the naming of Washington's first cabinet and Supreme Court appointees, 31 the laying out of the District of Columbia, 32 and the publication of Washington's Farewell Address (printed in entirety). 33 Henry and Nichols carried on Cave's tradition of embellishing the magazine with illustrative plates and filled the GM with superbly executed engravings of real college admission birds, maps, coins, Roman inscriptions, country houses, Bronze-Age dolmens, erupting volcanoes, and South Sea islanders. Nichols doubled the size of the social media case studies magazine, which grew from its original 600 pages per year to admission a two-part, 1,200-page annual publication beginning in dissertation architecture, 1783; and he expanded the GM 's obituary columns and memoirs to such a degree and with such assiduousness that he earned the unflattering sobriquet of death-hunter. College Admission? 34 Above all, Henry and Nichols presided over a magazine overwhelmingly devoted to original submissions from a growing readership, 35 submissions that flowed in by the thousands from media marketing case chiefly anonymous or pseudonymous contributors, avid to see their offerings in print. The use of fictitious signatures offered several advantages to Mr.
Urban's correspondents. In an age when many gentlemen still regarded writing for the papers as a dubious activity fit only for college admission Grub Street hacks, such literary camouflage provided contributors the protection of anonymity. It afforded others of more liberal mind the delight of concealing their identities behind classical pseudonyms, artfully crafted anagrams, and of venice all that gold misleading sets of initials. College Admission? In addition, the essay use of a variety of different signatures by the same contributors permitted them the amusement of essays deceiving their readers by essay to explain, corresponding with themselves, as well as the luxury of correcting their own mistakes with minimal loss of face. Thus in 1793 Samuel Pegge the Elder, signing L.E. (the terminal letters of his name), contributes a letter, Natural Son of Richard III, 36 correcting his own 1767 submission on the same subject, 37 signed T. Real? Row (the initial letters of the Rector of Whittington, his Derbyshire living). Dissertation On Landscape Architecture? In similar vein, John Hawkesworth in November 1764 sends the GM a piece signed J.H. enclosing Rules for Writing and Speaking correctly, which purports to be a Letter from a Father to a Daughter concerning grammar. 38 The next month Hawkesworth dispatches an unsigned letter, The Folly of useless Words exposed, 39 writing, To the very useful letter of your ingenious correspondent, p. 519, I shall take the real college admission liberty of adding, as a general rule, that useless words should be always carefully avoided. . . . John Nichols, himself a prolific contributor, was not above assuming the opposite gender to confuse his readers. Not only did he submit a multitude of essay on dreams by langston letters signed M. Real College Admission Essays? Green (taken from the name of his second wife, Martha Green); in media, addition, in a 1795 letter, Burial Ground of the Jews at Mile-end described, 40 Nichols, coyly signing himself Eusebia, writes, I don't know, Mr.
Urban, what you will say to my inquisitive pen. Your sex can introduce themselves into any house that bears the character of antique; but a female Antiquary can only under the friendly veil of an assumed name, in your Magazine, satisfy her boundless curiosity. Real College Admission? Since some women did contribute to the magazine, including Anna Seward (who generally signed her own name to critical mark her submissions), the real college admission essays GM 's readers probably accepted Nichols's deception. Subtle changes start to appear in the content of the GM during the early nineteenth century, as John Nichols began to relinquish more and more control of the operation of the magazine to his son, John Bowyer Nichols, who had become a partner in the firm in essay on dreams by langston hughes, 1800; and real college admission those changes accelerated after John Nichols's death in social, 1826. Under John Bowyer the magazine allotted an increased amount of space to religious topics, just as it would later expand its interest in college admission essays, antiquarian and merchant all that glitters gold essay archaeological submissions and reports from learned societies under the influence of John Bowyer's son, John Gough Nichols. College? An inevitable byproduct of the GM 's new focus was a diminution in merchant all that gold, the variety of its offerings, together with a loss of the sense of spontaneity that had distinguished the magazine for many decades. With changing times and customs fewer contributors indulged in the literary game of college admission signing letters with reversed initials, classical pseudonyms, or ingenious anagrams. With altered editorial policies and thinking mark the commencement of new series in admission essays, 1834 and 1856, less and less space was allotted to letters to dissertation on landscape architecture the editor from the GM 's far-flung readership.
The thousands of letters to Sylvanus Urban, by turns whimsical or argumentative or recondite, that had been the mainstay of the magazine under David Henry's and real college admission John Nichols's stewardship dwindled to a trickle, relegated increasingly to the Minor Correspondence page or to on landscape the filler rounding out each monthly number. Mr. Urban in his mid-nineteenth-century incarnation was clearly less interested in college admission, the topics and passions that had preoccupied his eighteenth-century readers: the interpretation of a troublesome passage in Juvenal; 41 details of a newly discovered Roman coin; 42 helpful methods for essay by langston destroying black beetles in London kitchens; 43 the college essays elucidation of the origins of the successful social media marketing phrase to run amuck; 44 the minute description of a curious, and . . . non-descript . . College? . caterpillar . . Critical And Learning Mark? . [,] uncommonly large and beautiful, found in a potato field in Kent. 45 Under the direction of John Bowyer Nichols and his editor, the essays Rev. John Mitford, longer articles and reviews, written by a staff of paid contributors, replaced the myriad short items and letters on a vast variety of subjects that had formerly crowded Mr. Urban's pages. 46 In addition, contributions tended more and successful social marketing case more to be signed, as authors ceased to bother with maintaining the pretense of anonymity. Unquestionably the Gentleman's Magazine in its mid-nineteenth-century format was quite a different animal from the periodical that had appeared under Edward Cave's direction a century and a quarter before.
Alterations in style and content only intensified in early 1850, when contributions signed with initials and pseudonyms virtually disappeared except for real college admission the Minor Correspondence section. In the mid 1860s the pace of change became precipitous. Is Not Essay? The Nichols family had already sold the magazine in real admission essays, 1856, and J. H. Parker (successor to John Nichols's grandson, John Gough Nichols, as editor) gave up his duties in 1865. The latest publishers (Bradbury, Evans, and Co.) launched a second new series (commencing with Vol. 220 for January- June 1866) with the sanguine promise that the GM would maintain its strength in dissertation architecture, antiquarian matters, cover a more diverse array of subjects in book reviews, reserve considerably more space for contemporary literature, and do an even better job in recording births, marriages, obituaries, and appointments.
Furthermore, the conductors assured their readers, 'Sylvanus Urban' also desires to admission lay open his columns much more extensively . . . to Original Correspondence, especially in matters of genealogy, topography, heraldry, local antiquities, personal and family history, folk-lore, philology, etc. 47. The promise of a Gentleman's Magazine redivivus was unhappily short-lived. Merchant All That? After a five-volume run, the second new series came to college essays an end and with it any attempt to restore the magazine to even a semblance of its old character. Vol. 225 (June-November 1868) ushered in a third new series, under the direction of a different editor (Joseph Hatton) and at the reduced price of 1 s . in place of half a crown.
Calling the GM one of the institutions of the country, 48 the new management in its Preface to readers gamely tried to evoke the mystique of Samuel Johnson and Edward Cave and and learning mark capitalize on the magazine's venerable past, a past of which it was clearly in awe. True, the essays Preface acknowledged, the Gentleman's Magazine would be abandoning any further attempt to provide comprehensive coverage of Politics, Science, Art, the parliamentary debates, literary criticism, or the activities of the learned societies, as [i]t is no longer desirable, it is indeed scarcely possible, for a monthly magazine to comprise the features to which the GM 's old audience had been accustomed. 49 Readers, however, could be assured that, as always, the staff would accept unsolicited contributions and attempt to find a place for successful media marketing case them in the GM 's pages. The new number . Admission? . . is merchant of venice all that glitters essay, another link in the long chain that reaches back to 'Edward Cave at St. John's Gate,' Hatton asserted. We give up no jot of the Urbanian Succession. . . . 50 But to anyone familiar with the magazine in its heyday the new management's attempt to affect the persona of Sylvanus Urban seems self-conscious, awkward, and college admission uncomfortably anachronistic, as if the GM 's mid-Victorian editor had unsuccessfully dressed himself in borrowed robes. In the course of the following two volumes (226-227) Hatton dropped all pretense of emulating the critical thinking mark mason gracious old magazine in which eighteenth- and early-nineteenth-century readers had delighted, abruptly withdrawing the welcome he had extended to real unsolicited letters and articles (those mainstays of the old GM ) and jettisoning the obituaries for once and for all. Clearly with the commencement of the third new series in low gmat score, mid 1868 the Gentleman's Magazine became an entirely different entity, a thing that Edward Cave, Samuel Johnson, David Henry, John Hawkesworth, Richard Gough, John Nichols, and their readers and contributors would not even have recognized. College Admission? It is a sad conclusion for all that essay anyone who (like John Goodford in 1824) would sign himself URBANI AMICUS. 51.
The Gentleman's Magazine has for many decades been the subject of college admission close scrutiny by essay, researchers endeavoring to determine the authorship of the vast number of anonymous and pseudonymous letters, articles, reviews, poems, memoirs, and real admission notes filling its volumes from dissertation on landscape architecture 1731 until mid-1868, when new editors recast the magazine and irretrievably altered its make-up. Many scholars have directed their attention to the initial decades of the GM 's existence, particularly the Edward Cave epoch (1731-54), attracted in part by the fact that those were the years that saw the bulk of Samuel Johnson's involvement with the magazine. Real College Admission Essays? Early studies by C. Lennart Carlson ( The First Magazine: A History of the Gentleman's Magazine [Providence: Brown UP, 1938]), Donald F. Bond (The Gentleman's Magazine, Modern Philology 38 : 85-100, with its extensive corrections and additions to Carlson), and Albert Pailler ( Edward Cave et le Gentleman's Magazine [1731-1754] [2 vols.; Lille: Atelier Reproduction des Theses, 1975]) provided numerous attributions of authorship of the GM 's poetry, as has Titia Ram's recent Magnitude in Marginality: Edward Cave and The Gentleman's Magazine , 1731-1754, Containing a First-Line Index of all the Poems, With Notes and References on essay to explain score, Authorship (N.p.: Gottmann Fainsilber Katz, 1999). While Carlson, Bond, Pailler, and Ram have concentrated overwhelmingly on real college admission essays, the GM 's poetry, works by other scholars have focused on identifying prose submissions to the GM , particularly John L. Abbott's John Hawkesworth: Eighteenth-Century Man of of venice is not essay Letters (Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1982) for Hawkesworth contributions; Bertram H. Davis's A Proof of college admission essays Eminence: The Life of Sir John Hawkins (Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1973) for Hawkins finds; Claude E. Jones's Charles Woodmason as a Poet ( South Carolina Historical Magazine 59 : 189-194) for submissions from colonial South Carolina by Woodmason; James M. Osborn's Dr. Johnson's 'Intimate Friend' ( TLS , 9 October 1953, p. 652) for essay to explain low gmat Stephen Barrett finds; James L. Clifford's Johnson and Lauder ( Philological Quarterly 54 : 342-356) for William Lauder and William Brakenridge entries; and Arthur Sherbo's From the Gentleman's Magazine . . . ( Studies in Bibliography 35 : 285-305). In addition, numerous specialists in the literary career of Samuel Johnson have worked painstakingly to identify an real, impressive number of Johnson's contributions to the GM . (See Section V below.) When James M. Kuist published The Nichols File of The Gentleman's Magazine: Attributions of Authorship and Other Documentation in Editorial Papers at the Folger Library (Madison: U of media Wisconsin P, 1982), he provided scholars of the real college admission essays periodical press with an indispensable resource: the identification of authorship of nearly 14,000 hitherto anonymous articles, reviews, poems, and social case other items appearing in the Gentleman's Magazine from its beginning in real college admission essays, 1731 until 1856, when the descendants of John Nichols relinquished ownership of the essay magazine. The publication in 1982 of Kuist's Nichols File , supplying as it did the identification of the authors of essays thousands of the GM 's articles and letters on politics, history, theology, travel, science, inventions, medicine, literature, philology, and antiquarian lore, was justly welcomed as a signal achievement in critical thinking mason, recent British press history. Admission? However, Kuist's Nichols File , though breathtaking in its accomplishment, did not purport to be a complete listing of all the known or decipherable authors of the myriad letters, articles, queries, obituaries, and verse addressed over a century and a quarter to thinking mark mason Sylvanus Urban.
In fact, Kuist made a conscious decision to confine his list to those attributions of authorship specifically identified in handwritten marginal annotations by John Bowyer Nichols 52 and others in his family in real college admission, the staff copy of the GM , now housed in essay, the Folger Library. Those marginal attributions of authorship in the GM , put together by the Nichols family in a massive reconstruction of their office files after a destructive fire in 1808, contain perforce a multitude of omissions, some the result of haste or sheer carelessness on real admission, the part of the annotators, some because the authorship of certain articles and letters defied all efforts at identification, others conversely because the essay score authors' identities seemed at the time too obvious for anyone to bother writing down. Kuist's editorial guidelines, namely, to reproduce the attributions in the Nichols File exactly as written, unavoidably preserved the annotators' omissions as well as their errors. Sometimes John Bowyer Nichols and real his fellow annotators inadvertently skipped over glitters essay, items--obviously identifiable signatures of Crito (John Duncombe), for example, or of Scrutator and Academicus (pseudonyms used habitually by both John Loveday the Elder and John Loveday the Younger, between whom, incidentally, the Nichols File fails to distinguish). In other cases the Nichols family recorded attributions for most but not all of the articles in a series. For instance, the admission file assigned (as Kuist notes) numbers 1-8 of a 1786 series entitled The Trifler to a Mr. Fush of Pembroke College, Oxford, when in actuality Edmund Fushe also wrote numbers 9-12 of the architecture series 53 before poisoning himself with arsenic at the age of 17. In still other cases, where several poems signed with the identical pseudonym or initials appear on a single page, the real annotator inscribed the author's name only once. Since Kuist's list prints only the specific poem against critical thinking and learning mark which the essays annotator happened to write the name, evidence that could be used to architecture add a wealth of new attributions to The Nichols File is thus excluded. In addition, John Bowyer Nichols and his family seem to college admission have ignored crucial geographical evidence when compiling their file of attributions of authorship, failing to take advantage of the opportunity to match authors with the towns or even street addresses whence they wrote. As many of the GM 's contributors chose in occasional bursts of on dreams by langston candor to forego the real anonymity of initials and sign their full names, it is essay to explain, possible to admission search forward and backward through the pages of the merchant all that glitters essay GM , identifying with reasonable certainty a number of unassigned contributions by means of pairing sets of admission essays initials with place-names.
J.H., a common enough signature, is for successful media marketing studies example safely identifiable as that of John Holt when it happens to appear in letters dated from Holt's home of Walton, near Liverpool, during the period when Holt was an active contributor to the magazine. In some cases, inevitably, the annotations recorded in the Nichols File are patently wrong. A major case in point consists of the file's identification of the real essays person who used the signature L.E. as Samuel Pegge the Younger. When the Nichols family members reconstructed their records in the wake of the personal my hero conflagration of 1808, they assumed that the signature L.E. appearing from 1788 through 1795 was that of Pegge the Younger. Thus Kuist lists it for forty-two items included in The Nichols File . However, a powerful piece of earlier and contradictory evidence exists which casts doubt on admission essays, that assumption. Immediately following the death of Samuel Pegge the Elder the GM published a three-part unsigned memoir of Pegge by his son, Samuel Pegge the critical and learning mason Younger, 54 subjoining to it a comprehensive listing of virtually all of Pegge's writings published in the GM and elsewhere. 55 The 1796 list categorically attributes the L.E. articles in question to Pegge the Elder, a designation that is college admission, quite convincing. In the personal essay first place, the L.E. articles end abruptly in August 1795, a few months before Pegge the Elder's death. Second, if the GM 's comprehensive Pegge list had erroneously attributed dozens of items to Pegge the Elder, Pegge the real college essays Younger presumably would have written to the GM to correct the critical thinking and learning mark mason historical record. There is no evidence that he did so.
Furthermore, according to Nichols himself, Pegge the real college Younger's contributions to the GM were few in number. To Mr. Pegge we are indebted for the . . Of Venice Is Not Gold Essay? . Memoir of college admission essays his learned Father, Nichols wrote, and for several occasional contributions to the Gentleman's Magazine (italics mine). 56 The bulk of the evidence adduced thus points overwhelmingly to Pegge the Elder as the author of the essay L.E. Real College Admission Essays? items, items incorrectly attributed in The Nichols File to essay hughes his son. With the help of the lists of known pseudonyms and sets of initials provided in Kuist's own index, plus a mine of information contained in contemporary letters, literary memoirs, and the GM 's invaluable obituaries, as well as determined detective work involving the real college essays unscrambling of anagrams and the use of geographical links, it has been possible to fill literally thousands of the gaps in the record. Since the media studies appearance of Kuist's Nichols File , a large number of post-Kuist articles and books by admission, various scholars have contributed significantly to the expansion or correction of identifications of authorship provided in The Nichols File or in earlier scholarship. Those publications include John L. Abbott's The Making of the Johnsonian Canon (in Johnson after Two Hundred Years , ed. Paul J. Korshin [Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1986]) for John Hawkesworth contributions; Marion B. Smith's South Carolina and The Gentleman's Magazine ( South Carolina Historical Magazine 95 : 102-129) for and learning John Lining contributions; Kenneth Monkman's Did Sterne Contrive to Publish a 'Sermon' in 1738? ( The Shandean: An Annual Devoted to Laurence Sterne and real His Works 4 : 111-133) for two Laurence Sterne items; Richard C. Cole's Recovering William James (fl.
1785-1797), English Writer ( ELN: English Language Notes 36 [June 1999]: 64-78) for items by William James and his wife; Robert D. Pepper's Gilbert White and the 'Gentleman's Magazine' ( TLS , 31 March-6 April 1989, p. 339) and critical thinking mason Gilbert White's Tiny Mouse: A Sceptical Objection in 1789 ( Notes and Queries n.s. 37, no. 3 [September 1990]: 315-317) for several new attributions to Gilbert White of Selborne; Arthur Sherbo's John Coleridge and the Gentleman's Magazine ( Bulletin of Research in the Humanities 86 : 86-93), Additions to the Nichols File of the Gentleman's Magazine ( Studies in Bibliography 37 : 228-233), The English weather, The Gentleman's Magazine , and the brothers White ( Archives of Natural History 12 : 23-29), More from the Gentleman's Magazine : Graves, Mainwaring, Wren, Sterne, Pope, Bubb Dodington, Goldsmith, Hill, Herrick, Cowper, Chatterton ( Studies in Bibliography 40 : 164-174), Further Additions to the Nichols File of the Gentleman's Magazine ( Studies in Bibliography 42 : 249-254), The Achievement of George Steevens (New York: Peter Lang, 1990), Thomas Martyn (1735-1825), 'P.B.C.': his contributions to the Gentleman's Magazine ( Archives of Natural History 22 : 51-59), Letters to Mr. Urban of the Gentleman's Magazine , 1751-1811 (Studies in British History 44 [Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen P, 1997]), and William Hamilton Reid (fl. 1786-1824): A Forgotten Poet ( Studies in Scottish Literature 29 : 245-257) for numerous supplementary attributions both of prose and verse; and my six-part Attributions of Authorship in admission essays, the Gentleman's Magazine , 1731-77: A Supplement to Kuist ( Studies in Bibliography 44 : 271-302), Attributions of Authorship . . . , 1778- 92 . . . ( Studies in Bibliography 45 : 158-187), Attributions of Authorship . . Dissertation? . , 1793-1808 . . . ( Studies in Bibliography 46 : 320-349), Attributions of Authorship . . . , 1809-26 . . . ( Studies in Bibliography 47 : 164-195, Attributions of Authorship . . . , 1827-48 . . . ( Studies in real college admission, Bibliography 49 : 176-207), and Attributions of of venice all that gold essay Authorship . . . , 1849-68, and Addenda, 1733-1838 . . . Admission? ( Studies in of venice, Bibliography 50 : 322-58), as well as my Topographical, Antiquarian, Astronomical, and Meteorological Contributions by George Smith of Wigton in real essays, the Gentleman's Magazine , 1735-59 ( ANQ 14 [Spring 2001]: 5-12). Under the auspices of the Bibliographical Society of the University of Virginia and essay to explain score the university's Electronic Text Center, I published from college admission essays 1996 through 1999 three electronic databases amassing collectively nearly 20,000 attributions of authorship of items appearing in merchant all that glitters gold, the GM : My first electronic database, Attributions of Authorship in the Gentleman's Magazine , 1731-1868: A Supplement to Kuist (Charlottesville: Bibliographical Society of the University of Virginia, 1996) was designed to integrate and in several instances correct the identifications of authorship I had published in my six-part Attributions of Authorship in the Gentleman's Magazine . Real Essays? . . , Studies in Bibliography 44 (1991): 271-302, 45 (1992): 158-187, 46 (1993): 320-349, 47 (1994): 164-195, 49 (1996): 176-207, and 50 (1997): 322- 58. Attributions of Authorship . . By Langston Hughes? . : A Supplement to Kuist added approximately 4,000 new or corrected attributions of authorship in the GM to the items catalogued by Kuist in the Nichols File . In addition to providing an integrated list, publication of my finds in the form of an essays, electronic database had the further advantage of insuring that the information contained in and learning mark mason, the database was accessible to scholars through a variety of means including searches by real college admission, author, title, volume and page, date, source of attribution, and (when applicable) pseudonyms used by contributors.
My second electronic database, Attributions of essay Authorship in the Gentleman's Magazine , 1731-1868: A Synthesis of Finds Appearing Neither in Kuist's Nichols File nor in de Montluzin's Supplement to Kuist (Charlottesville: Bibliographical Society of the college University of Virginia, 1997) brought together over 1,850 additional attributions of authorship of items in the GM . Critical Thinking And Learning Mark Mason? Those items, synthesized for the first time in one comprehensive supplementary list, were compiled from real essays approximately sixty books and articles by various scholars who, over a number of decades, had made their own significant contributions to the identification of the anonymous authors of the GM 's letters, reviews, articles, poems, and staff notes. Since those additional attributions were scattered through very many publications (many of them out of print), and since a number of those publications bore titles nondescriptive of their relevance to Gentleman's Magazine studies, researchers interested in successful social media studies, the GM had long been hard-pressed to make effective use of them, even when aware of their existence. Real College Essays? The publication of Attributions of Authorship in the Gentleman's Magazine , 1731-1868: A Synthesis of successful social media marketing studies Finds . . . , by consolidating information hitherto scattered throughout numerous and often obscure references, thus dramatically simplified the efforts of GM researchers to track down attributions of authorship that did not appear in Kuist's Nichols File or in my first GM database. Taken together, my first two GM databases added forty percent to the total number of items available in Kuist, presenting the finds in a way that permitted researchers to conduct an electronic search of the two GM databases simultaneously. The purpose of my third electronic text, Attributions of Authorship in real admission essays, the Gentleman's Magazine : An Electronic Version of James M. Kuist's The Nichols File of the Gentleman's Magazine (Charlotte: Bibliographical Society of the University of dissertation architecture Virginia, 1999), was to recast Kuist's Nichols File , with its 13,950 attributions of authorship, as an online database in a format identical to that used in my first two GM electronic publications. Researchers already familiar with Kuist's Nichols File in its bound version are of course aware that The Nichols File contains two catalogues. Admission? The first (and by essay, far the more valuable for most users) consists of the real college admission aforementioned list of nearly 14,000 attributions of authorship of items printed in the Gentleman's Magazine , attributions transcribed by Kuist and his research associates directly from the marginal annotations in the Folger copy of the GM . Catalogue II, Documents in the Gentleman's Magazine , contains lists of drawings, printed materials in the Folger Nichols File, and a variety of manuscripts, associated documents, and other papers pertaining to the GM , either tipped into critical, the pages of the magazine or maintained separately by John Nichols and his descendants. Though Catalogue II provides valuable information for students of the Nichols family publishing business (and though it has furnished me with many useful clues in my own efforts to identify contributors to the magazine in the mid nineteenth century), it was not germane to the scope of the online version of college admission Kuist's Nichols File and thus was excluded from the database. The greatest challenge in converting the social media case studies printed version of Kuist into an electronic format compatible with my earlier GM databases was one of rearrangement of the material. Kuist's Nichols File as originally published is first arranged alphabetically by author, then alphabetically within each author's entry in terms of the often numerous pseudonyms or initials the author used, and then chronologically within those subdivisions. Despite the best efforts of college admission essays Kuist's team of researchers, there are unfortunately frequent errors in the above sequence, not only in alphabetizing but in the listing of volume numbers, page numbers, dates, and signatures as well.
Since each of essay by langston hughes my GM databases begins with a complete chronological listing of the attributions contained therein (followed by an alphabetical synopsis by contributor as a cross reference), the first task was to convert an real college, alphabetical arrangement of all of the all that gold attributions in Kuist's volume into a strictly chronological listing. It was then essential to compare each typed entry with the corresponding item in the microfilm version of the GM itself, making sure that errors in real admission, volume numbers, page numbers, dates, and signatures were corrected. My Hero? I also used the opportunity to substitute exact titles for Kuist's shortened ones, to cite book titles in the review sections in their entirety unless doing so was impractical, to list proper names in full whenever possible, and to admission essays add interpolated explanatory phrases where needed. The present database, Attributions of Authorship in the Gentleman's Magazine , 1731- 1868: An Electronic Union List , is designed to bring together in one key-word-searchable and fully browsable electronic text the total number of known attributions of authorship of the GM 's letters, articles, reviews, poems, and other items, gleaned from all available published and unpublished sources for the magazine. It consists in part of an integration of score my three previous electronic databases, as corrected and refined. However, the union list goes far beyond those texts to college admission expand the citations of thousands of items in order to make them more conducive to key-word searches, to create new indices of contributors and of pseudonyms, and to incorporate over 6,000 new finds, many of them from the on dreams hughes GM 's eighteenth-century run (the period least well represented in real college admission essays, Kuist's Nichols File ). Designed to facilitate searches by of venice all that is not gold, proper name and subject (as well as by volume, page, date, and pseudonymous signature), and presented in a logical and clear sequence, Attributions of Authorship in the Gentleman's Magazine , 1731-1868: An Electronic Union List at last makes it possible to bring together in one electronically accessible, fully browsable, and user-friendly format the 25,585 known attributions of college admission authorship in Georgian England's greatest magazine. Like my three earlier GM electronic texts, the union list contains a complete Chronological Listing of all of the attributions of authorship contained in the database, followed by an alphabetized Synopsis by Contributor supplied as a cross reference to the approximately 2,362 contributors whose work is encompassed in the database. Expanding upon an additional feature I had provided in personal, the online version of Kuist's Nichols File , I have also included a comprehensive Index of Pseudonyms and Initials used by way of signature in all of the items cited in the present database.
The present database, like my first GM electronic text and the six-part series of articles that preceded it, makes extensive evidentiary use of college admission Kuist's list of thousands of manuscript articles and unprinted letters to the GM 's editors dating mainly from the 1830s, 1840s, and glitters gold essay 1850s, materials which form the bulk of real college essays Catalogue II in Kuist's Nichols File . With the help of information contained in Catalogue II it has been possible to arrive at hundreds of attributions of authorship, though the use of Catalogue II requires caution. Not every would-be contributor proposing to review a work for the magazine was in the end commissioned to do so. In addition, as Catalogue II demonstrates, in various instances several writers sent letters to Bowyer Nichols and his staff offering to review the dissertation same publication. As a result, I have continued to treat as tentative all attributions of authorship based on offers from would-be contributors to supply book reviews, memoirs, and the like, unless the evidence makes it certain that the proffered material was actually accepted. College Essays? I have continued to designate those attributions as tentative where they appear in the union list.
The union list, like the online version of Kuist's Nichols File , contains hundreds of attributions of review articles written by dissertation on landscape, Richard Gough, the leading reviewer for the Gentleman's Magazine during the real college admission essays late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Those items present special difficulties, because the Nichols File contains disconcerting ambiguities with regard to their proper attribution. Since their ultimate authority is Gough himself, those attributions ironically should be among the most certain in the GM . Knowing that his old friend John Nichols was struggling to reassemble his papers and literary collections after the 1808 fire at his printing office, Gough kindly bequeathed to Nichols his personal set of volumes of the GM with Gough's own contributions marked therein. When John Bowyer Nichols and his fellow annotators set about reconstructing their files, they transferred Gough's annotations to their own set of GM volumes. 57 However, in many cases Gough's book reviews were not marked individually.
Instead, Gough's contributions to the review sections of the GM were all too often designated with the catch-all phrase, the various works on these pages. Hughes? Kuist in the printed version of the Nichols File repeated those words exactly, bloc-listing entire review sections instead of listing the reviews individually. (Incidentally, Kuist's decision to preserve the designation en masse of Richard Gough's reviews accounts for nearly 800 items in the thousand-odd discrepancy between the nearly 13,000 attributions Kuist thought he had in the Nichols File and the 13,950 attributions that he actually had.) Sometimes the admission designation the various works on these pages is clear enough, but in other cases the merchant is not gold essay placement of articles on a page in the GM makes attribution of authorship very difficult indeed. In preparing the union list I have maintained certain conventions I adopted in the online version of the Nichols File to assure consistency in real admission essays, the listing of Richard Gough's attributions of personal essay my hero authorship. First, it is clear enough that if a review begins on a page included in the specific page range but ends after that page range (or conversely ends on a page included in the specified page range but begins before that page range), it was not meant to be attributed to Gough. I have not included any such items in Gough's list.
However, the main problem lies in numerous instances in which a piece definitely attributed to Gough ends on the last page of real admission essays a page range but is followed by personal, one or more works that fall entirely on that same page. Should they also be attributed to Gough, since they are certainly among the real college admission various works on these pages? The same difficulty arises at the beginning of and learning mason a specified range of pages, when several reviews fall totally on the first page of the page range, followed by a review that spills over from the admission essays first to essay to explain the second page in the range. Should the preceding reviews on the first page likewise be attributed to Gough? Unless there is a convincing reason to make an exception, I have attributed such ambiguous reviews that fall at the beginning or end of the page range provisionally to Gough, including the designation [? (attribution unclear in Kuist)] in the text of the entry. Though the attribution of certain items to Gough remains perforce an imprecise business, the application of the above conventions at least insures consistency. 58.
The identification of Samuel Johnson's contributions to the GM presents unusual difficulties centering upon a host of conflicting claims, published over many years, concerning Johnson's authorship of various disputed items. This is particularly true with regard to essays Johnson's role in merchant all that glitters is not, the compilation of essays portions of the parliamentary debates. In preparing the union list I have continued to thinking and learning mason follow conventions I developed for my second GM database to govern the inclusion of purported Johnson attributions. For a discussion of the conflicting evidence with regard to Johnson's contributions to the GM and a synopsis of the guidelines I have adopted for the inclusion of Johnson items in the union list, readers should consult Section V of this introduction. The union list contains over 6,000 new attributions of authorship.
Many of them involve items excerpted from the London newspaper press chiefly during the real admission essays 1730s-1760s, items written for the papers by such contributors as Samuel Johnson, Henry Fielding, Lord Chesterfield, Arthur Murphy, John Hawkesworth, John Wilkes, Charles Churchill, Tobias Smollett, and Henry St. John, Lord Bolingbroke, which were not listed in the earlier electronic texts. In preparing the revised union list, I have decided that, though those items are reprinted material, they should nevertheless be included where appropriate, in order to make the record of authorship of items in the GM as complete as possible. (For a full discussion of the guidelines I have used for the inclusion of newspaper excerpts, readers should consult Section VI of this introduction.) The union list also makes use of on landscape architecture various attributions of authorship kindly furnished to me by Edward W. Pitcher, Emeritus Professor of English, the University of Alberta, from his massive research on eighteenth-century magazines, and by Julian Pooley, Director of the Surrey History Centre, from his ongoing Nichols Project, a tremendous undertaking dedicated to the creation of an electronic database cataloging thousands of manuscript letters written by real college admission, and to architecture John Nichols and his descendants which are currently scattered throughout many public and private collections on both sides of the Atlantic. In addition, in order to make the union list as comprehensive and useful as possible, I have chosen to include several thousand items which, though signed, bear only a partial and therefore potentially confusing signature. Writers familiar enough to eighteenth-century readers have in many cases sunk into obscurity; and though the signatures J. Sackette or G. Smith would have meaning for the GM 's subscribers in admission, the 1740s, it is useful for readers today to known that those signatures refer specifically to Rev. John Sackette (d. Successful Social Media Case Studies? 1753; clergyman and poet) and to George Smith of Wigton (d. 1773; astronomer, topographer, and traveler), respectively.
The union list also incorporates Arthur Sherbo's valuable corrections concerning items by real college admission, Rev. My Hero? John Kynaston (who wrote under the college admission essays signatures Q. of Wigan and Q. of Caerhaes, Cornwall, and whose work I had earlier misattributed to Richard Gough). Throughout the union list I have made every reasonable effort to list all proper names in full, tracking down the thinking mark mason individuals in question in the Dictionary of National Biography , the Oxford and Cambridge alumni lists, the British Library's General Catalogue of Printed Books , Robert Watt's Bibliotheca Britannica (Edinburgh, 1824), David Erskine Baker's Biographia Dramatica (London, 1812), the GM obituary lists, and other references. Contributors to the GM , especially in college, the eighteenth century, could be maddeningly inexact in referring to persons, who were generally identified by surname only (Mr. Essay To Explain Score? Smith, Dr. Middleton), by real college admission essays, pseudonym (Clericus, your recent Correspondent from all that glitters is not essay Wigton), or by ambiguous references to title (Earl of H---ke, the late Bishop of London).
The GM 's index-makers, even the otherwise meticulous John Nichols himself, made no attempt to remedy the real college essays deficiency but merely opted to record names in indices as originally listed in the text. Indeed, indices of persons mentioned in of venice essay, the lengthy lists of births, marriages, deaths, appointments, and preferments for the early decades of the GM habitually provided nothing beyond surnames, leaving researchers with the mind-boggling task of college admission searching, for example, through hundreds of citations (many directing the reader to the wrong volume or page) for an elusive Mr. White, full name unknown. Any GM researcher who has wrestled with the problem of incomplete references to dissertation on landscape architecture persons will feel instant sympathy with Rev. Samuel Pegge the Elder, who in a fit of exasperation wrote in 1792 to rail against both the magazine's careless omission of first names and its frequent slip-ups in citation: A Gentleman, whose signature is real admission, G.M. . . . proposes to give information of an English translation of dissertation Homer, by the Bp. of Ossory; and the account appears to be very satisfactory. But who is this Bp. of Ossory, now defunct? I am in the dark, and cannot help myself, as there is admission, no series of the prelates of that see in any book I have; and media marketing 500 or 1000 of your readers, Mr. Urban, I am inclined to admission essays believe, are in the same predicament. But the paper in question, it may be said, is in merchant of venice glitters is not gold, answer to Academicus . But in real admission essays, what year, and in what month, and in what page, am I to find Mr. Academicus?
So that I am in personal essay, the dark here again. In short, Sir, one would always wish authors to be as plain and explicit as they can, and to give their readers no unnecessary or perplexing trouble. Another culpable piece of conduct, Mr. Urban, in many of your very numerous correspondents, is, that they say, Mr. Real College Admission Essays? Jackson , or Mr. Thompson , c. without giving the critical thinking and learning mark Christian name of the person; as if there was no other person of the real college admission essays name in England but the party there spoken of; whereas every body knows what numbers of Jacksons and Thompsons we have in merchant of venice glitters gold essay, this island.
One name might do in the Saxon times, where few surnames were used, the Christian names were so various, and the country was not so populous as now; but at this time, it is real college essays, inexcusable in writers to successful media marketing case omit the Christian names of such popular denominations as Smith, Taylor, Wood, c. without premising the prenomen, unless the person intended be very eminent, or some way concerned with the business in hand. Following up on the expanded form of citation that I had introduced into the online version of Kuist's Nichols File , I have taken the opportunity to replace the college essays short titles listed in thousands of thinking and learning items in my first and second GM databases with complete titles for all letters, articles, poems, and book reviews. As a further assistance to college users, I have taken care to add explanatory phrases in brackets to personal essay indicate subject matter (Catholic Emancipation, slave trade, Test Act, Regency Bill, etc.) in admission essays, instances of titles that are otherwise nondescriptive of the contents of the items in question. Critical Mark Mason? In the real college admission essays case of of venice all that is not gold certain contributors (notably James Roche and James Temple Mansel) who wrote unusually discursive essays, I have made sure to include in the titles all of the various subjects that appear as page headings in the articles. Real? My aim throughout has been to make the union list not just a listing of who wrote what in the Gentleman's Magazine but also a user-friendly resource for researchers interested in English literature, history, economics, medicine, science, theological controversies, topography, and antiquarian matters, presenting the text in a way that would not only be fully browsable but would readily permit key-word searches by name or topic. Researchers attempting to essay hughes piece together an accounting of which items Samuel Johnson did or did not write for the GM must sift through the college claims and counterclaims advanced by numerous Johnson scholars. The obvious starting points are William Prideaux Courtney's and David Nichol Smith's A Bibliography of Samuel Johnson (Oxford: Clarendon P, 1915), the first of the twentieth-century attempts to put together a reliable Johnson canon, and J. D. Fleeman's A Bibliography of the Works of Samuel Johnson, Treating of his Published Works from the Beginnings to 1984 , 2 vols. (Oxford: Clarendon P, 2000); 60 W. J. Bate, John M. Essay Low Gmat Score? Bullitt, and L. F. Admission? Powell, eds., The Idler and merchant of venice all that glitters The Adventurer (vol. 2 of admission essays The Yale Edition of the Works of Samuel Johnson [New Haven: Yale UP, 1963]; W. J. Bate and Albrecht B. Strauss, eds., The Rambler (vols. 3-5 of The Yale Edition of the Works of Samuel Johnson [New Haven: Yale UP, 1969]; E. L. McAdam, Jr., and George Milne, eds., Samuel Johnson: Poems (vol. Critical And Learning Mark Mason? 6 of The Yale Edition of the Works of Samuel Johnson [New Haven: Yale UP, 1964]); Donald J. Greene, ed., Samuel Johnson: Political Writings (vol.
10 of The Yale Edition of the Works of Samuel Johnson [New Haven: Yale UP, 1977]); and the Johnson entry in The New Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature (ed. George Watson; vol. 2: 1660-1800 [Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1971]). The search must then continue through an examination of real admission essays claims concerning purported Johnson contributions to mark the GM that have been put forward in J. Reading's Poems by Johnson ( TLS , 11 September 1937, p. 656); D. J. Greene's Was Johnson Theatrical Critic of the real admission Gentleman's Magazine ? ( Review of English Studies n.s. 3 : 158-161); Benjamin Beard Hoover's Samuel Johnson's Parliamentary Reporting: Debates in on landscape architecture, the Senate of Lilliput (Berkeley: U of California P, 1953); James L. Clifford's Young Samuel Johnson (London: William Heinemann, 1955); Edward A. Bloom's Samuel Johnson in real college, Grub Street (Providence: Brown UP, 1957); Jacob Leed's Samuel Johnson and of venice essay the 'Gentleman's Magazine': An Adjustment to the Canon ( Notes and college admission Queries 102 : 210-213), Samuel Johnson and the Gentleman's Magazine : Studies in the Canon of His Miscellaneous Prose Writings, 1738-1744 (Diss.; U of Chicago, 1958), and Two Notes on Johnson and The Gentleman's Magazine ( Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America 54 : 101-110); Donald J. Greene's Some Notes on Johnson and the Gentleman's Magazine ( PMLA 74 : 75-84); Gwin J. Kolb's More Attributions to Dr. Personal Essay? Johnson ( Studies in English Literature 1500-1900 1 : 77-95); Arthur Sherbo's Samuel Johnson and The Gentleman's Magazine , 1750-1755 (in Johnsonian Studies , ed.
Magdi Wahba [Cairo: n.p., 1962]); Donald J. Real College? Greene's The Development of the Johnson Canon (in Restoration and on landscape Eighteenth-Century Literature: Essays in admission essays, Honor of Alan Dugald McKillop , ed. Carroll Camden [Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1963]); F. V. Bernard's Common and Superior Sense: A New Attribution to essay hughes Johnson ( Notes and real college admission essays Queries n.s. 14 : 176-180) and Johnson and the Authorship of Four Debates ( PMLA 82 : 408-419); John L. Abbott's Samuel Johnson and 'The Life of Dr. Richard Mead,' Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 54 (1971): 23; Timothy Erwin's The Life of Savage , Voltaire, and a Neglected Letter ( Notes and Queries 30 : 525-526), John L. On Landscape Architecture? Abbott's The Making of the Johnsonian Canon in Johnson after Two Hundred Years 127-139; John A. Vance's Johnson's Historical Reviews (in Fresh Reflections on Samuel Johnson: Essays in Criticism , ed. Prem Nath [Troy, New York: Whitston, 1987]); and Thomas Kaminski's brilliant work, The Early Career of Samuel Johnson (New York: Oxford UP, 1987), which is rich not only in new Johnson attributions but also in real college, William Guthrie finds. Certainly one of the central issues in Johnson scholarship concerns the extent of the role played by Johnson in the GM 's printing of the parliamentary debates. I have already taken note of the haphazard manner in which the magazine re-created the debates, relying on the hit-or-miss efforts of Edward Cave and his band of spectators in the galleries to listen attentively to the speeches in personal, the chambers, take surreptitious notes when they could, and later reconstruct the real gist of essay what Lords and Commons had said, turning out a version of the debates that was part summary, part fictionalized rhetorical flourishes. Since it was very often Johnson who supplied those rhetorical flourishes, recasting the speeches to such an extent that they were more his own than their nominal authors' words, the duration of Johnson's involvement in the enterprise is of key importance in real admission, the matter of essay low gmat assigning attributions. For a long time the real college admission essays standard authority on Johnson's participation in the writing of the debates has been Hoover's 1953 Samuel Johnson's Parliamentary Reporting: Debates in successful social media studies, the Senate of Lilliput . College Admission? Greene in Some Notes on Johnson and the Gentleman's Magazine and mason Bernard in real college admission, Johnson and the Authorship of Four Debates (both cited above) have attributed some additional debates to Johnson, in particular claiming that Johnson's production of the debates did not cease with early 1744 but extended throughout that year.
Kaminski has added further possible Johnson contributions to the debates in his authoritative and extremely detailed Early Career of Samuel Johnson , which has displaced both Clifford's Young Samuel Johnson and Bloom's Samuel Johnson in Grub Street as the best available account of Johnson's early career as a writer for the Magazine . In synthesizing the attributions of authorship listed in this database, I have followed Kaminski in assigning to the Scottish historian William Guthrie the parliamentary debates that appear in the GM 's volume 8 (1738), with revisions by Johnson, and likewise those in volume 9 (1739) and the beginning of volume 10 (1740), without revisions by Johnson. I have accepted Kaminski's attribution to Guthrie of several of the debates printed in the middle of volume 10 (with revisions by Johnson), that in GM 10 (1740): 530-545 to Guthrie alone, and the opening two paragraphs of that in GM 10 (1740): 579 provisionally to Johnson. Hughes? Beginning with the debate printed in GM 10 (1740): 585-592 through that in GM 14 (1744): 59-64 Johnson was clearly the sole author, as shown (in the college cases of the debates in GM 10 : 585-592 and 11 : 2-13) by Bernard and Kaminski and as asserted for the rest of the period by essay to explain low gmat, Courtney and Smith in their Bibliography of Samuel Johnson and by Hoover in Samuel Johnson's Parliamentary Reporting . Johnson may also have written the debate on pay for Hanoverian troops that appeared in admission, GM 14 (1744): 64-67 (for which see Courtney and Smith, Hoover, and Greene) and probably contributed that in GM 14 (1744): 119-125. On Landscape? Bernard claims the debates in GM 14 (1744): 125-137 and college 175-186 for Johnson as well. Greene (echoed by Bernard but vigorously disputed by Kaminski) contends that Johnson may also have written the debates printed throughout the rest of 1744. I have included those provisional attributions in social, the database, designating them in each case by a question mark to indicate that scholarly opinion is still unresolved on those items. As for the contention put forward by Sir John Hawkins in his Life of Johnson that John Hawkesworth succeeded Johnson as the author of the parliamentary debates, 61 Abbott in his John Hawkesworth: Eighteenth-Century Man of Letters declares himself unable to real college admission essays decide whether to accept or reject the claim. After long review, he writes, I could come to no conclusion on the basis of internal evidence, though external evidence would seem to support Hawkesworth's claim to essay score some of the debates. 62 In light of Abbott's reservations, I have deemed Hawkins's attribution of real college essays some of the later parliamentary debates to Hawkesworth to be too insubstantial to warrant inclusion in the database.
Researchers should note that I have deleted from the union list 51 supposed Johnson attributions that I had included in my second GM database, items claimed as Johnson's by and learning mark, Arthur Sherbo in his Samuel Johnson and The Gentleman's Magazine , 1750-1755, Johnsonian Studies , ed. Magdi Wahba (Cairo: n.p., 1962) 133-159. Professor Sherbo in his subsequent Letters to Mr. Urban of the Gentleman's Magazine , 1751-1811 , Studies in British History 44 (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen P, 1997) 229 disclaimed the attributions to Johnson contained in his 1962 article. I have retained in the union list six other Johnson items cited in the 1962 article, as they are independently attributed to Johnson in Edward A. College Essays? Bloom's Samuel Johnson in Grub Street (1957), Donald Greene's Was Johnson Theatrical Critic of the Gentleman's Magazine ? Review of English Studies n.s. 3 (1952): 158-161, and dissertation The New Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature (1971). Attributing authorship of excerpts from the newspaper press is an real essays, undertaking fraught with difficulty and especially susceptible to problems of inexactitude. Thinking Mark Mason? There is a world of difference, for example, between a verbatim excerpt from The Rambler , fully accepted as part of the Johnson canon, and a passage from the Weekly Miscellany , partly quoted and partly paraphrased, which was probably written by Rev. William Webster, the Weekly Miscellany 's leading spirit, but which might have been furnished by an unknown contributor. Between those two extremes lie many gradations in real admission, terms of the certainty (or lack thereof) with which one can assign authorship. The problem is compounded by the fact that eighteenth-century sources and modern-day scholars alike are sometimes woefully imprecise in describing the duties of various writers for essay the newspaper press.
Nicholas Amhurst was the author of the Craftsman , earlier press historians confidently aver, and every item bearing the signature Caleb D'anvers, the paper's fictitious editor, should be attributed to him. Nicholas Amhurst was the conductor of the Craftsman , other scholars state with more caution, leaving to their bemused readers the task of deciding exactly what the word conductor means. Nicholas Amhurst was the editor or the editor and chief writer of the Craftsman , still others write, progressively hedging their opinions even to the point of unhelpfully describing Amhurst by turns as author, conductor, and editor within the same handful of pages, as if the terms were interchangeable. Some, like Simon Varey, 63 contend that since so many writers for the Craftsman used the signature Caleb D'anvers, nothing thus signed can conclusively be attributed to real admission essays Nicholas Amhurst without additional corroborative evidence. As a result, researchers attempting to sort out who wrote what for the newspaper press are in many cases left to cope as best they can with various shades of ambiguity.
In compiling this union list, I have considered it imperative, first, to arrive at precise guidelines to essay my hero be used for inclusion or exclusion of newspaper excerpts and for determining the degree of certainty with which authorship can be assigned; second, to follow those guidelines with the utmost consistency; and third, to state them explicitly for the benefit of readers. Users of this database should note that in dealing with the attribution of newspaper excerpts, I have attempted throughout to err on the side of caution in college admission, separating the certain from the tentative and, in the case of the of venice glitters is not latter, to real essays differentiate clearly and consistently among various degrees of probability when assigning authorship. Though some users may disagree with the wisdom of including tentative attributions and may choose simply to ignore those items, they may be assured that I have made every effort to avoid the trap of essay on dreams by langston hughes indiscriminately mingling certainty and mere guesswork in attributing authorship. In the first place, it has been necessary to determine how to treat excerpts that are condensed or summarized. Real? As F. V. Bernard has noted, 64 Edward Cave's competitors complained constantly of his habit not only of pirating but of drastically condensing excerpts from newspapers and essay hughes journals until sometimes they were twisted out of all recognition by their authors. Cave's editorial practice of condensing material presents the problem of arriving at real, a standard to use in dealing with excerpts that are sometimes printed verbatim, sometimes printed with quoted material interspersed with editorial connective tissue, sometimes paraphrased, and mark mason sometimes simply summarized (on occasion with approving or disparaging comments by the GM included for good measure). In the GM union list I am including excerpts if they contain any verbatim material, even though passages in some instances are condensed. I am excluding items that are simply paraphrases or summaries. In addition, I am using the following conventions with regard to assigning authorship of college admission essays newspaper excerpts: I am including excerpts from to explain low gmat a number of newspapers in cases in real, which their authorship is a certainty or highly likely: The Adventurer : 13 John Hawkesworth and 3 Samuel Johnson excerpts (all accepted items in the Hawkesworth and Johnson canon) plus one Adventurer item that has been provisionally but convincingly attributed to Bonnell Thornton Auditor : 15 Arthur Murphy excerpts (all accepted items in the Murphy canon) Briton : 17 Tobias Smollett excerpts (all accepted items in the Smollett canon) Champion : two James Ralph excerpts signed Lilbourne and generally acknowledged as Ralph's Common Sense : 13 Chesterfield excerpts (accepted items in the Chesterfield canon) Connoisseur : some dozen excerpts jointly written by dissertation on landscape, George Colman the Elder and Bonnell Thornton and one written by John Boyle, 5th Earl of Orrery (authoritatively attributed to their authors in Alexander Chalmers's Historical and Biographical Preface to The Connoisseur 65 ) Corn-Cutter's Journal : four items provisionally attributed to Rev.
John Henley, who is thought to have been the chief writer of that newspaper. Covent-Garden Journal : some dozen Henry Fielding excerpts (all accepted items in the Fielding canon) Craftsman : 48 Bolingbroke items (including excerpts from college admission essays his Remarks on the History of England and his Dissertation upon essay to explain low gmat score Parties ); 36 probable Henry Fielding excerpts, convincingly attributed to him by Martin Battestin; 3 tentative Samuel Strutt items; and 2 George Lyttelton items; as well as 3 items tentatively attributed to William Pulteney and 111 items tentatively attributed to Nicholas Amhurst by Simon Varey 66 Daily Gazetteer : two known William Horsley items Drury-Lane Journal : one excerpt by Bonnell Thornton Englishman : one W. Real Essays? Prynne item which formed part of one of the only two issues in the run of the Englishman , conducted by Prynne) Fog's Journal : three Chesterfield item Gray's Inn Journal : several Arthur Murphy excerpts (all accepted items in the Murphy canon) Hyp-Doctor : approximately a dozen excerpts attributed to John Henley, the acknowledged author of that paper The Idler : 25 Samuel Johnson excerpts (all accepted items in the Johnson canon) and one excerpt that has been conclusively attributed to Bennet Langton The Inspector : several excerpts from personal essay Dr. John Hill, the known author of that paper Jacobite's Journal : some 16 Henry Fielding excerpts (all accepted items in the Fielding canon) Nonsense of Common-Sense : one item attributed to real Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, the author of that short-lived newspaper North Briton : 11 John Wilkes excerpts, one Charles Churchill excerpt, and one piece by William Temple of Trowbridge (all attributed conclusively) Prompter : 20 items by Aaron Hill and 22 items by William Popple, as well as 11 items provisionally attributed to essay low gmat score Aaron Hill The Rambler : 24 Samuel Johnson excerpts (all accepted items in the Johnson canon) True Patriot : several Henry Fielding excerpts (all accepted items in the Fielding canon) Universal Spectator : one Fielding excerpt provisionally attributed to college admission essays Fielding by Martin Battestin World : several dozen attributions to to explain low gmat Edward Moore, Chesterfield, and essays others (identified in the collected issues of the World issued as part of Alexander Chalmers's British Essayists ) In the of venice all that is not case of five newspapers, I am including tentative attributions of real authorship for items signed with a pseudonym that is generally associated with a particular writer: Daily Courant : several Ralph Courteville items signed Freeman or R. Freeman Daily Gazetteer : over twenty James Pitt items signed F. Osborne, some five William Arnall items signed F. Walsingham, and fifteen Ralph Courteville items signed R. Freeman Free Briton : two William Arnall items signed F. Walsingham Grub-Street Journal : various Richard Russel items signed Maevius and contributions by either Russel or John Martyn signed Bavius 67 London Journal : nine Ralph Courteville items signed R. Freeman and some two dozen James Pitt items signed F. Osborne In three cases in which a newspaper was conducted by of venice all that essay, one or two persons known to have been the principal author or authors, I am including excerpts from that newspaper but attributing them tentatively: Old England: or the college essays Constitutional Journal : dozens of items which I am including with the following provisional attribution: William Guthrie [?] or James Ralph [?] (or others) Read's Journal : over a dozen items which I am provisionally attributing to Richard Burridge, ascribing their authorship to social marketing studies Richard Burridge [?] (or others) Weekly Miscellany : over a hundred items which I am provisionally attributing to Rev. William Webster, ascribing their authorship to Rev. William Webster [?] (or others). The Old England Journal presents special difficulties, as the tenure of college admission essays its conductors has never been determined satisfactorily. William Guthrie and James Ralph were the co-editors and dissertation on landscape principal, perhaps exclusive, authors of the Old England Journal , which they conducted under the pseudonym of Jeffrey Broadbottom. The Old England , founded by Chesterfield to be the chief mouthpiece of the Broad-Bottom Opposition to the Carteret ministry, was left in limbo when Chesterfield and his fellow Broad-Bottom politicians joined the government in late 1744 upon Carteret's retirement and withdrew their support for the paper. 68 Despite the fact that Guthrie was given a pension by college admission essays, the new regime in thinking mark, January 1745, the Old England in its 2 February 1745 issue fired a warning shot, declaring that unless the new ministers pursued new policies, the Old England Journal would then attack them with the real college admission essays ferocity that had characterized the dismemberment of the metamorphosed Actaeon by his dogs.
69 When the regime failed to alter its policies, the Old England did indeed become a furious critic of the administration. 70 As the GM , drawing extensively from the Old England 's own account, summarized the paper's volte-face : While the exact date of Guthrie's and Ralph's departure is uncertain, the 4 October 1746 issue of Old England (no. 179) suggests that the essay two men continued to edit and serve as principal writers for the paper until just prior to real that date. Certainly as of the 4 October 1746 issue a new editor had assumed command, one Argus Centoculi, whose identity has never been established. 72. In the case of the Weekly Miscellany , the problem lies not in determining when its editor resigned but when he ceased to be assisted by others in writing material for the journal. Rev. William Webster, a High-Church divine, was clearly the principal author of the on landscape architecture Weekly Miscellany , conducting business under the fictitious name of Richard Hooker, of the Temple, the newspaper's supposed editor. It was Webster who established the paper's rabidly anti-Dissenter, anti-Methodist, and anti-Catholic character, dedicating the Weekly Miscellany so exclusively to religious and moral topics that it came to be known as Old Mother Hooker's Journal. Though he was assisted in the beginning of the undertaking by several other contributors, he notes in the final issue of the real college essays Weekly Miscellany (27 June 1741) that those writers gradually withdrew their assistance, as did the booksellers he had originally engaged as backers, so that eventually he was left the sole prop of the enterprise, to his own financial loss.
As it is unclear at what point Webster's occasional contributors ceased to provide materials for the paper, I am taking the precaution of attributing all but the successful media marketing studies last of the Weekly Miscellany excerpts printed in the GM to essays Rev. William Webster [?] (or others). Except for specific items the authors of which have been independently identified, I am not including attributions of authorship for essay on dreams excerpts from newspapers that utilized a staff of unidentified writers. Those newspapers include the Champion and the Universal Spectator . Though James Ralph became the editor and leading writer for the Champion after the withdrawal of Henry Fielding in early 1741, it has so far proved impossible to determine the authorship of articles published during 1742-44, the period during which the GM published excerpts from the newspaper. As for the Universal Spectator , though originally edited by Henry Baker under the name Henry Stonecastle, the Universal Spectator was in fact written by real admission, a team of contributors.
Others besides Baker apparently used the pseudonym Stonecastle, as items bearing that signature appear as late as 1741, while Baker seems to have written no articles for the Universal Spectator after 19 May 1733. 73. A careful count of all of the essay on dreams by langston hughes letters, articles, reviews, poems, and other items in Attributions of Authorship in real college essays, the Gentleman's Magazine , 1731-1868: An Electronic Union List , reveals the following incidence of successful case attributions: The greatest incidence of identification of authors comes from the period beginning with volume 53 (1783), the first volume for which John Bowyer Nichols and others in his family began a systematic attempt to essays record contributors to the GM , through 1856, the year the Nichols family sold the architecture magazine. Real Admission? Determined efforts by numerous scholars have nevertheless identified the authors of essay 10,428 items from the period of real admission essays 1731-1800, with the other 15,157 attributions dating from the years 1801-68. There would be far fewer identifications of contributors to the GM 's eighteenth-century volumes were it not for the fact that Richard Gough, the GM 's single most prolific contributor, bequeathed his marked copies of the GM to John Nichols after the fire in 1808, with the result that his own multitudinous reviews, articles, and essay letters found their way into the Nichols File, though sometimes in a maddeningly ambiguous way. Because Attributions of Authorship in the Gentleman's Magazine , 1731-1868: An Electronic Union List is an Internet database, it is of course fully searchable electronically by volume number, page number, date, title, author, pseudonym, and key word. As noted above, I have interpolated explanatory words or phrases as needed to facilitate key-word searches. However, readers conducting key-word searches should be aware that I have strictly preserved quirks of original spelling, punctuation, and capitalization in listing titles of real articles and of books reviewed in the Gentleman's Magazine . The Union List is merchant gold essay, also designed to be fully and easily browsable.
Users who choose simply to read the text will find that it is divided, as stated earlier, into four sections, the Introduction, a Chronological Listing, a Synopsis by Contributor, and real college an Index of Pseudonyms and Initials. The Chronological Listing is essay, exactly what the college essays name implies, a chronological sequence of all of the 25,585 known attributions of authorship in the Gentleman's Magazine , beginning with the earliest attribution (a paper by Henry St. John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke, excerpted from the Craftsman and reprinted in GM 1 : 3) and ending with the last (a letter from marketing case studies Bernard Bolingbroke Woodward, librarian in ordinary to Queen Victoria, in GM 224 : 661). Each item in the Chronological Listing contains the volume number, year, and page number followed by admission, the item in question, the to explain score author's name (listed in bold type for ease of viewing), the source of or authority for the attribution, and the original signature appended to the item (if there is one). Each item in the Chronological Listing bears one of the following designations: L: letter to Sylvanus Urban (the GM 's fictitious editor) A: article R: review V: poetry O: obituary P: plate S: staff item of editorial content. The Synopsis by real admission essays, Contributor consists of personal my hero a listing of all of the approximately 2,362 contributors known to have written items printed in the GM , arranged alphabetically by author and admission providing in each entry the fullest possible version of the author's name, the thinking mason author's birth and death dates (when available), and a succinct description of the real college author's occupation (antiquary and topographer, schoolmaster, divine and historian, etc.) if known, followed by a complete listing by volume, date, and page numbers of the successful social media marketing studies author's contributions to the GM set forth earlier in the Chronological Listing. Volume numbers in the Synopsis by Contributor are listed in bold type for ease of use. The Synopsis by Contributor is thus designed to be an alphabetical cross reference to the entries that appear in the Chronological Listing. Users of the Synopsis by Contributor should be aware of an important caveat involving the problem of whether or not to assign to an author a number of items which seem to have been written by college admission essays, the same person but which have been attributed to him (by authority of whatever source) under slightly different versions of his name. Of Venice Gold? That difficulty occurs especially in instances of certain contributors who were originally listed in Kuist's Nichols File by surname only.
Obviously in some cases the members of the Nichols family who produced the marginal annotations used by Kuist did not know a given contributor's full name, whereas in essays, other cases the annotators probably considered a contributor so well known that they did not bother to glitters gold write his full name into their copy of the GM . Since Kuist made a conscious effort to real admission print the attributions of authorship exactly as they are written in the staff copy, in some cases items by a single contributor appear in Kuist under multiple authorial entries, a fact that can lead users of the printed version of Kuist's Nichols File to the erroneous conclusion that the items in question were written by more than one person. For example, contributions by Rev. William Charles Dyer appear in Kuist's Nichols File under two separate headings, that of Mr. Dyer and that of Rev. Mr. Score? Dyer. Whether deriving my information from admission essays Kuist or from any other source, in hughes, cases in which I have been able to determine that such items were in admission, fact by the same contributor, I have merged the lists. In cases in which there is insufficient proof to successful marketing case be sure of that assumption, I have continued to list the items under separate authorial headings, believing that caution is essential in such instances.
Separate listing of contributors should not, however, preclude the possibility that the contributions in question are by one and the same person. The Index of Pseudonyms and Initials provides an additional way for admission essays users of the database to search for authors. Glitters? Though in many cases attributable items in the Gentleman's Magazine bear no signatures at all, tremendous numbers of real admission others are signed in ways designed to conceal the identity of the contributor. Scholars familiar with eighteenth- and nineteenth-century periodicals know that in some cases contributors wrote simultaneously for several magazines or reviews and that occasionally they signed their work in personal my hero, various publications with the same pseudonyms. In order to assist researchers investigating other facets of the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century British periodical press, I have provided for admission essays easy reference an score, index of essays pseudonyms and initials used by known contributors to the GM , dividing it for convenience into four parts. Part I, pseudonyms exclusive of symbols and social media marketing studies Greek characters, I have arranged alphabetically by the first letter of the college admission word or phrase (other than articles) used in the signature. Part II, signatures in the form of initials (exclusive of critical and learning mark mason Greek characters), requires a different system of determining sequence, since in college, many cases the letters used as signatures are simply the initials of the authors' own names. Therefore I have followed the method used in Kuist's Nichols File of all that gold essay alphabetizing sets of initials first according to the terminal letter in each signature and then in sequence according to the letters that precede it. Thus the entries for the letter A begin as follows: A., A.A., E.A., F.B.A., F.R.A., F.S.A., G.A., G.E.A., J.A., J.P.A., J.Y.A., etc.
Part III (pseudonyms and initials using Greek characters) begins with a list in alphabetical order of the signatures using Greek words or phrases followed by real college admission essays, the handful of signatures consisting of essay score Greek initials, the latter (like the real college essays entries in Part II) listed sequentially according to terminal letters. Part IV contains a very short list of signatures consisting of symbols, mainly patterns of asterisks. Most of the essay low gmat pseudonyms or sets of initials were used only once or twice by any one particular contributor, while some of them (especially generic terms such as An Old Correspondent, An Observer, or Clericus) were used by more than one author. To distinguish between signatures used rarely and those used frequently by any given contributor, I have arbitrarily designated as recurrent any signature that was used five or more times by the same person. Short titles used in the database are given below, followed by a list of other works consulted:
Abbott, John Lawrence. Samuel Johnson and 'The Life of Dr. Richard Mead.' Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 54 (1971): 12-27. -------. John Hawkesworth: Eighteenth-Century Man of Letters . Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1982. -------. Real? The Making of the Johnsonian Canon. Johnson after Two Hundred Years . Ed. Paul J. Korshin. Media Marketing Case? Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1986. 127-139.
Ackerman, Robert W., and essays Gretchen P. Ackerman. Sir Frederic Madden: A Biographical Sketch and Bibliography . New York: Garland, 1979. Alumni Cantabrigienses . Ed. John Venn and J. Social Case? A. Venn. 10 vols.
Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1922-54. Alumni Oxonienses: The Members of the University of Oxford, 1500-1714. Ed. Joseph Foster. Real College Admission? 4 vols. Thinking Mason? London, 1891-92. Alumni Oxonienses: The Members of the University of college essays Oxford, 1715-1886 . Ed. Joseph Foster. 4 vols.
London, 1887-88. Appleton, William W., and Kalman A. Burnim, eds. The Prompter: A Theatrical Paper (1734- 1736) by Aaron Hill and William Popple . New York: Benjamin Bloom, 1966. Banerji, Hiran Kumar. Henry Fielding: Playwright, Journalist, and Master of the Art of merchant of venice all that essay Fiction: His Life and Works . New York: Russell Russell, 1962.
Bate, W. Real College? J., and John M. Bullitt. Introduction to The Idler . The Idler and The Adventurer. On Dreams By Langston? Vol. 2 of The Yale Edition of the Works of Samuel Johnson . New Haven: Yale UP, 1963. xv-xxviii. Bate, W. J., and Albrecht B. Real Essays? Strauss.
Introduction to The Rambler . Vol. And Learning Mason? 3 of The Yale Edition of the Works of Samuel Johnson . New Haven: Yale UP, 1969. College Admission Essays? xxi-xlii. Battestin, Martin C., and Ruthe R. Battestin. Henry Fielding: A Life . London: Routledge, 1989. Battestin, Martin C. New Essays by Henry Fielding: His Contributions to essay on dreams hughes the Craftsman (1734-1739) and Other Early Journalism, With a Stylometric Analysis by Michael G. Farringdon . Charlottesville: UP of Virginia, 1989.
Bernard, F. V. Common and Superior Sense: A New Attribution to Johnson. Notes and Queries n.s. 14 (1967): 176-180. -------. Real? Johnson and the Authorship of Four Debates. PMLA (Publications of the Modern Language Association of America) 82 (1967): 408-419.
Bertelsen, Lance. Have At You All: or, Bonnell Thornton's Journalism. Huntington Library Quarterly 44 (1981): 263-282. Baker, David Erskine, et al. Biographia Dramatica . 3 vols. London, 1812. Biography Database 1680-1830 . Merchant Of Venice All That Gold Essay? Ed. J. College Admission? Cannon and F. Robinson. CD-ROM.
3 discs. Newcastle upon Tyne: Romulus P, 1995-2000. Black, Jeremy. Merchant Glitters Gold Essay? The English Press in real college admission, the Eighteenth Century . Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1987. Bloom, Edward A. Samuel Johnson in Grub Street . Providence: Brown UP, 1957. British Museum.
General Catalogue of essay by langston hughes Printed Books . 263 vols. Photolithographic ed. to 1955. London: Trustees of the British Museum, 1959-66. Bond, Donald F. The Gentleman's Magazine. Admission? Modern Philology 38 (1940): 85-100. Bowles, William Lisle. The Poetical Works of William Lisle Bowles . 2 vols.
Edinburgh, 1855. Brett-James, Norman G. The Life of Peter Collinson, F.R.S., F.S.A. London: published for the author by Edgar G. Dunstan, . Brewster, Dorothy. Aaron Hill: Poet, Dramatist, Projector . Personal Essay My Hero? New York: Columbia UP, 1913. Bronson, Bertrand H. Joseph Ritson, Scholar-at-Arms . Essays? 2 vols. Berkeley: U of California P, 1938.
Burke's Peerage and Baronetage . 105th ed. London: Burke's Peerage Ltd, 1970. Carlson, C. Lennart. The First Magazine: A History of the Gentleman's Magazine. Providence: Brown UP, 1938. Carnie, Robert Hay. Lord Hailes's Contributions to Contemporary Magazines. Studies in Bibliography 9 (1957): 233-244. Caskey, John Homer. The Life and Works of Edward Moore . Merchant Of Venice Is Not Gold? Yale Studies in English 75.
Ed. Albert S. Cook. New Haven: Yale UP, 1927. Chalmers, Alexander. The British Essayists: with Prefaces, Historical and college Biographical . 38 vols. Essay Score? Boston: Little, Brown, 1856-66. Clifford, James L. Young Samuel Johnson . London: William Heinemann, 1955. -------. Johnson and Lauder. Philological Quarterly 54 (1975): 342-356.
Cole, Richard C. Recovering William James (fl. 1785-1797), English Writer. ELN: English Language Notes 36 (1999): 64-78. -------. William Tasker Revisited. Notes and Queries n.s. 46 (1999): 365-368. Courtney, William Prideaux, with David Nichol Smith. A Bibliography of Samuel Johnson . Oxford Historical and Literary Studies 4. Ed. C. Real Essays? H. Firth and on landscape Walter Raleigh. Oxford: Clarendon P, 1915.
Fielding, Henry. The Covent-Garden Journal and A Plan of the Universal Register-Office . Ed. Bertrand A. Goldgar. Middleton, CN: Wesleyan UP, 1988. The Craftsman. By Caleb D'Anvers, of Gray's-Inn, Esq . [a reprint, omitting some numbers, of the real admission Craftsman , 5 Dec. 1726-17 Apr. 1736]. 14 vols. London, 1731-37.
Dictionary of American Biography . 1929 ed. Davis, Bertram H. A Proof of Eminence: The Life of Sir John Hawkins . Social Media Marketing Case Studies? Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1973. de Montluzin, Emily Lorraine. The Anti-Jacobins, 1798-1800: The Early Contributors to the Anti-Jacobin Review. London: Macmillan, 1988. -----.
Attributions of college Authorship in the British Critic during the Editorial Regime of Robert Nares, 1793-1813. Studies in Bibliography 51 (1998): 241-258. -----. Topographical, Antiquarian, Astronomical, and Meteorological Contributions by George Smith of Wigton in the Gentleman's Magazine , 1735-59. ANQ 14 (2001): 5-12. Dictionary of National Biography . 1908-1909 ed. Burke, Bernard. Thinking Mark Mason? A Genealogical History of the Dormant, Abeyant, Forfeited, and Extinct Peerages of the college essays British Empire . London, 1883. English Catalogue of Books . . My Hero? . , 1801-1836 . Ed. Robert Alexander Peddie and Quintin Waddington. London: Publishers Circular, n.d.
Erwin, Timothy. The Life of Savage , Voltaire, and a Neglected Letter. Notes and Queries n.s. 30 (1983): 525-526. Fairer, David. Authorship Problems in The Adventurer . Review of English Studies 25 (1974): 137-151. Fleeman, J. D. A Bibliography of the Works of Samuel Johnson; Treating his published works from the essays beginnings to 1984 . Prepared for publication by to explain low gmat score, James McLaverty.
2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon P, 2000. Foster, Gretchen M. Pope Versus Dryden: A Controversy in admission essays, Letters to The Gentleman's Magazine , 1789-1791 . English Literary Studies 44. Ed. Samuel L. Macey. Victoria: U of Victoria, 1989. Smollett, Tobias.
Poems, Plays, and The Briton. Ed. Byron Gassman and merchant of venice is not gold essay O. Real Essays? M. Mason? Brack, Jr. Athens: U of Georgia P, 1993. Goldgar, Bertrand A. Fielding, Sir William Yonge, and the 'Grub-Street Journal.' Notes and Queries n.s. 19 (1972): 226-227. -------. Pope and college admission essays the Grub-street Journal . Modern Philology 74 (1976-77): 366-380. Grace, Matthew.
Introduction. The Lives of Henry Fielding and Samuel Johnson together with Essays from The Gray's Inn Journal. By Arthur Murphy. Gainesville, FL: Scholars' Facsimiles Reprints, 1968. vii-xxiii. Gray, Charles Harold. Essay To Explain Low Gmat Score? Theatrical Criticism in London to 1795 . Columbia University Studies in English and Comparative Literature. New York: Columbia UP, 1931. Green, Boylston. Possible Additions to the Johnson Canon. Yale University Library Gazette 16 (1942): 70-79. Greene, D[onald] J. Was Johnson Theatrical Critic of the Gentleman's Magazine ? Review of English Studies n.s.
3 (1952): 158-161. -------. Some Notes on Johnson and the Gentleman's Magazine . PMLA (Publications of the Modern Language Association of America) 74 (1959): 75-84. -------. The Development of the Johnson Canon. Restoration and Eighteenth-Century Literature: Essays in Honor of Alan Dugald McKillop . Ed. Real Essays? Carroll Camden. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1963. 407-427. -------.
Johnsonian Attributions by Alexander Chalmers. Notes and Queries n.s. 14 (1967): 180-181. Greene, Donald J., ed. Successful Social Media Case Studies? Samuel Johnson: Political Writings . Vol. 10 of The Yale Edition of the Works of Samuel Johnson . New Haven: Yale UP, 1977. Griffith, Philip Mahone.
The Authorship of the real college essays Papers Signed 'A' in Hawkesworth's Adventurer : A Stronger Case for Dr. Richard Bathurst. Tulane Studies in English 12 (1962): 63-70. -------. Successful Social Media Marketing Case Studies? 'A Truly Elegant Work': The Contemporary Reputation of Hawkesworth's Adventurer . The Dress of Words: Essays on Restoration and college Eighteenth Century Literature in Honor of Richmond P. Merchant All That Glitters Is Not Essay? Bond . Ed. Robert B. White. Real College Admission? Lawrence: U of Kansas P, 1978. 199-208. Haig, Robert L. The Gazetteer, 1735-1797: A Study in successful social marketing case studies, the Eighteenth-Century English Newspaper . Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1960. Halkett, Samuel, and John Laing. Dictionary of Anonymous and real college admission essays Pseudonymous English Literature . Rev.ed. Ed.
James Kennedy, et al. 9 vols. Edinburgh: Oliver Boyd, 1926-62. Harris, Michael. London Newspapers in the Age of Walpole: A Study of the Origins of the Modern English Press . Cranbury, NJ: Associated UP, 1987. Harris, Robert. A Patriot Press: National Politics and the London Press in the 1740s . Of Venice Glitters Gold Essay? Oxford: Clarendon P, 1993. Hart, Edward. An Ingenious Editor: John Nichols and the Gentleman's Magazine . Bucknell Review 10 (1962): 232-242.
Hart, Edward L., ed. Minor Lives: A Collection of Biographies by John Nichols . Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1971. Headley, Henry. Poems and Other Pieces . London, 1786. Hillhouse, James T. The Grub-street Journal. Real Essays? Durham: Duke UP, 1928. Holt-White, Rashleigh. The Life and Letters of Gilbert White of Selborne . Critical Mason? 2 vols. New York: Dutton, 1901.
Hoover, Benjamin Beard. Samuel Johnson's Parliamentary Reporting: Debates in the Senate of Lilliput . Berkeley: U of California P, 1953. Nichols, John. Illustrations of the Literary History of the Eighteenth Century . 8 vols. London, 1817-1858. General Index to the Gentleman's Magazine from the real college admission Year 1787 to 1818 . London, 1821. Fielding, Henry. Essay Low Gmat Score? The Jacobite's Journal and Related Writings . Ed. W. B. Coley. [Middletown, CN]: Wesleyan UP, 1975.
Jones, Claude E. College Essays? Charles Woodmason as a Poet. South Carolina Historical Magazine 59 (1958): 189-194. Kaminski, Thomas. Dissertation Architecture? The Early Career of Samuel Johnson . New York: Oxford UP, 1987. Kolb, Gwin J. More Attributions to Dr. Johnson. Studies in English Literature 1500- 1900 . 1 (1961): 77-95. Kuist, James Marquis. College Essays? The Gentleman's Magazine , 1754-1800: A Study of Its Development as a Vehicle for the Discussion of Literature. Diss. Duke U, 1965.
-------. The Works of John Nichols: An Introduction . New York: AMS, 1968. -------. The Gentleman's Magazine in the Folger Library: The History and Significance of the Nichols Family Collection. Studies in Bibliography 29 (1976): 307-322.
-------. My Hero? 'What, does she still adorn this dreary scene?' Nichols' Problems with Obituary Notices in The Gentleman's Magazine . Eighteenth-Century Life 4 (1978): 76-78. -------. The Nichols File of The Gentleman's Magazine : Attributions of Authorship and Other Documentation in Editorial Papers at the Folger Library . Madison: U of real college Wisconsin P, 1982. -------. A Collaboration in Learning: The Gentleman's Magazine and is not essay Its Ingenious Contributors. Studies in Bibliography 44 (1991): 302-317. Lacy, Michael. Unpublished research. Lams, Victor J., Jr.
The 'A' Papers in the Adventurer : Bonnell Thornton, not Dr. Bathurst, Their Author. Studies in Philology 64 (1967): 83-96. Leed, Jacob. Two New Pieces by Johnson in the Gentleman's Magazine ? Modern Philology 54 (1957): 221-229. -------. Samuel Johnson and the 'Gentleman's Magazine': An Adjustment to the Canon. Notes and real essays Queries 102 (1957): 210-213.
-------. Samuel Johnson and the Gentleman's Magazine : Studies in the Canon of His Miscellaneous Prose Writings, 1738-1744. Diss. Chicago, 1958. -------. Two Notes on Johnson and The Gentleman's Magazine . Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America 54 (1960): 101-110.
Records of the Honorable Society of Lincoln's Inn . Part A. Essay Score? Admissions . Ed. W. P. Baildon. 2 vols. London, 1896. Nichols, John. Literary Anecdotes of the Eighteenth Century . 9 vols. London, 1812-15.
McAdam, E. L., Jr. New Essays by Dr. College Admission? Johnson. Review of English Studies 18 (1942): 197-207. McAdam, E. L., Jr., and George Milne, eds. Gold? Samuel Johnson: Poems . Vol. 6 of The Yale Edition of the Works of Samuel Johnson . New Haven: Yale UP, 1964. Marcuse, Michael J. The Gentleman's Magazine and the Lauder/Milton Controversy. Bulletin of Research in the Humanities 81 (1978): 179-209.
Maty, Matthew, ed. Miscellaneous Works of the late Philip Dormer Stanhope, Earl of Chesterfield. Real College? . . . To which are prefixed, Memoirs of his Life. Architecture? . . . By M. Maty, M.D. 2 vols. London, 1777. Michel, Francisque. Biblioth#x00E8;que Anglo-Saxonne . Essays? Paris, 1837. Monkman, Kenneth.
Did Sterne Contrive to Publish a 'Sermon' in 1738? The Shandean: An Annual Devoted to Laurence Sterne and His Works . 4 (1992): 111-133. New Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature . Ed. George Watson and I. R. Willison. 5 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1969-77. Nobbe, George. The North Briton : A Study in Political Propaganda . New York: Columbia UP, 1939. National Union Catalog Pre-1956 Imprints . London: Mansell, 1968-81.
Osborn, James M. Successful Social Media Marketing? Dr. Johnson's 'Intimate Friend.' TLS (Times Literary Supplement) , 9 October 1953, p. 652. Pailler, Albert. Edward Cave et le Gentleman's Magazine (1731-1754) . 2 vols. Lille: Atelier Reproduction des Theses, 1975. Park, James Allan. Memoirs of William Stevens, Esq. Real Essays? Treasurer of Queen Anne's Bounty . Dissertation? 4th ed.
London, 1825. Pepper, Robert D. Gilbert White and the 'Gentleman's Magazine.' TLS (Times Literary Supplement) , 31 March-6 April 1989, p. 339. -------. Gilbert White's Tiny Mouse: A Sceptical Objection in essays, 1789. Notes and Queries n.s. 37 (1990): 315-317. Pettit, Alexander. The Grub-street Journal and the Politics of Anachronism. Philological Quarterly 69 (1990): 435-451.
Pitcher, Edward W. And Learning Mark? R. Discoveries in Periodicals, 1720-1820: Facts and real college admission essays Fictions . To Explain Score? Studies in British and American Magazines 7. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen P, 2000. -------. Admission? The Lady's Monthly Museum First Series : 1798-1806: An Annotated Index of Signatures and essay to explain Ascriptions . Studies in British and American Magazines 2. Essays? Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen P, 2000. Polwhele, Richard. Successful Social Studies? Traditions and Recollections . 2 vols.
London, 1826. Powell, L. F. Introduction to real college admission The Adventurer . The Idler and The Adventurer. Dissertation Architecture? Vol. 2 of college admission essays The Yale Edition of the Works of Samuel Johnson . New Haven: Yale UP, 1963. 323-338.
Nichols, John. Preface. General Index to merchant of venice glitters essay the Gentleman's Magazine from the Year 1787 to 1818 . London, 1821. Ram, Titia. Magnitude in real college admission, Marginality: Edward Cave and on landscape The Gentleman's Magazine , 1731-1754, Containing a First-Line Index of all the Poems, With Notes and References on Authorship . College Admission Essays? N.p.: Gottmann Fainsilber Katz, 1999. Johnson, Samuel. The Rambler . Vols. 3-5 of The Yale Edition of the Works of Samuel Johnson . Ed. Merchant Glitters Is Not Gold Essay? W. J. Bate and admission essays Albrecht B. Strauss.
New Haven: Yale UP, 1969. Reading, J. Critical And Learning Mason? Poems by essays, Johnson. TLS (Times Literary Supplement) , 11 September 1937, p. 656. Reiman, Donald H. The Romantics Reviewed: Contemporary Reviews of British Romantic Writers . 9 vols. Score? New York: Garland, 1972. Rollins, Hyder Edward, ed., The Keats Circle . 2nd ed. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1965. Russell, Norma. A Bibliography of William Cowper to 1837 . Oxford: Oxford UP, 1963. Shawcross, John T. Milton in the Gentleman's Magazine : A Correction to de Montluzin. Admission Essays? Studies in Bibliography 51 (1998): 274.
Shellabarger, Samuel. Lord Chesterfield and His World . 1951. New York: Biblo and Tannen, 1971. Sherbo, Arthur. Two Additions to mason the Johnson Canon. Journal of English and real college admission essays Germanic Philology 52 (1953): 543-548. -------. English Sentimental Drama . East Lansing: Michigan State UP, 1957.
-------. Samuel Johnson and The Gentleman's Magazine , 1750-1755. Of Venice Essay? Johnsonian Studies . Ed. Magdi Wahba. Cairo: n.p., 1962. 133-159. Sherbo, Arthur, ed. New Essays by Arthur Murphy . N.P.: Michigan State UP, 1963.
Sherbo, Arthur. Real Admission Essays? From the Gentleman's Magazine : Graves, Shenstone, Swift, Warton, Prior, Byron, Beckford. Studies in Bibliography 35 (1982): 285-305. -------. Successful Social Case Studies? John Coleridge and the Gentleman's Magazine . Bulletin of Research in the Humanities 86 (1983): 86-93. -------. Additions to the Nichols File of the Gentleman's Magazine . Studies in Bibliography 37 (1984): 228-233. -------.
The English weather, The Gentleman's Magazine , and the brothers White. Admission? Archives of Natural History 12 (1985): 23-29. -------. More from the Gentleman's Magazine : Graves, Mainwaring, Wren, Sterne, Pope, Bubb Dodington, Goldsmith, Hill, Herrick, Cowper, Chatterton. Studies in Bibliography 40 (1987): 164-174. -------. The Earliest (?) Critic of the social media marketing case Ireland Shakespeare Forgeries.
Notes and Queries n.s. 35 (1988): 498-500. -------. Admission? Further Additions to personal essay my hero the Nichols File of the Gentleman's Magazine . Studies in Bibliography 42 (1989): 249-254. -------. Nil Nisi Bonum : Samuel Johnson in the Gentleman's Magazine , 1785- 1800. College Literature 16 (1989): 168-181.
-------. The Achievement of George Steevens . New York: Peter Lang, 1990. -------. Thomas Martyn (1735-1825), 'P.B.C.': his contributions to the Gentleman's Magazine . Archives of real college essays Natural History 22 (1995): 51-59. -------. Letters to Mr. Urban of the Gentleman's Magazine , 1751-1811 . Marketing Case Studies? Studies in college, British History 44. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen P, 1997.
-------. William Hamilton Reid (fl. 1786-1824): A Forgotten Poet. Studies in Scottish Literature 29 (1997): 245-257. Sherbo, Arthur, and Isobel Grundy. A 'Spurious' Poem by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu? Notes and Queries 27 (1980): 407-410. Sherbo, Arthur. Unpublished research. Smith, Joseph.
A Descriptive Catalogue of Friends' Books, or Books Written by Members of the essay to explain low gmat score Society of Friends, Commonly Called Quakers . 2 vols. and supplement. Real Admission? London, 1867-1893. Smith, Marion B. South Carolina and dissertation The Gentleman's Magazine . South Carolina Historical Magazine 95 (1994): 102-129. Spector, Robert Donald. English Literary Periodicals and the Climate of Opinion during the Seven Years' War . The Hague: Mouton Co., 1966. Strout, Alan Lang. Real College? A Bibliography of Articles in Blackwood's Magazine, 1817-1825 . Library Bulletin , no. 5. Lubbock: Texas Technological College, 1959. Sullivan, Alvin, ed. British Literary Magazines: The Augustan Age and the Age of Johnson, 1698-1788 . Historical Guides to the World's Periodicals and Newspapers.
Westport, CN: Greenwood P, 1983. Sutherland, W. O. Personal Essay? S., Jr. Admission? Essay Forms in the Prompter . Studies in the Early English Periodical . Ed. Richmond P. Bond. Chapel Hill: U of merchant of venice all that glitters gold essay North Carolina P, 1957. 135- 49. Swift, Jonathan. The Poems of Jonathan Swift . Ed. Harold Williams.
2nd ed. 3 vols. Oxford: Clarendon P, 1958. Thomas, Peter D. G. John Wilkes: A Friend to Liberty . Oxford: Clarendon P, 1996. Tierney, James E. Edmund Burke, John Hawkesworth, the Annual Register , and admission the Gentleman's Magazine . Huntington Library Quarterly 42 (1978): 57-72.
Todd, William B. A Bibliographical Account of The Gentleman's Magazine , 1731-1754. Studies in Bibliography 18 (1965): 81-93. Fielding, Henry. The True Patriot and Related Writings . Ed. W. B. Of Venice All That Gold? Coley. [Middletown, CN]: Wesleyan UP, 1987.
Vance, John A. Joseph and Thomas Warton . Boston: G. K. Hall, 1983. -------. Johnson's Historical Reviews. Fresh Reflections on Samuel Johnson: Essays in Criticism . Ed. Real Admission Essays? Prem Nath.
Troy, New York: Whitston, 1987. 63-84. Varey, Simon, ed. Lord Bolingbroke: Contributions to the Craftsman. Oxford: Clarendon P, 1982. Varey, Simon. Essay? The Craftsman. Prose Studies 16 (1993): 58-77.
Watson, Melvin R. Magazine Serials and the Essay Tradition 1746-1820 . Louisiana State University Studies. Ed. Richard J. Russell. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP, 1956. Watt, Robert. Bibliotheca Britannica . Edinburgh, 1824. -------. Real Admission Essays? Dr. Johnson and Dr.
Hawkesworth: A Literary Friendship. New Rambler: Journal of the of venice glitters is not gold essay Johnson Society of London 111 (1971): 2-21. -------. Dr. Johnson and the Amazons. Philological Quarterly 44 (1965): 484-495. -------. Dr. Real College Admission? Johnson and low gmat the Making of 'The Life of Father Paul Sarpi.' Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester 48 (1966): 255-267. -------.
John Hawkesworth: Friend of Samuel Johnson and Editor of Captain Cook's Voyages and real admission of the on dreams Gentleman's Magazine . Eighteenth Century Studies 3 (1970): 339-350. -------. No 'Dialect of France': Samuel Johnson's Translations from the French. University of Toronto Quarterly 36 (1967): 129-140. -------. Samuel Johnson, John Hawkesworth, and the rise of the Gentleman's magazine [ sic ], 1738-1773.
Vol. 1 of Transactions of the college admission essays Fourth International Congress on personal, the Enlightenment . Comprising vol. College Admission Essays? 151 of Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century . Ed. Theodore Besterman. Oxford: Voltaire Foundation, 1976.
31-46. -------. Social Media Marketing Case Studies? Samuel Johnson's 'A Panegyric on Dr. Morin.' Romance Notes 8 (1966): 55-57. -------. New Evidence on the Pamphilus Letters. Real College Admission? Modern Philology 62 (1964): 42-44. -------. A Note on Two Attributions to Johnson. Notes and Queries n.s.
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-------. Portrait of by langston a Grub: Samuel Boyse. Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900 7 (1967): 415-425. -------. Admission Essays? Some Reprintings of the Gentleman's Magazine . Studies in Bibliography 17 (1964): 210-214.
-------. 'The Last of the Learned Printers': John Nichols and the Bowyer-Nichols Press. English Studies 65 (1984): 11-22. -------. Christopher Smart, Reader of Obituaries [in the Gentleman's Magazine ]. MLN [ Modern Language Notes ] 71 (1956): 177-182. -------. John Kynaston (1728-83), A Neglected Shakespearean.
Shakespeare Quarterly 48 (1997): 80-83. -------. John Nichols's Notes in the Scholarly Commentary of Others. Essay Low Gmat Score? Studies in Bibliography 44 (1991): 318-322. -------. Johnson's 'Falling Houses.' Essays in Criticism 26 (1976): 376-378. -------. Samuel Johnson and certain poems in the May 1747 Gentleman's Magazine . Review of English Studies n.s.
17 (1966): 382-390. -------. Samuel Johnson's Critical Opinions: A Reexamination . Newark: U of Delaware P, 1995. -------. Real? Samuel Johnson's 'Essay' on Du Halde's Description of China . Papers on Language and Literature: A Journal for Scholars and Critics of essay my hero Language and Literature 2 (1966): 372-380. -------. Samuel Pegge, Thomas Holt White, and Piers Plowman. The Yearbook of Langland Studies 1 (1987): 122-128. -------.
Studies in the Johnson Circle . Locust Hill Literary Studies Series 25. West Cornwall, CN: Locust Hill P, 1998. -------. Thomas Holt-White on Johnson's Lives of Prior and Milton. ANQ 13 (2000): 24-27. 3. GM 20 (1750): 208 and real college admission GM 22 (1752): 560-561, respectively.
10. GM 50 (1780): 266-268, 312-314, 367-369. 12. GM 63-i (1793): 85-86; 63-ii (1793): 963-964. 15. C. On Dreams Hughes? Lennart Carlson, The First Magazine: A History of the real admission essays Gentleman's Magazine (Providence: Brown UP, 1938) 84, n. 3. 17. GM 1 (1731): 26; GM 2 (1732): 584 and 7 (1737): 250-251; and GM 2 (1732): 931-932, 981, respectively. 19. See Jeremy Black, The English Press in the Eighteenth Century (Philadelphia: U of low gmat score Pennsylvania P, 1987); Michael Harris, London Newspapers in the Age of college admission Walpole: A Study of the Origins of the merchant all that glitters is not gold essay Modern English Press (Cranbury, NJ: Associated UP, 1987); and Robert Harris, A Patriot Press: National Politics and the London Press in the 1740s (Oxford: Clarendon P, 1993). 20.
The GM 's rival, John Wilford's London Magazine , printed its own version of the parliamentary debates, commencing the same month. 21. See for example accounts of the GM 's re-creation of the parliamentary debates in Carlson, First Magazine 87-104; Edward A. Bloom, Samuel Johnson in real college, Grub Street (Providence: Brown UP, 1957) 51-62; and Sir John Hawkins, The Life of Samuel Johnson, LL. Merchant? D. , 2nd ed. (London, 1787) 95. 22. Real Admission? James Boswell, Life of personal essay my hero Johnson , ed. R. W. Chapman (Oxford: Oxford UP, 1953) 1308. 23. The GM 's rival, the London Magazine , took the similar precaution of renaming its feature Debates in the Political Club, a fictitious forensic society. 24. The same sentence was imposed upon Thomas Astley, conductor of the London Magazine . 25.
The union list, like my first GM electronic database, includes approximately 300 reviews bearing the real college admission signature X. which appeared from April 1767 through March 1773 and which have been proven the work of John Hawkesworth. The complete X. list had never appeared in print before its inclusion in my Attributions of merchant all that glitters is not essay Authorship . . . , 1731-77 . . . , Studies in Bibliography 44 (1991): 271-302. Donald D. College Admission? Eddy, following up on a claim in Charles Harold Gray's Theatrical Criticism in London to 1795 (New York: Columbia UP, 1931) 171- 172, was the successful social marketing studies first to publish convincing evidence that Hawkesworth wrote the X. reviews. Real Admission Essays? (See Eddy's John Hawkesworth: Book Reviewer in the Gentleman's Magazine , Philological Quarterly 43 : 223-238.) G. Successful Social Studies? J. Finch (John Hawkesworth, 'The Gentleman's Magazine', and 'The Annual Register,' Notes and Queries 22 : 17-18), James F. Tierney (Edmund Burke, John Hawkesworth, the Annual Register , and the Gentleman's Magazine , Huntington Library Quarterly 42 : 57-72), and John L. Abbott ( John Hawkesworth 213, n. 10) corroborate Gray's and Eddy's claim. I am grateful to Arthur Sherbo for correcting two X. items ( GM 40 : 510-511 and 616-617) and one J.H. item ( GM 24 : 413-415) I had tentatively and erroneously attributed to John Hawkesworth in Attributions of Authorship . . . , 1731-77 . . . , Studies in Bibliography 44 (1991): 271-302. Those three items have been excluded from the union list, as they were from my first GM electronic database. 26. See for example GM 26 (1756): 71-72 and 29 (1759): 154; 52 (1782): 520; 54-ii (1784): 711; and 69-ii (1799): 876, respectively. 27. GM 34 (1764): plate facing p. 632. 28. GM 43 (1773): 589-596, 547-652; 44 (1774): 17-22, 68-74, 111-115.
29. GM 57-ii (1787): 1009-1011, 1110-1112. 34. Such was John Walcot's characterization of Nichols. (Julian Pooley, review of Emily Lorraine de Montluzin's Daily Life in admission, Georgian England as Reported in the Gentleman's Magazine [Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen P, 2002), in Reviews in media marketing studies, History , published online by the Institute of Historical Research, February 2002 http://ihr.sas.ac.uk/ihr/reviews/pooleyj.html, p. 6.) 35. The GM 's circulation, approximately 3,000 copies in 1746, rose to some 4,450 by 1800. (Alvin Sullivan, ed., British Literary Magazines: The Augustan Age and the Age of admission essays Johnson, 1698-1788 [Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1983]: 137-138; Richard D. Altick, The English Common Reader: A Social History of the Mass Reading Public, 1800-1900 [Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1957] 392.) 46. James M. Kuist, The Nichols File of The Gentleman's Magazine: Attributions of Authorship and critical and learning mark Other Documentation in real admission essays, Editorial Papers at on dreams hughes, the Folger Library (Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1982) 4. 52. Kuist, Nichols File 6, 13-20.
53. GM 56-ii (1786): 758-760, 840-842, 958-960, 1057. 54. GM 66-i (1796): 451-454; 66-ii (1796): 627-630, 803-807. 55. GM 66-ii (1796): 891-895, 979-982, 1081-1085. 56. John Nichols, Literary Anecdotes of the Eighteenth Century (9 vols.; London, 1812- 15) 6: 259. 57. Kuist, Nichols File 9-10, 11-12 (n.
42). 58. Certain exceptions are instructive. Kuist assigns to Gough the items in real admission essays, GM 72-ii (1802): 833-850 (the various works on these pages). My Hero? However, the real college essays Gough contributions in fact end with a review that concludes on p. 850, the other items that follow on p. 850 having been written by and learning mark, John Nichols, to whom Kuist correctly attributes them. Real Admission? Conversely, in the case of the bloc-attribution of items in GM 59-i (1789): 141-144 to Gough, I made the decision to include in Gough's list a plethora of very short reviews on p. 144, since they all concern the Regency Question, as do the reviews on p. 143. I have not, however, attributed to Gough the review of Gilbert White's Selborne , which spills over onto on landscape architecture, the next page. 59. GM 62-ii [Supplement to 1792]: 1195-1196.
60. I have compiled the Johnson entries in the union list from twentieth-century studies of the Johnson canon (beginning with Courtney and Smith), as those twentieth-century studies have incorporated all previous attempts (by Boswell, Sir John Hawkins, and others) to construct a reasonably reliable Johnson canon. 61. Sir John Hawkins, The Life of Samuel Johnson, LL.D. (2d ed., rev.; London, 1787), p. Real College Admission? 132. George Steevens's Account of the essay on dreams by langston Writings of Dr. Samuel Johnson, including some Incidents of his Life ( European Magazine 7 : 9) and John Gough Nichols's The Autobiography of Sylvanus Urban. Chapter VIII ( GM 202 : 285) disagree with Hawkins's claim. 63. The Craftsman, Prose Studies 16 [April 1993]: 74, n. 2. 64.
Common and Superior Sense: A New Attribution to real admission Johnson, Notes and Queries n.s. 14 (May 1967): 176. 65. Personal Essay My Hero? Alexander Chalmers, Historical and Biographical Preface to essays The Connoisseur , The British Essayists: with Prefaces, Historical and Biographical (38 vols.; Boston: Little, Brown, 1856-66) 25 (1864): 15-16, 34. 66.
Simon Varey, Lord Bolingbroke: Contributions to to explain low gmat the Craftsman (Oxford: Clarendon UP, 1982) xxiv-xxv makes a strong case that the initials appended to the essays in the 1737 reprint edition of the college essays Craftsman , when combined with corroborative evidence, point convincingly to Bolingbroke's authorship of the Craftsman papers signed O and strongly suggest William Pulteney's authorship of the of venice all that is not C papers and real college essays Nicholas Amhurst's authorship of the D papers. Varey also states that Nicholas Amhurst, editor from the start, appears after 1737 to have been the principal, perhaps the only author of the Craftsman until his death in April 1742 (Varey 82: xv). However, Martin C. Battestin in his New Essays by Henry Fielding: His Contributions to the Craftsman (1734-1739) and to explain Other Early Journalism, With a Stylometric Analysis by Michael G. Farringdon (Charlottesville: UP of Virginia, 1989) convincingly attributes a number of essays in the Craftsman , 1738-39, to Henry Fielding. In light of Battestin's evidence, I believe that Varey's conjecture that Amhurst was the principal, perhaps the only author of the Craftsman from 1738 through early 1742 is not strong enough to justify making any attributions to Amhurst during that period, for which there exists no collected edition to real admission essays provide the corroborative evidence of essay on dreams hughes initials. 67. Originally edited jointly by John Martyn and Richard Russel, the Grub-Street Journal became Russel's responsibility after Martyn retired from the enterprise to admission become professor of botany at Cambridge. (James T. Hillhouse, The Grub-Street Journal [Durham, NC: Duke UP, 1928] 40 [n.
50] believes that number 67 [15 April 1731] was the last issue to which Martyn contributed.) Russel remained sole editor of the Grub-Street Journal until he resigned his post in late 1735, whereupon his place apparently was taken by all that glitters essay, James Miller. (Hillhouse 30 [n. 38], 45-46) Nineteenth-century commentators, swayed by the letter designations included in real admission essays, Russel's preface to his collected edition of the periodical's first twenty months ( Memoirs of the Society of to explain score Grub Street , 2 vols. [London, 1737]), tended to attribute early contributions signed B[avius] to Martyn and those signed M[aevius] to real admission Russel. As Alexander Pettit notes, It is glitters, now generally accepted (and is suggested by college essays, the 'Preface') that both Russel and John Martyn . . . Critical Thinking Mark Mason? used 'Bavius' [until Martyn's departure] and that Russel alone used 'Maevius.' (Alexander Pettit, The Grub-street Journal and the Politics of Anachronism, Philological Quarterly 69 (Fall 1990]: 448, n. 6) Russel and Martyn recruited the services of a number of other contributors, a few of whom have been identified, notably Rev. Joseph Trapp. Recent scholarship has vastly diminished the role in the Grub- Street Journal formerly ascribed to Pope, both in terms of influencing the day-to-day conduct of the journal or contributing to its weekly numbers. Real College Essays? (See Bertrand A. Goldgar, Pope and the Grub-street Journal , Modern Philology 74 (1976-77): 366-380.) 68.
Robert Harris, A Patriot Press: National Politics and the London Press in the 1740s (Oxford: Clarendon P, 1993) 50. 71. GM 16 : 540, quoting from Old England , no. 179 (4 October 1746). 72. Harris, Patriot Press 50, n. 5; Martin C. Battestin and to explain Ruthe R. Battestin, Henry Fielding: A Life (London: Routledge, 1989) 429.
73. College? Alvin Sullivan, ed., British Literary Magazines: The Augustan Age and the Age of Johnson, 1698-1788 , Historical Guides to the World's Periodicals and successful case Newspapers (Westport, CN: Greenwood P, 1983) 346.
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